Summary: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)

Top Publications

  1. van Eijk M, Aten J, Bijl N, Ottenhoff R, van Roomen C, Dubbelhuis P, et al. Reducing glycosphingolipid content in adipose tissue of obese mice restores insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis and reduces inflammation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4723 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control...
  2. Yahi N, Aulas A, Fantini J. How cholesterol constrains glycolipid conformation for optimal recognition of Alzheimer's beta amyloid peptide (Abeta1-40). PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9079 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet conflicting data have been reported on the respective effect of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids (GSLs) on the supramolecular assembly of Abeta peptides...
  3. Miyazaki M, Yonesige A, Matsuda J, Kuroda Y, Kojima N, Suzuki A. High-performance thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of neutral glycosphingolipids. J AOAC Int. 2008;91:1218-26 pubmed be a reliable and reproducible method to obtain structural information and fundamental properties of glycosphingolipids (GSLs)...
  4. Li Y, Thapa P, Hawke D, Kondo Y, Furukawa K, Furukawa K, et al. Immunologic glycosphingolipidomics and NKT cell development in mouse thymus. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:2740-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic evidence suggested that beta-glucosylceramide derived glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are natural ligands for NKT cells...
  5. Coelho Finamore J, Freitas V, Assis R, Melo M, Novozhilova N, Secundino N, et al. Leishmania infantum: Lipophosphoglycan intraspecific variation and interaction with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, higher nitric oxide production was observed in macrophages exposed to glucosylated type II LPG...
  6. Fagerberg D, Angstrom J, Halim A, Hultberg A, Rakhimova L, Hammarstrom L, et al. Novel Leb-like Helicobacter pylori-binding glycosphingolipid created by the expression of human alpha-1,3/4-fucosyltransferase in FVB/N mouse stomach. Glycobiology. 2009;19:182-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the effects of the human alpha-1,3/4-fucosyltransferase on glycosphingolipid structures, neutral glycosphingolipids were isolated from stomachs of transgenic alpha-1,3/4-fucosyltransferase-expressing mice...
  7. Lloyd Evans E, Platt F. Lipids on trial: the search for the offending metabolite in Niemann-Pick type C disease. Traffic. 2010;11:419-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the potential role of each of the individual storage lipids in initiating the pathogenic cascade and propose a model of NPC1 and NPC2 function based on the current knowledge. ..
  8. Valdes Gonzalez T, Goto Inoue N, Hirano W, Ishiyama H, Hayasaka T, Setou M, et al. New approach for glyco- and lipidomics--molecular scanning of human brain gangliosides by TLC-Blot and MALDI-QIT-TOF MS. J Neurochem. 2011;116:678-83 pubmed publisher
    We have developed a TLC-Blot system that makes possible the direct analysis of blotted glycosphingolipids on a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane from a high-performance TLC plate by immunological staining, chemical staining, enzymatic ..
  9. Muthing J, Distler U. Advances on the compositional analysis of glycosphingolipids combining thin-layer chromatography with mass spectrometry. Mass Spectrom Rev. 2010;29:425-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids (GSLs), composed of a hydrophilic carbohydrate chain and a lipophilic ceramide anchor, play pivotal roles in countless biological processes, including infectious diseases and the development of cancer...

More Information


  1. Sumida T, Ishii R, Yanagisawa T, Yokoyama S, Ito M. Molecular cloning and crystal structural analysis of a novel beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase from Paenibacillus sp. TS12 capable of degrading glycosphingolipids. J Mol Biol. 2009;392:87-99 pubmed publisher Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), hydrolyzed the beta-N-acetylhexosamine linkage of chitooligosaccharides and glycosphingolipids such as asialo GM2 and Gb4Cer in the absence of detergent...
  2. Zhao H, Przybylska M, Wu I, Zhang J, Maniatis P, Pacheco J, et al. Inhibiting glycosphingolipid synthesis ameliorates hepatic steatosis in obese mice. Hepatology. 2009;50:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that inhibiting GSL synthesis ameliorates the liver pathology associated with obesity and diabetes, and may represent a novel strategy for treating fatty liver disease and NASH. ..
  3. Svarovska A, Ant T, Seblová V, Jecna L, Beverley S, Volf P. Leishmania major glycosylation mutants require phosphoglycans (lpg2-) but not lipophosphoglycan (lpg1-) for survival in permissive sand fly vectors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e580 pubmed publisher
    ..The sand fly species used were the permissive species Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. argentipes, and the specific vector P. duboscqi, a species resistant to L. infantum development...
  4. Jansson L, Tobias J, Jarefjäll C, Lebens M, Svennerholm A, Teneberg S. Sulfatide recognition by colonization factor antigen CS6 from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4487 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and purified CS6 protein to a large number of variant glycosphingolipids separated on thin-layer chromatograms. Thereby, a highly specific binding of the CS6-expressing E...
  5. Brennan P, Tatituri R, Brigl M, Kim E, Tuli A, Sanderson J, et al. Invariant natural killer T cells recognize lipid self antigen induced by microbial danger signals. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:1202-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that recognition of ?-GlcCer by the invariant T cell antigen receptor translates innate danger signals into iNKT cell activation. ..
  6. Pontier S, Schweisguth F. Glycosphingolipids in signaling and development: from liposomes to model organisms. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:92-106 pubmed publisher
    ..of the raft hypothesis in 1997, data generated in liposomes and cultured cells have highlighted the role of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in the dynamic organization of biological membranes and the activity of signaling complexes...
  7. Kirsch S, Zarei M, Cindric M, Muthing J, Bindila L, Peter Katalinic J. On-line nano-HPLC/ESI QTOF MS and tandem MS for separation, detection, and structural elucidation of human erythrocytes neutral glycosphingolipid mixture. Anal Chem. 2008;80:4711-22 pubmed publisher
    ..ESI QTOF MS) and tandem MS for screening and structural characterization of complex mixtures of neutral glycosphingolipids (GSLs) is here described...
  8. Sonnino S, Aureli M, Loberto N, Chigorno V, Prinetti A. Fine tuning of cell functions through remodeling of glycosphingolipids by plasma membrane-associated glycohydrolases. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1914-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will focus on the possible role and on the involvement of the plasma membrane-associated glycohydrolases in modulating cell functions. ..
  9. Chang W, Lee C, Lee P, Lin J, Hsu C, Hung J, et al. Expression of Globo H and SSEA3 in breast cancer stem cells and the involvement of fucosyl transferases 1 and 2 in Globo H synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11667-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide insight into further development of a Globo H-based vaccine and FUT1/FUT2-targeted therapy for breast cancer. ..
  10. Misonou Y, Shida K, Korekane H, Seki Y, Noura S, Ohue M, et al. Comprehensive clinico-glycomic study of 16 colorectal cancer specimens: elucidation of aberrant glycosylation and its mechanistic causes in colorectal cancer cells. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:2990-3005 pubmed publisher
    The structures of neutral and acidic glycosphingolipids from both normal colorectal epithelial cells and colorectal cancer cells, which were highly purified with the epithelial cell marker CD326, have been analyzed...
  11. Schulze H, Kolter T, Sandhoff K. Principles of lysosomal membrane degradation: Cellular topology and biochemistry of lysosomal lipid degradation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1793:674-83 pubmed publisher
    ..sequentially cleave off the terminal carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, and glycosphingolipids. For glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide chains, the additional presence of membrane-active ..
  12. Kolter T. A view on sphingolipids and disease. Chem Phys Lipids. 2011;164:590-606 pubmed publisher
    ..More general aspects of selected diseases are discussed. ..
  13. Igarashi Y, Kannagi R. Glycosphingolipids as mediators of phenotypic changes associated with development and cancer progression. J Biochem. 2010;147:3-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hakomori has been involved for the past approximately 40 years in studies on structure and function of glycosphingolipids (GSLs)...
  14. Niimura Y, Moue T, Takahashi N, Nagai K. Modification of sphingoglycolipids and sulfolipids in kidney cell lines under heat stress: activation of monohexosylceramide synthesis as a ceramide scavenger. Glycobiology. 2010;20:710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results, we speculated that HSP70 may play a role in GluT gene expression to increase GlcCer and decrease intracellular ceramide level. ..
  15. Ariga T, Suetake K, Nakane M, Kubota M, Usuki S, Kawashima I, et al. Glycosphingolipid antigens in neural tumor cell lines and anti-glycosphingolipid antibodies in sera of patients with neural tumors. Neurosignals. 2008;16:226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Sulfated glucuronosyl glycosphingolipids (SGGLs) are cell surface molecules that are endowed with the Human Natural Killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate ..
  16. Coddens A, Diswall M, Angstrom J, Breimer M, Goddeeris B, Cox E, et al. Recognition of blood group ABH type 1 determinants by the FedF adhesin of F18-fimbriated Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9713-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that F18-fimbriated E. coli selectively interact with glycosphingolipids having blood group ABH determinants on type 1 core, and blood group A type 4 heptaglycosylceramide...
  17. Bietrix F, Lombardo E, van Roomen C, Ottenhoff R, Vos M, Rensen P, et al. Inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis induces a profound reduction of plasma cholesterol and inhibits atherosclerosis development in APOE*3 Leiden and low-density lipoprotein receptor-/- mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:931-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, targeting GSL synthesis may be a new treatment modality to prevent cardiovascular disease. ..
  18. Jennemann R, Rothermel U, Wang S, Sandhoff R, Kaden S, Out R, et al. Hepatic glycosphingolipid deficiency and liver function in mice. Hepatology. 2010;51:1799-809 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have reported that glycosphingolipids (GSLs) might be involved in obesity-induced insulin resistance...
  19. Landoni M, Duschak V, Erra Balsells R, Couto A. UV-MALDI mass spectrometry analysis of NBD-glycosphingolipids without an external matrix. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2008;19:923-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition an extract of glycosphingolipids obtained from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi metabolically labeled with NBD-ceramide was analyzed...
  20. Taki T, Ishikawa D, Ogino K, Tanaka M, Oku N, Asai T, et al. A new approach for drug discovery from glycobiology and phage-displayed peptide library technology. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:497-503 pubmed publisher
    Peptides which mimic functional activities of glycosphingolipids were prepared by a technology of phage-displayed peptide library using monoclonal antibodies against glycosphingolipids. These peptides were named glyco-replica peptides...
  21. Hamel S, Fantini J, Schweisguth F. Notch ligand activity is modulated by glycosphingolipid membrane composition in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:581-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data indicate that specific GSLs modulate the signaling activity of Notch ligands. ..
  22. Liang Y, Kuo H, Lin C, Chen Y, Yang B, Cheng Y, et al. Switching of the core structures of glycosphingolipids from globo- and lacto- to ganglio-series upon human embryonic stem cell differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22564-9 pubmed publisher
    A systematic survey of expression profiles of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in two hESC lines and their differentiated embryoid body (EB) outgrowth with three germ layers was carried out using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and MALDI-MS ..
  23. Lingwood C, Branch D. The role of glycosphingolipids in HIV/AIDS. Discov Med. 2011;11:303-13 pubmed
  24. Daniotti J, Iglesias Bartolomé R. Metabolic pathways and intracellular trafficking of gangliosides. IUBMB Life. 2011;63:513-20 pubmed publisher
    Gangliosides constitute a large and heterogeneous family of acidic glycosphingolipids that contain one or more sialic acid residues and are expressed in nearly all vertebrate cells...
  25. Aerts J, Boot R, van Eijk M, Groener J, Bijl N, Lombardo E, et al. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;721:99-119 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids are structural membrane components, residing largely in the plasma membrane with their sugar-moieties exposed at the cell's surface...
  26. Bally M, Gunnarsson A, Svensson L, Larson G, Zhdanov V, Hook F. Interaction of single viruslike particles with vesicles containing glycosphingolipids. Phys Rev Lett. 2011;107:188103 pubmed
    b>Glycosphingolipids are involved in the first steps of virus-cell interaction, where they mediate specific recognition of the host cell membrane...
  27. D Angelo G, Capasso S, Sticco L, Russo D. Glycosphingolipids: synthesis and functions. FEBS J. 2013;280:6338-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) comprise a heterogeneous group of membrane lipids formed by a ceramide backbone covalently linked to a glycan moiety...
  28. Collins P, Bum Erdene K, Yu X, Blanchard H. Galectin-3 interactions with glycosphingolipids. J Mol Biol. 2014;426:1439-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Endogenous receptors include members of the lacto- and neolacto-series glycosphingolipids present on mammalian cells and contain the tetrasaccharides lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and lacto-N-neotetraose (..
  29. Wennekes T, van den Berg R, Boot R, van der Marel G, Overkleeft H, Aerts J. Glycosphingolipids--nature, function, and pharmacological modulation. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2009;48:8848-69 pubmed publisher
    The discovery of the glycosphingolipids is generally attributed to Johan L. W. Thudichum, who in 1884 published on the chemical composition of the brain...
  30. Jung J, Ko K, Lee D, Ko K, Chang K, Choo Y. The roles of glycosphingolipids in the proliferation and neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Exp Mol Med. 2009;41:935-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids including gangliosides play important regulatory roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase (Ugcg) catalyze the initial step in glycosphingolipids biosynthesis pathway...
  31. Bijl N, Sokolovic M, Vrins C, Langeveld M, Moerland P, Ottenhoff R, et al. Modulation of glycosphingolipid metabolism significantly improves hepatic insulin sensitivity and reverses hepatic steatosis in mice. Hepatology. 2009;50:1431-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids with the iminosugar AMP-DNM is a promising approach to restore insulin signaling and improve glucose ..
  32. Sonnino S, Prinetti A, Nakayama H, Yangida M, Ogawa H, Iwabuchi K. Role of very long fatty acid-containing glycosphingolipids in membrane organization and cell signaling: the model of lactosylceramide in neutrophils. Glycoconj J. 2009;26:615-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids are highly enriched in specialized membrane microdomains ("lipid rafts", caveolar domains and glycosynapses), and they participate to the process of transduction of information across the membrane...
  33. Westerlund B, Slotte J. How the molecular features of glycosphingolipids affect domain formation in fluid membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1788:194-201 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin and cholesterol are often all found in the detergent resistant fraction of biological membranes and are therefore recognized as raft components, but they do not necessarily co-localize in the same lateral ..
  34. Glaros E, Kim W, Rye K, Shayman J, Garner B. Reduction of plasma glycosphingolipid levels has no impact on atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:1677-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) have been implicated as potential atherogenic lipids...
  35. Iwabuchi K, Nakayama H, Iwahara C, Takamori K. Significance of glycosphingolipid fatty acid chain length on membrane microdomain-mediated signal transduction. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1642-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we suggest that LacCer species containing very long fatty acid chains are indispensable for the association of Lyn with LacCer-enriched microdomains and LacCer-mediated functions. ..
  36. van Die I, van Stijn C, Geyer H, Geyer R. Structural and functional analysis of glycosphingolipids of Schistosoma mansoni. Methods Enzymol. 2010;480:117-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids are ubiquitous membrane components that play important roles in signal transduction events thereby affecting many cellular functions, including modulation of the immune response...
  37. Coddens A, Valis E, Benktander J, Ångström J, Breimer M, Cox E, et al. Erythrocyte and porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids recognized by F4 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23309 pubmed publisher
    ..coli, to glycosphingolipids from erythrocytes and from porcine small intestinal epithelium was examined, in order to get a comprehensive ..
  38. Pizette S, Rabouille C, Cohen S, Therond P. Glycosphingolipids control the extracellular gradient of the Drosophila EGFR ligand Gurken. Development. 2009;136:551-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are present in all eukaryotic membranes and are implicated in neuropathologies and tumor progression in humans...
  39. Valle Argos B, Gomez Nicola D, Nieto Sampedro M. Synthesis and characterization of neurostatin-related compounds with high inhibitory activity of glioma growth. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:2034-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results open the possibility for the application of the neurostatin-related compounds to in-vivo tumoral models. ..
  40. Langeveld M, Aerts J. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance. Prog Lipid Res. 2009;48:196-205 pubmed publisher
    ..More complex glycosphingolipids, so-called gangliosides, block phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and down-stream signaling, possibly ..
  41. Sun Y, Witte D, Ran H, Zamzow M, Barnes S, Cheng H, et al. Neurological deficits and glycosphingolipid accumulation in saposin B deficient mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2345-56 pubmed publisher
    ..B-/- provide a useful model for understanding the contributions of this saposin to GSL metabolism and homeostasis. ..
  42. Späth G, Schlesinger P, Schreiber R, Beverley S. A novel role for Stat1 in phagosome acidification and natural host resistance to intracellular infection by Leishmania major. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000381 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel Stat1 function may have important implications to studies of other pathogens, as the acidic phagolysosomal pH plays an important role in antigen processing and the uncoating process of many viruses. ..
  43. Wennekes T, Meijer A, Groen A, Boot R, Groener J, van Eijk M, et al. Dual-action lipophilic iminosugar improves glycemic control in obese rodents by reduction of visceral glycosphingolipids and buffering of carbohydrate assimilation. J Med Chem. 2010;53:689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction of visceral glycosphingolipids by 2 is thought to underlie its beneficial action...
  44. Ilan Y. Alpha versus beta: are we on the way to resolve the mystery as to which is the endogenous ligand for natural killer T cells?. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;158:300-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these ligands were structured in forms that can bind to CD1d molecules. The lack of alpha-anomeric glycosphingolipids in mammals and the modest effect of these ligands in human studies, along with recent data from animal ..
  45. Jennemann R, Kaden S, Sandhoff R, Nordström V, Wang S, Volz M, et al. Glycosphingolipids are essential for intestinal endocytic function. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32598-616 pubmed
    b>Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) constitute major components of enterocytes and were hypothesized to be potentially important for intestinal epithelial polarization...
  46. Jennemann R, Grone H. Cell-specific in vivo functions of glycosphingolipids: lessons from genetic deletions of enzymes involved in glycosphingolipid synthesis. Prog Lipid Res. 2013;52:231-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are believed to be involved in many cellular events including trafficking, signaling and cellular interactions...
  47. West G, Viitanen L, Alm C, Mattjus P, Salminen T, Edqvist J. Identification of a glycosphingolipid transfer protein GLTP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. FEBS J. 2008;275:3421-37 pubmed publisher
    ..At2g33470 encodes a glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) that enhances the intervesicular trafficking of glycosphingolipids in vitro. GLTPs have previously been identified in animals and fungi but not in plants...
  48. Ray P. Shiga-like toxins and HIV-1 'go through' glycosphingolipids and lipid rafts in renal cells. Kidney Int. 2009;75:1135-1137 pubmed publisher
    ..They also propose that the binding of the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 to Gb(3) in renal tubules may play a role in HIV nephropathy. ..
  49. Lingwood C, Manis A, Mahfoud R, Khan F, Binnington B, Mylvaganam M. New aspects of the regulation of glycosphingolipid receptor function. Chem Phys Lipids. 2010;163:27-35 pubmed publisher
    We propose that the fatty acid heterogeneity of glycosphingolipids may compensate for the relative few and simple glycosphingolipid structures found in mammalian cells...
  50. Hernandez Corbacho M, Jenkins R, Clarke C, Hannun Y, Obeid L, Snider A, et al. Accumulation of long-chain glycosphingolipids during aging is prevented by caloric restriction. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20411 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates accumulation of the glycosphingolipids HexCer and LacCer in several different organs in rodents and humans during aging...
  51. Aribindi K, Guerra Y, Piqueras M, Banta J, Lee R, Bhattacharya S. Cholesterol and glycosphingolipids of human trabecular meshwork and aqueous humor: comparative profiles from control and glaucomatous donors. Curr Eye Res. 2013;38:1017-26 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the differential profiles of cholesterol and glycosphingolipid species and their quantitative differences between control and glaucomatous aqueous humor (AQH) and the trabecular meshwork (TM) derived from human donors...
  52. Meron Sudai S, Matityahou A, Keisari Y, Cox K, Hasty D, Ofek I. Lipoteichoic acid synergizes with glycosphingolipids to potently stimulate secretion of interleukin-6 from human blood cells. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1309-15 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we found that lipoteichoic acid (LTA) synergizes with glycosphingolipids to stimulate human blood cells to secrete cytokines...
  53. Li Y, Chou C, Li S, Kobayashi U, Ishibashi Y, Ito M. Preparation of homogenous oligosaccharide chains from glycosphingolipids. Glycoconj J. 2009;26:929-33 pubmed publisher
  54. Kavoosi G, Ardestani S, Kariminia A. The involvement of TLR2 in cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by PBMCs in response to Leishmania major phosphoglycans (PGs). Parasitology. 2009;136:1193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no inhibition was seen in PPG-induced cytokine and ROS production in the presence of anti-TLR2 and anti-TLR4, implying involvement of other receptors. ..
  55. Inoue J, Ideue R, Takahashi D, Kubota M, Kumazawa Y. Liposomal glycosphingolipids activate natural killer T cell-mediated immune responses through the endosomal pathway. J Control Release. 2009;133:18-23 pubmed publisher
    Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize lipid antigens, such as glycosphingolipids (GSLs), via CD1d and contribute to host defense against various pathogens...
  56. Guan F, Handa K, Hakomori S. Specific glycosphingolipids mediate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of human and mouse epithelial cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7461-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates involvement of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in the EMT process by using normal murine mammary gland NMuMG, human normal bladder HCV29, and human ..
  57. Mahfoud R, Manis A, Binnington B, Ackerley C, Lingwood C. A major fraction of glycosphingolipids in model and cellular cholesterol-containing membranes is undetectable by their binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:36049-59 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) accumulate in cholesterol-enriched cell membrane domains and provide receptors for protein ligands. Lipid-based "aglycone" interactions can influence GSL carbohydrate epitope presentation...
  58. Müsken A, Souady J, Dreisewerd K, Zhang W, Distler U, Peter Katalinic J, et al. Application of thin-layer chromatography/infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry to structural analysis of bacteria-binding glycosphingolipids selected by affinity detection. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2010;24:1032-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) play key roles in the manifestation of infectious diseases as attachment sites for pathogens...
  59. Distler U, Hülsewig M, Souady J, Dreisewerd K, Haier J, Senninger N, et al. Matching IR-MALDI-o-TOF mass spectrometry with the TLC overlay binding assay and its clinical application for tracing tumor-associated glycosphingolipids in hepatocellular and pancreatic cancer. Anal Chem. 2008;80:1835-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids (GSLs), composed of a hydrophilic carbohydrate chain and a lipophilic ceramide anchor, play pivotal roles in countless biological processes, including the development of cancer...
  60. Jackman N, Ishii A, Bansal R. Oligodendrocyte development and myelin biogenesis: parsing out the roles of glycosphingolipids. Physiology (Bethesda). 2009;24:290-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the involvement of glycosphingolipids in myelin/OL functions, including the regulation of OL differentiation, lipid raft-mediated trafficking and ..
  61. Lingwood C, Binnington B, Manis A, Branch D. Globotriaosyl ceramide receptor function - where membrane structure and pathology intersect. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1879-86 pubmed publisher
    ..HUS may provide the first example whereby membrane Gb(3) organization provides a predictor for tissue selective in vivo pathology. ..
  62. Barone A, Benktander J, Angstrom J, Aspegren A, Bjorquist P, Teneberg S, et al. Structural complexity of non-acid glycosphingolipids in human embryonic stem cells grown under feeder-free conditions. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:10035-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the globo-series and type 1 core chain glycosphingolipids previously described in human embryonic stem cells, a number of type 2 core chain glycosphingolipids (neo-..
  63. Secundino N, Kimblin N, Peters N, Lawyer P, Capul A, Beverley S, et al. Proteophosphoglycan confers resistance of Leishmania major to midgut digestive enzymes induced by blood feeding in vector sand flies. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:906-18 pubmed publisher
  64. Lalazar G, Ben Ya acov A, Livovsky D, El Haj M, Pappo O, Preston S, et al. Beta-glycoglycosphingolipid-induced alterations of the STAT signaling pathways are dependent on CD1d and the lipid raft protein flotillin-2. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:1390-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We, therefore, investigated the effects of different beta-glycosphingolipids, including beta-glucosylceramide, on STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) signaling ..
  65. Goto Inoue N, Hayasaka T, Sugiura Y, Taki T, Li Y, Matsumoto M, et al. High-sensitivity analysis of glycosphingolipids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight imaging mass spectrometry on transfer membranes. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008;870:74-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosphingolipids are ubiquitous constituents of cells. Yet there is still room for improvement in the techniques for analyzing glycosphingolipids...
  66. Winberg M, Holm A, Särndahl E, Vinet A, Descoteaux A, Magnusson K, et al. Leishmania donovani lipophosphoglycan inhibits phagosomal maturation via action on membrane rafts. Microbes Infect. 2009;11:215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that LPG associates with membrane rafts in the host cell and exert its actions on host-cell actin and phagosomal maturation through subversion of raft function. ..
  67. Farokhi F, Wielgosz Collin G, Clement M, Kornprobst J, Barnathan G. Cytotoxicity on human cancer cells of ophidiacerebrosides isolated from the African starfish Narcissia canariensis. Mar Drugs. 2010;8:2988-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that F13-3 displayed an interesting cytotoxic activity over 24 hours on various adherent human cancerous cell lines (multiple myeloma, colorectal adenocarcinoma and glioblastoma multiforme) with an IC(50) of around 20 ?M...
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    ..inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) to decrease the synthesis of glucosylceramide and related glycosphingolipids that accumulate in the lysosomes...
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    ..In conclusion, GSPL treatment was associated with modification of BMDC(I)/sM?(I) lipid raft structure, which is a site for immune regulation. ..
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    ..Both strains displayed binding only to H type 1 and not to Lewis a glycosphingolipids, typical for epithelial cells of susceptible and resistant individuals, respectively...
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    ..The function of NPC1 is unknown, but when it is dysfunctional, sphingosine, glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin and cholesterol accumulate...