Summary: GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.

Top Publications

  1. Hoshi T, Suzuki A, Hayashi S, Tohyama K, Hayashi A, Yamaguchi Y, et al. Nodal protrusions, increased Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, and paranodal disorganization are characteristic features of sulfatide-deficient peripheral nerves. Glia. 2007;55:584-94 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these results indicate that sulfatide may play an important role in the PNS, especially in the regions where myelin-axon interactions occur. ..
  2. Don A, Rosen H. A lipid binding domain in sphingosine kinase 2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;380:87-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Deleting the N-terminal domain reduced Sphk2 membrane localisation in cells. We have therefore identified a lipid binding domain in Sphk2 that is important for the enzyme's sub-cellular localisation. ..
  3. Coetzee T, Fujita N, DuPree J, Shi R, Blight A, Suzuki K, et al. Myelination in the absence of galactocerebroside and sulfatide: normal structure with abnormal function and regional instability. Cell. 1996;86:209-19 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that GalC and sulfatide play important roles in myelin function and stability. ..
  4. Buschard K, Blomqvist M, Mansson J, Fredman P, Juhl K, Gromada J. C16:0 sulfatide inhibits insulin secretion in rat beta-cells by reducing the sensitivity of KATP channels to ATP inhibition. Diabetes. 2006;55:2826-34 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a major mechanism by which the predominant sulfatide isoform in beta-cells, C16:0 sulfatide, inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion is by reducing the K(ATP) channel sensitivity to the ATP block. ..
  5. Ding Z, Kawashima H, Miyasaka M. Sulfatide binding and activation of leukocytes through an L-selectin-independent pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;68:65-72 pubmed
    ..Taken together, this study suggests that sulfatide can bind to and activate leukocytes through an L-selectin-independent molecule and triggers signal transduction pathways different from those induced by L-selectin activation. ..
  6. Isaac G, Pernber Z, Gieselmann V, Hansson E, Bergquist J, Mansson J. Sulfatide with short fatty acid dominates in astrocytes and neurons. FEBS J. 2006;273:1782-90 pubmed
    ..Based on our results, we speculate that the fatty acid chain length of sulfatide might determine its intracellular (short chain) or extracellular (long chain) location and thereby its functions. ..
  7. Osterbye T, Funda D, Fundova P, Mansson J, Tlaskalova Hogenova H, Buschard K. A subset of human pancreatic beta cells express functional CD14 receptors: a signaling pathway for beta cell-related glycolipids, sulfatide and ?-galactosylceramide. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2010;26:656-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The CD14 expression on a subset of human beta-cells may play a role in the innate surveillance of the endocrine environment but may also contribute to innate immune mechanisms in the early stages of beta-cell aggression. ..
  8. Jackson S, Wang H, Woods A. In situ structural characterization of glycerophospholipids and sulfatides in brain tissue using MALDI-MS/MS. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2007;18:17-26 pubmed
    ..To confirm the structure of lipid species, MALDI-MS/MS analysis was conducted. Product-ion spectra obtained in negative ion mode allow for the assignment of the head groups and the fatty acid chains for the lipid species. ..
  9. Bovin L, Fredman P, Mansson J, Buschard K, Bendtzen K. In vitro production of cytokines is influenced by sulfatide and its precursor galactosylceramide. FEBS Lett. 1999;455:339-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, sulfatide and gal-cer affect cytokine production differently, most likely at the level of gene expression. This may have implications in diseases where inflammatory cytokines play a pathogenic role. ..

More Information


  1. Pesheva P, Gloor S, Schachner M, Probstmeier R. Tenascin-R is an intrinsic autocrine factor for oligodendrocyte differentiation and promotes cell adhesion by a sulfatide-mediated mechanism. J Neurosci. 1997;17:4642-51 pubmed
    ..Our findings strongly suggest that TN-R represents an intrinsic regulatory molecule that controls the timed OL differentiation by an autocrine mechanism and imply the relevance of TN-R for CNS myelination and remyelination. ..
  2. Iwamori M, Suzuki H, Ito N, Iwamori Y, Hanaoka K. Lipid compositions of human gastric fluid and epithelium: the role of sulfated lipids in gastric cytoprotection. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005;39:129-33 pubmed
    ..Among the lipids in human gastric fluid, CS was revealed to exhibit a gastroprotective activity, which was more effective than that of sulfatide. ..
  3. Buschard K, Blomqvist M, Osterbye T, Fredman P. Involvement of sulfatide in beta cells and type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2005;48:1957-62 pubmed
    ..Glycosphingolipids in general, and sulfatide in particular, appear relevant to both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. ..
  4. Townson K, Greenshields K, Veitch J, Nicholl D, Eckhardt M, Galanina O, et al. Sulfatide binding properties of murine and human antiganglioside antibodies. Glycobiology. 2007;17:1156-66 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that sulfatide binding is a common property of antiganglioside antibodies that may provide functional insights into, and consequences for this component of the innate immune repertoire. ..
  5. Roeske Nielsen A, Fredman P, Mansson J, Bendtzen K, Buschard K. Beta-galactosylceramide increases and sulfatide decreases cytokine and chemokine production in whole blood cells. Immunol Lett. 2004;91:205-11 pubmed
    ..05-0.01), while GalCer increased their production 2- to 10-fold (P < 0.01). In conclusion, sulfatide decreases the in vitro production of proinflammatory cytokines, whereas GalCer has the opposite effect. ..
  6. Huesca M, Goodwin A, Bhagwansingh A, Hoffman P, Lingwood C. Characterization of an acidic-pH-inducible stress protein (hsp70), a putative sulfatide binding adhesin, from Helicobacter pylori. Infect Immun. 1998;66:4061-7 pubmed
    ..The ability of H. pylori to alter its glycolipid binding specificity following exposure to low pH by upregulating hsp70 and by expressing hsp70 on the bacterial surface may provide a survival advantage during periods of high acid stress...
  7. Takahashi T, Murakami K, Nagakura M, Kishita H, Watanabe S, Honke K, et al. Sulfatide is required for efficient replication of influenza A virus. J Virol. 2008;82:5940-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide new insights into IAV replication and suggest new therapeutic strategies. ..
  8. Eckhardt M. The role and metabolism of sulfatide in the nervous system. Mol Neurobiol. 2008;37:93-103 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes recent studies on the physiological and pathophysiological role of sulfatide using transgenic mice deficient in its synthesis or degradation. ..
  9. Jeon S, Yoon H, Park S, Kim I, Park E. Sulfatide, a major lipid component of myelin sheath, activates inflammatory responses as an endogenous stimulator in brain-resident immune cells. J Immunol. 2008;181:8077-87 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results show that abnormally released sulfatide at demyelinated regions may act as an endogenous stimulator in the brain immune system, thus causing and further exacerbating pathological conditions in the brain. ..
  10. Beausoleil H, Lepine F, Dubreuil J. LC-MS analysis of pig intestine sulfatides: interaction with Escherichia coli STb enterotoxin and characterization of molecular species present. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;209:183-8 pubmed
    ..The general profile of the ions observed was similar to the already described commercial bovine brain sulfatides. ..
  11. Shamshiev A, Gober H, Donda A, Mazorra Z, Mori L, De Libero G. Presentation of the same glycolipid by different CD1 molecules. J Exp Med. 2002;195:1013-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, group I CD1 molecules present an overlapping set of self-glycolipids, even though they are quite divergent from an evolutionary point of view. ..
  12. Buschard K, Hanspers K, Fredman P, Reich E. Treatment with sulfatide or its precursor, galactosylceramide, prevents diabetes in NOD mice. Autoimmunity. 2001;34:9-17 pubmed
    ..001). A robust proliferative response to sulfatide, but none to GM1, was observed when spleen cells were rechallenged with glycosphingolipid in vitro. Thus, like insulin and GAD, sulfatide is able to prevent diabetes in NOD mice. ..
  13. Sundell I, Halder R, Zhang M, Maricic I, Koka P, Kumar V. Sulfatide administration leads to inhibition of HIV-1 replication and enhanced hematopoeisis. J Stem Cells. 2010;5:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the CD1d-mediated immune pathway is highly conserved between rodents and humans, sulfatide treatment may represent a novel HLA-independent approach for intervention of HIV-1 pathogenesis. ..
  14. Shao K, Hou Q, Duan W, Go M, Wong K, Li Q. Intracellular drug delivery by sulfatide-mediated liposomes to gliomas. J Control Release. 2006;115:150-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the sulfatide-containing liposomes (SCL) may represent an interesting ligand-targeted drug carrier for a wide spectrum of cancers in which sulfatide-binding ECM glycoproteins are expressed. ..
  15. Sandhoff R, Grieshaber H, Djafarzadeh R, Sijmonsma T, Proudfoot A, Handel T, et al. Chemokines bind to sulfatides as revealed by surface plasmon resonance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1687:52-63 pubmed
  16. Mamelak D, Mylvaganam M, Whetstone H, Hartmann E, Lennarz W, Wyrick P, et al. Hsp70s contain a specific sulfogalactolipid binding site. Differential aglycone influence on sulfogalactosyl ceramide binding by recombinant prokaryotic and eukaryotic hsp70 family members. Biochemistry. 2001;40:3572-82 pubmed
  17. Shroff S, Pomicter A, Chow W, Fox M, Colello R, Henderson S, et al. Adult CST-null mice maintain an increased number of oligodendrocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:3403-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, through ultrastructural analysis, we show that the CST-null OLs exhibit decreased morphological complexity, a feature that may result in decreased OL competition and increased OL survival. ..
  18. Petratos S, Gonzales M. Can antiglycolipid antibodies present in HIV-infected individuals induce immune demyelination?. Neuropathology. 2000;20:257-72 pubmed
  19. Ida M, Satoh A, Matsumoto I, Kojima Aikawa K. Human annexin V binds to sulfatide: contribution to regulation of blood coagulation. J Biochem. 2004;135:583-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that annexin V regulates coagulability in the blood stream by binding not only to phosphatidylserine but also to sulfatide. ..
  20. Zajonc D, Elsliger M, Teyton L, Wilson I. Crystal structure of CD1a in complex with a sulfatide self antigen at a resolution of 2.15 A. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:808-15 pubmed
    ..Because the A' pocket is narrow with a fixed terminus, it can act as a molecular 'ruler' to select alkyl chains of a particular length. ..
  21. Bajorath J, Hollenbaugh D, King G, Harte W, Eustice D, Darveau R, et al. CD62/P-selectin binding sites for myeloid cells and sulfatides are overlapping. Biochemistry. 1994;33:1332-9 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  22. Blomqvist M, Osterbye T, Mansson J, Horn T, Buschard K, Fredman P. Selective lack of the C16:0 fatty acid isoform of sulfatide in pancreas of type II diabetic animal models. APMIS. 2003;111:867-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is hypothesized that the selection of sulfatide isomers in pancreas might be a genetic factor contributing to disease development in type II diabetic animal models. ..
  23. Roy K, Maricic I, Khurana A, Smith T, Halder R, Kumar V. Involvement of secretory and endosomal compartments in presentation of an exogenous self-glycolipid to type II NKT cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:2942-50 pubmed
    ..Thus this study provides important insights into the exogenous self-glycolipid presentation to CD1d-restricted T cells. ..
  24. Garcia J, Callewaert N, Borsig L. P-selectin mediates metastatic progression through binding to sulfatides on tumor cells. Glycobiology. 2007;17:185-96 pubmed
    ..Thus, SM4 sulfatide serves as a native ligand for P-selectin contributing to cell-cell interactions and to facilitation of metastasis. ..
  25. Kushi Y, Arita M, Ishizuka I, Kasama T, Fredman P, Handa S. Sulfatide is expressed in both erythrocytes and platelets of bovine origin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1304:254-62 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that galactosylceramide sulfate on erythroid cells may play an important biological role in cell to cell interaction and recognition. ..
  26. Li S, Liquari P, McKee K, Harrison D, Patel R, Lee S, et al. Laminin-sulfatide binding initiates basement membrane assembly and enables receptor signaling in Schwann cells and fibroblasts. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:179-89 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our findings suggest that sulfated glycolipids are key Lm anchors that determine which cell surfaces can assemble Lms to initiate BM assembly and DG- and integrin-mediated signaling. ..
  27. Coetzee T, Dupree J, Popko B. Demyelination and altered expression of myelin-associated glycoprotein isoforms in the central nervous system of galactolipid-deficient mice. J Neurosci Res. 1998;54:613-22 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that GalC and sulfatide are required for the long-term maintenance of myelin and that their absence may have subtle effects on the development of oligodendrocytes. ..
  28. Chen Y, Allegood J, Liu Y, Wang E, Cachon Gonzalez B, Cox T, et al. Imaging MALDI mass spectrometry using an oscillating capillary nebulizer matrix coating system and its application to analysis of lipids in brain from a mouse model of Tay-Sachs/Sandhoff disease. Anal Chem. 2008;80:2780-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results illustrate the usefulness of tissue-imaging MALDI-MS with matrix deposition by OCN for histologic comparison of lipids in tissues such as brains from this mouse model of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease. ..
  29. Shaner R, Allegood J, Park H, Wang E, Kelly S, Haynes C, et al. Quantitative analysis of sphingolipids for lipidomics using triple quadrupole and quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometers. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:1692-707 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of these methods is illustrated with RAW264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line. These methods should be useful for a wide range of focused (sphingo)lipidomic investigations. ..
  30. Bosio A, Binczek E, Haupt W, Stoffel W. Composition and biophysical properties of myelin lipid define the neurological defects in galactocerebroside- and sulfatide-deficient mice. J Neurochem. 1998;70:308-15 pubmed
    ..The loss of the two glycosphingolipid classes causes the breakdown of saltatory conductance of myelinated axons in the cgt-/- mouse. ..
  31. Buschard K, Høy M, Bokvist K, Olsen H, Madsbad S, Fredman P, et al. Sulfatide controls insulin secretion by modulation of ATP-sensitive K(+)-channel activity and Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis in rat pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes. 2002;51:2514-21 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that sulfatide is important for the control of glucose-induced insulin secretion and that both an increase and a decrease in the sulfatide content have an impact on the secretory capacity of the individual beta-cells...
  32. Merten M, Thiagarajan P. Role for sulfatides in platelet aggregation. Circulation. 2001;104:2955-60 pubmed
    ..The sulfatide interactions with P-selectin stabilize platelet aggregates, representing a new mechanism of platelet aggregation that may play a significant role in hemostasis and thrombosis. ..
  33. Favaloro E. Sulfatide-binding assay for von Willebrand factor. Detection of von Willebrand's disease without discrimination of vWD subtypes. Thromb Res. 2000;98:213-9 pubmed
  34. Marbois B, Faull K, Fluharty A, Raval Fernandes S, Rome L. Analysis of sulfatide from rat cerebellum and multiple sclerosis white matter by negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1484:59-70 pubmed
    ..There are significant increases (P=0.05) in the amount of hydroxylation of sulfatide, demonstrated by an increase in the percentage of hydroxylated h24:0-sulfatide (hydroxy-lignoceroyl sulfatide). ..
  35. Kyogashima M, Onaya J, Hara A, Taketomi T. Sulfatide can markedly enhance thrombogenesis in rat deep vein thrombosis model. Glycoconj J. 1998;15:915-22 pubmed
  36. He H, Nilsson C, Emmett M, Ji Y, Marshall A, Kroes R, et al. Polar lipid remodeling and increased sulfatide expression are associated with the glioma therapeutic candidates, wild type p53 elevation and the topoisomerase-1 inhibitor, irinotecan. Glycoconj J. 2010;27:27-38 pubmed publisher
  37. Blomqvist M, Rhost S, Teneberg S, Löfbom L, Osterbye T, Brigl M, et al. Multiple tissue-specific isoforms of sulfatide activate CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1726-35 pubmed publisher
  38. Arrenberg P, Maricic I, Kumar V. Sulfatide-mediated activation of type II natural killer T cells prevents hepatic ischemic reperfusion injury in mice. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:646-55 pubmed publisher
    ..CD1d activation of NKT cells is conserved from mice to human beings, so strategies to modify these processes might be developed to treat patients with hepatic reperfusion injury. ..
  39. Snook C, Jones J, Hannun Y. Sphingolipid-binding proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761:927-46 pubmed
    ..Finally we summarize relevant literature to better inform the reader about sphingolipid:protein interactions. ..
  40. Subramanian L, Blumenfeld H, Tohn R, Ly D, Aguilera C, Maricic I, et al. NKT cells stimulated by long fatty acyl chain sulfatides significantly reduce the incidence of type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice [corrected]. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37771 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results raise the possibility that C24:0 may be used therapeutically to delay the onset and protect from T1D in humans. ..
  41. Wang C, Liu J, Lee S, Hsiao C, Wu W. Glycosphingolipid-facilitated membrane insertion and internalization of cobra cardiotoxin. The sulfatide.cardiotoxin complex structure in a membrane-like environment suggests a lipid-dependent cell-penetrating mechanism for membrane binding polypepti. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:656-67 pubmed
    ..This proposed lipid-mediated toxin translocation mechanism may also shed light on the cellular uptake mechanism of the amphiphilic cell-penetrating peptides known to involve multiple internalization pathways. ..
  42. Blomqvist M, Carrier M, Andrews T, Pettersson K, Mansson J, Rynmark B, et al. In vivo administration of the C16:0 fatty acid isoform of sulfatide increases pancreatic sulfatide and enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2005;21:158-66 pubmed
    ..The fasting hyperinsulinaemia and blood glucose levels were unchanged. The treatment with C16:0 sulfatide elevates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and enhances sulfatide content in the pancreas of Zucker rats. ..
  43. Osterbye T, Jørgensen K, Fredman P, Tranum Jensen J, Kaas A, Brange J, et al. Sulfatide promotes the folding of proinsulin, preserves insulin crystals, and mediates its monomerization. Glycobiology. 2001;11:473-9 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that sulfatide plays a key role in the folding of proinsulin, in the maintenance of insulin structure, and in the monomerization process. ..
  44. Wittke D, Hartmann D, Gieselmann V, Lullmann Rauch R. Lysosomal sulfatide storage in the brain of arylsulfatase A-deficient mice: cellular alterations and topographic distribution. Acta Neuropathol. 2004;108:261-71 pubmed
    ..An important difference, however, which remains unexplained at present, is the absence of obvious demyelination from the CNS of ASA(-/-) mice up to the age of 2 years...
  45. Andersson K, Buschard K, Fredman P, Kaas A, Lidström A, Madsbad S, et al. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes but not those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes have anti-sulfatide antibodies as determined with a new ELISA assay. Autoimmunity. 2002;35:463-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that sulfatide autoantibodies in serum can be reproducibly assayed by the newly developed microtitre-ELISA procedure. Elevated titres of sulfatide autoantibodies are a constant finding in newly diagnosed type 1 patients. ..
  46. Jahng A, Maricic I, Aguilera C, Cardell S, Halder R, Kumar V. Prevention of autoimmunity by targeting a distinct, noninvariant CD1d-reactive T cell population reactive to sulfatide. J Exp Med. 2004;199:947-57 pubmed
  47. Makhlouf A, Fathalla M, Zakhary M, Makarem M. Sulfatides in ovarian tumors: clinicopathological correlates. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004;14:89-93 pubmed
    ..It may also predict advanced stages in patients who are apparently early stage. It is also a candidate to study of their association with response to chemotherapy. ..
  48. Marcus J, Honigbaum S, Shroff S, Honke K, Rosenbluth J, Dupree J. Sulfatide is essential for the maintenance of CNS myelin and axon structure. Glia. 2006;53:372-81 pubmed
  49. Takahashi T, Suzuki T. Role of sulfatide in normal and pathological cells and tissues. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:1437-50 pubmed publisher
  50. Petratos S, Turnbull V, Papadopoulos R, Ayers M, Gonzales M. High-titre IgM anti-sulfatide antibodies in individuals with IgM paraproteinaemia and associated peripheral neuropathy. Immunol Cell Biol. 2000;78:124-32 pubmed
    ..No axonal immunoreactivity was observed. These results suggest that high titre IgM antisulfatide antibodies may play a pathogenetic role in the immune demyelination associated with IgM paraproteinaemia. ..
  51. Matzner U, Hartmann D, Lullmann Rauch R, Coenen R, Rothert F, Mansson J, et al. Bone marrow stem cell-based gene transfer in a mouse model for metachromatic leukodystrophy: effects on visceral and nervous system disease manifestations. Gene Ther. 2002;9:53-63 pubmed
    ..The limited success of the therapy appears to be due to the requirement of unexpected high levels of ASA for correction of the metabolic defect. ..
  52. Ishibashi T, Dupree J, Ikenaka K, Hirahara Y, Honke K, Peles E, et al. A myelin galactolipid, sulfatide, is essential for maintenance of ion channels on myelinated axon but not essential for initial cluster formation. J Neurosci. 2002;22:6507-14 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a critical role for sulfatide in proper localization and maintenance of ion channels clusters, whereas they do not appear to be essential for initial cluster formation of Na+ channels. ..
  53. Blomqvist M, Kaas A, Mansson J, Formby B, Rynmark B, Buschard K, et al. Developmental expression of the type I diabetes related antigen sulfatide and sulfated lactosylceramide in mammalian pancreas. J Cell Biochem. 2003;89:301-10 pubmed
  54. Wizemann H, Garbe J, Friedrich M, Timpl R, Sasaki T, Hohenester E. Distinct requirements for heparin and alpha-dystroglycan binding revealed by structure-based mutagenesis of the laminin alpha2 LG4-LG5 domain pair. J Mol Biol. 2003;332:635-42 pubmed
    ..The results should prove useful for the molecular dissection of laminin-receptor interactions in vivo. ..
  55. Kyogashima M. The role of sulfatide in thrombogenesis and haemostasis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;426:157-62 pubmed
  56. Halder R, Aguilera C, Maricic I, Kumar V. Type II NKT cell-mediated anergy induction in type I NKT cells prevents inflammatory liver disease. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:2302-12 pubmed
  57. Shao K, Hou Q, Go M, Duan W, Cheung N, Feng S, et al. Sulfatide-tenascin interaction mediates binding to the extracellular matrix and endocytic uptake of liposomes in glioma cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:506-15 pubmed
    ..Such natural lipid-guided intracellular delivery targeting at the extracellular matrix glycoproteins of tumor cells thus opens a new direction for development of more effective anticancer chemotherapeutics in future. ..
  58. Merten M, Beythien C, Gutensohn K, Kuhnl P, Meinertz T, Thiagarajan P. Sulfatides activate platelets through P-selectin and enhance platelet and platelet-leukocyte aggregation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:258-63 pubmed
    ..In addition, sulfatides enhance the aggregation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates. These mechanisms may play a significant role in hemostasis and thrombosis. ..
  59. Zajonc D, Maricic I, Wu D, Halder R, Roy K, Wong C, et al. Structural basis for CD1d presentation of a sulfatide derived from myelin and its implications for autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2005;202:1517-26 pubmed
    ..These structure and binding data on sulfatide presentation by CD1d have important implications for the design of therapeutics that target T cells reactive for myelin glycolipids in autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. ..
  60. Hirahara Y, Bansal R, Honke K, Ikenaka K, Wada Y. Sulfatide is a negative regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation: development in sulfatide-null mice. Glia. 2004;45:269-77 pubmed
    ..We conclude that primarily sulfatide, rather than GalC, is a key molecule for the negative regulation of oligodendrocyte terminal differentiation. ..
  61. Nakayama T, Matsushita T, Yamamoto K, Mutsuga N, Kojima T, Katsumi A, et al. Identification of amino acid residues responsible for von Willebrand factor binding to sulfatide by charged-to-alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Int J Hematol. 2008;87:363-370 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that NMC4 also inhibited VWF interaction with sulfatides in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that VWF binding sites of sulfatide overlap those of platelet GPIb and botrocetin. ..
  62. Hsu F, Turk J. Studies on sulfatides by quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization: structural characterization and the fragmentation processes that include an unusual internal galactose residue loss and the classical charge-remote fragmenta. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2004;15:536-46 pubmed
    ..The fragmentation pathways of sulfatides under low-energy CAD are proposed. The pathways are supported by the MS(2)- and MS(3)-spectra of various compounds, and of their H-D exchanged analogs. ..
  63. Schott I, Hartmann D, Gieselmann V, Lullmann Rauch R. Sulfatide storage in visceral organs of arylsulfatase A-deficient mice. Virchows Arch. 2001;439:90-6 pubmed
    ..In addition to being an animal model of the human disease, the ASA-deficient mouse may be useful for investigating the cell biology of sulfolipids in visceral organs...
  64. Roeske Nielsen A, Dalgaard L, Mansson J, Buschard K. The glycolipid sulfatide protects insulin-producing cells against cytokine-induced apoptosis, a possible role in diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2010;26:631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Data suggest this is not due to induction of ?-cell rest. Our findings indicate a possible implication for sulfatide in the pathogenesis of diabetes. ..
  65. Isoardo G, Ferrero B, Barbero P, Cucci A, Oggero A, Pipieri A, et al. Anti-GM1 and anti-sulfatide antibodies in polyneuropathies. Threshold titers and accuracy. Acta Neurol Scand. 2001;103:180-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that testing IgM anti-GM1 or anti-sulfatide Ab is useful only for diagnostic confirmation of specific subtypes of autoimmune PN. ..
  66. Zajonc D, Crispin M, Bowden T, Young D, Cheng T, Hu J, et al. Molecular mechanism of lipopeptide presentation by CD1a. Immunity. 2005;22:209-19 pubmed
    ..Thus, this structural study illustrates how a single chain lipid can be presented by CD1 and that the peptide moiety of the lipopeptide is recognized by the TCR. ..
  67. Berntson Z, Hansson E, Ronnback L, Fredman P. Intracellular sulfatide expression in a subpopulation of astrocytes in primary cultures. J Neurosci Res. 1998;52:559-68 pubmed
    ..This selective and intracellular expression encourages further identification of the astrocytes expressing sulfatide and the biological role of sulfatide in these cells. ..