Summary: A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.

Top Publications

  1. Dormann P, Benning C. Galactolipids rule in seed plants. Trends Plant Sci. 2002;7:112-8 pubmed
    Chloroplast membranes contain high levels of the galactolipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG)...
  2. Marcus J, Popko B. Galactolipids are molecular determinants of myelin development and axo-glial organization. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1573:406-13 pubmed
    ..CGT), the enzyme required for myelin galactolipid synthesis, have more recently demonstrated that the galactolipids more subtly regulate myelin formation...
  3. Botté C, Saïdani N, Mondragon R, Mondragon M, Isaac G, Mui E, et al. Subcellular localization and dynamics of a digalactolipid-like epitope in Toxoplasma gondii. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:746-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrence of a plastid raised the question of the presence of chloroplast galactolipids. Using three independent rabbit and rat antibodies against digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) from plant ..
  4. Dupree J, Girault J, Popko B. Axo-glial interactions regulate the localization of axonal paranodal proteins. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:1145-52 pubmed
    Mice incapable of synthesizing the abundant galactolipids of myelin exhibit disrupted paranodal axo-glial interactions in the central and peripheral nervous systems...
  5. Larsen E, Kharazmi A, Christensen L, Christensen S. An antiinflammatory galactolipid from rose hip (Rosa canina) that inhibits chemotaxis of human peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro. J Nat Prod. 2003;66:994-5 pubmed
    ..The inhibition of cell migration is not related to toxicity. The presence of 1 in rose hips may explain the clinically observed antiinflammatory properties of rose hip herbal remedies. ..
  6. Andersson L, Carriere F, Lowe M, Nilsson A, Verger R. Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 but not classical pancreatic lipase hydrolyzes galactolipids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1302:236-40 pubmed
    ..b>Galactolipids are present in membranes of leaves and vegetables and consist of digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGalDG) ..
  7. Tsybul skiĭ A, Sanina N, Li I, Popov A, Kostetskii E, Portniagina O, et al. [Elaboration of new adjuvant lipid-saponin complex and its use at experimental immunization by bacterial antigen]. Biomed Khim. 2007;53:297-306 pubmed
    ..Thus, it's shown the prospect of the use of TI-complexes as a new type of adjuvant carriers for antigens...
  8. Chen J, Burke J, Xin Z, Xu C, Velten J. Characterization of the Arabidopsis thermosensitive mutant atts02 reveals an important role for galactolipids in thermotolerance. Plant Cell Environ. 2006;29:1437-48 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the DGDG level and/or the ratio of DGDG to MGDG may play an important role in basal as well as acquired thermotolerance in Arabidopsis. ..
  9. Ivanov A, Hendrickson L, Krol M, Selstam E, Oquist G, Hurry V, et al. Digalactosyl-diacylglycerol deficiency impairs the capacity for photosynthetic intersystem electron transport and state transitions in Arabidopsis thaliana due to photosystem I acceptor-side limitations. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006;47:1146-57 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in terms of thylakoid membrane domain reorganization in response to DGDG deficiency in A. thaliana. ..

More Information


  1. Awai K, Kakimoto T, Awai C, Kaneko T, Nakamura Y, Takamiya K, et al. Comparative genomic analysis revealed a gene for monoglucosyldiacylglycerol synthase, an enzyme for photosynthetic membrane lipid synthesis in cyanobacteria. Plant Physiol. 2006;141:1120-7 pubmed
    ..The MGlcDG synthase and the plant MGDG synthase shared low similarity, supporting the presumption that cyanobacteria and plants utilize different pathways to synthesize MGDG. ..
  2. Bruno A, Rossi C, Marcolongo G, Di Lena A, Venzo A, Berrie C, et al. Selective in vivo anti-inflammatory action of the galactolipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;524:159-68 pubmed
    ..These compounds are all less toxic than indomethacin. The selective and enhanced inhibitory effects of MGDG over DGDG indicate the mechanisms behind these in vivo anti-inflammatory actions. ..
  3. Andersson M, Larsson K, Tjellström H, Liljenberg C, Sandelius A. Phosphate-limited oat. The plasma membrane and the tonoplast as major targets for phospholipid-to-glycolipid replacement and stimulation of phospholipases in the plasma membrane. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27578-86 pubmed
  4. Deal M, Hay M, Wilson D, Fenical W. Galactolipids rather than phlorotannins as herbivore deterrents in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Oecologia. 2003;136:107-14 pubmed
    ..Although this is the first evidence of galactolipids deterring herbivores, such defenses could be geographically and taxonomically widespread...
  5. Andersson M, Stridh M, Larsson K, Liljenberg C, Sandelius A. Phosphate-deficient oat replaces a major portion of the plasma membrane phospholipids with the galactolipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol. FEBS Lett. 2003;537:128-32 pubmed
    ..Our finding not only reflects a far more developed potential for plasticity in plasma membrane lipid composition than often assumed, but also merits interest in the context of the limited phosphate availability in many soils. ..
  6. Coetzee T, Suzuki K, Nave K, Popko B. Myelination in the absence of galactolipids and proteolipid proteins. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1999;14:41-51 pubmed
    The galactolipids galactocerebroside and sulfatide and the proteolipid protein (PLP) and its splice variant DM20 are the most abundant lipid and protein components of central nervous system myelin...
  7. Jarvis P, Dormann P, Peto C, Lutes J, Benning C, Chory J. Galactolipid deficiency and abnormal chloroplast development in the Arabidopsis MGD synthase 1 mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8175-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, the MGD-deficiency of mgd1 is correlated with striking defects in chloroplast ultrastructure, strongly suggesting a unique role for MGD in the structural organization of plastidic membranes. ..
  8. Dubots E, Audry M, Yamaryo Y, Bastien O, Ohta H, Breton C, et al. Activation of the chloroplast monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase MGD1 by phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylglycerol. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:6003-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of MGD1 by PA and PG is proposed as an important mechanism coupling phospholipid and galactolipid syntheses in plants. ..
  9. Masuda S, Harada J, Yokono M, Yuzawa Y, Shimojima M, Murofushi K, et al. A monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase found in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum reveals important roles for galactolipids in photosynthesis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2644-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide new insights regarding the importance of regulated MGDG synthesis in the physiology of higher plants...
  10. Marcus J, Dupree J, Popko B. Effects of galactolipid elimination on oligodendrocyte development and myelination. Glia. 2000;30:319-28 pubmed
    The galactolipids galactocerebroside and sulfatide, which require the enzyme UDP-galactose:ceramide galactosyltransferase (CGT) for their synthesis, are among the most prevalent molecules in the myelin sheath...
  11. Jouhet J, Maréchal E, Baldan B, Bligny R, Joyard J, Block M. Phosphate deprivation induces transfer of DGDG galactolipid from chloroplast to mitochondria. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:863-74 pubmed
    ..Contacts sites are favored at early stages of phosphate deprivation when DGDG cell content is just starting to respond to phosphate deprivation. ..
  12. Kourtchenko O, Andersson M, Hamberg M, Brunnström A, Gobel C, McPhail K, et al. Oxo-phytodienoic acid-containing galactolipids in Arabidopsis: jasmonate signaling dependence. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:1658-69 pubmed
    ..Thus, arabidopsides may have a dual function: as antipathogenic substances and as storage compounds that allow the slow release of free jasmonates. ..
  13. Maréchal E, Azzouz N, de Macedo C, Block M, Feagin J, Schwarz R, et al. Synthesis of chloroplast galactolipids in apicomplexan parasites. Eukaryot Cell. 2002;1:653-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, DGDG is immunologically detected in apicomplexans. ..
  14. Andrianasolo E, Haramaty L, Vardi A, White E, Lutz R, Falkowski P. Apoptosis-inducing galactolipids from a cultured marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum. J Nat Prod. 2008;71:1197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular structures of the galactolipids were determined using a combination of NMR, mass spectrometry, and chemical degradation...
  15. Glauser G, Grata E, Rudaz S, Wolfender J. High-resolution profiling of oxylipin-containing galactolipids in Arabidopsis extracts by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008;22:3154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..using in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) was developed for globally profiling oxylipin-containing galactolipids in Arabidopsis wounded leaves...
  16. Lenti M, Gentili C, Pianezzi A, Marcolongo G, Lalli A, Cancedda R, et al. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol anti-inflammatory activity on adult articular cartilage. Nat Prod Res. 2009;23:754-62 pubmed publisher
    The mono- and the digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG and DGDG) galactolipids with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly omega-3, have been purified from the thermophilic blue-green alga ETS-05 that colonises the therapeutic ..
  17. Napolitano A, Carbone V, Saggese P, Takagaki K, Pizza C. Novel galactolipids from the leaves of Ipomoea batatas L.: characterization by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:10289-97 pubmed
    Sixteen novel and ten known galactolipids have been isolated and characterized from the leaves of Ipomoea batatas L...
  18. Kobayashi K, Kondo M, Fukuda H, Nishimura M, Ohta H. Galactolipid synthesis in chloroplast inner envelope is essential for proper thylakoid biogenesis, photosynthesis, and embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17216-21 pubmed
    ..The mutant seeds germinated as small albinos only in the presence of sucrose. The seedlings lacked galactolipids and had disrupted photosynthetic membranes, leading to the complete impairment of photosynthetic ability and ..
  19. Maldonado E, Alderson N, Monje P, Wood P, Hama H. FA2H is responsible for the formation of 2-hydroxy galactolipids in peripheral nervous system myelin. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:153-61 pubmed
    Myelin in the mammalian nervous system has a high concentration of galactolipids [galactosylceramide (GalCer) and sulfatide] with 2-hydroxy fatty acids...
  20. Dupree J, Coetzee T, Blight A, Suzuki K, Popko B. Myelin galactolipids are essential for proper node of Ranvier formation in the CNS. J Neurosci. 1998;18:1642-9 pubmed
    The vertebrate myelin sheath is greatly enriched in the galactolipids galactocerebroside (GalC) and sulfatide...
  21. Aronsson H, Schöttler M, Kelly A, Sundqvist C, Dormann P, Karim S, et al. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol deficiency in Arabidopsis affects pigment composition in the prolamellar body and impairs thylakoid membrane energization and photoprotection in leaves. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:580-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the pH-dependent activation of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and of the PsbS protein is impaired. ..
  22. Böttcher C, Weiler E. cyclo-Oxylipin-galactolipids in plants: occurrence and dynamics. Planta. 2007;226:629-37 pubmed
    cyclo-Oxylipin-galactolipids (cGL) are mono- or digalactosyldiglycerides carrying a cyclo-oxylipin in the sn1- and/or sn2-position or esterified to the galactose moiety. These compounds were recently identified in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  23. Burgos A, Szymanski J, Seiwert B, Degenkolbe T, Hannah M, Giavalisco P, et al. Analysis of short-term changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana glycerolipidome in response to temperature and light. Plant J. 2011;66:656-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Observed changes are discussed in the context of current knowledge, and new hypotheses have been formulated concerning the early stages of the plant response to changing light and temperature conditions. ..
  24. Marcolongo G, de Appolonia F, Venzo A, Berrie C, Carofiglio T, Ceschi Berrini C. Diacylglycerolipids isolated from a thermophile cyanobacterium from the Euganean hot springs. Nat Prod Res. 2006;20:766-74 pubmed
    ..We propose that these glycoglycerolipids can be used as markers for monitoring the thermal mud colonisation process. ..
  25. Simionato D, Block M, La Rocca N, Jouhet J, Maréchal E, Finazzi G, et al. The response of Nannochloropsis gaditana to nitrogen starvation includes de novo biosynthesis of triacylglycerols, a decrease of chloroplast galactolipids, and reorganization of the photosynthetic apparatus. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:665-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In starved cells, galactolipids were kept at a level sufficient to maintain chloroplast integrity, as confirmed by electron microscopy...
  26. Marcus J, Dupree J, Popko B. Myelin-associated glycoprotein and myelin galactolipids stabilize developing axo-glial interactions. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:567-77 pubmed
    We have analyzed mice that lack both the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and the myelin galactolipids, two glial components implicated in mediating axo-glial interactions during the myelination process...
  27. Kelly A, Froehlich J, Dormann P. Disruption of the two digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase genes DGD1 and DGD2 in Arabidopsis reveals the existence of an additional enzyme of galactolipid synthesis. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2694-706 pubmed
  28. Popko B. Myelin galactolipids: mediators of axon-glial interactions?. Glia. 2000;29:149-53 pubmed
    ..Recently, however, the analysis of mutant mice incapable of synthesizing the galactolipids of myelin has revealed defects in these processes...
  29. Hölzl G, Witt S, Gaude N, Melzer M, Schöttler M, Dormann P. The role of diglycosyl lipids in photosynthesis and membrane lipid homeostasis in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:1147-59 pubmed publisher
  30. Myers A, James M, Lin Q, Yi G, Stinard P, Hennen Bierwagen T, et al. Maize opaque5 encodes monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase and specifically affects galactolipids necessary for amyloplast and chloroplast function. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2331-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrate that low-abundance galactolipids with five double bonds serve functions in plastid membranes that are not replaced by the predominant species ..
  31. Härtel H, Dormann P, Benning C. DGD1-independent biosynthesis of extraplastidic galactolipids after phosphate deprivation in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:10649-54 pubmed
    The galactolipids, mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), are the most common nonphosphorous lipids in the biosphere and account for 80% of the membrane lipids found in green plant tissues...
  32. Sakurai I, Mizusawa N, Wada H, Sato N. Digalactosyldiacylglycerol is required for stabilization of the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:1361-70 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that DGDG plays important roles in PSII through the binding of extrinsic proteins required for stabilization of the oxygen-evolving complex. ..
  33. Klaus D, Härtel H, Fitzpatrick L, Froehlich J, Hubert J, Benning C, et al. Digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthesis in chloroplasts of the Arabidopsis dgd1 mutant. Plant Physiol. 2002;128:885-95 pubmed
  34. Lambers H, Cawthray G, Giavalisco P, Kuo J, Laliberté E, Pearse S, et al. Proteaceae from severely phosphorus-impoverished soils extensively replace phospholipids with galactolipids and sulfolipids during leaf development to achieve a high photosynthetic phosphorus-use-efficiency. New Phytol. 2012;196:1098-108 pubmed publisher
    ..We also assessed the investment in galactolipids, sulfolipids and phospholipids in young and mature leaves, and compared these results with those on ..
  35. Botté C, Yamaryo Botte Y, Janouskovec J, Rupasinghe T, Keeling P, Crellin P, et al. Identification of plant-like galactolipids in Chromera velia, a photosynthetic relative of malaria parasites. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29893-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies of Toxoplasma gondii identified membrane lipids with some structural features of plastid galactolipids, the major plastid lipid class...
  36. Kim Y, Kim E, Lee C, Kim M, Rho J. Two new monogalactosyl diacylglycerols from brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. Lipids. 2007;42:395-9 pubmed
    ..The regiochemical attachment of the acyl chains in the glycerol moiety was established by 2D NMR correlations and confirmed by enzymatic hydrolysis...
  37. de Souza L, Iacomini M, Gorin P, Sari R, Haddad M, Sassaki G. Glyco- and sphingophosphonolipids from the medusa Phyllorhiza punctata: NMR and ESI-MS/MS fingerprints. Chem Phys Lipids. 2007;145:85-96 pubmed
    ..The probable origin of MGDG and SQDG in the jellyfish is the result of an endosymbiotic association with a microalga of the Dinoflagellate group, since these lipids are commonly found in photosynthetic membranes. ..
  38. Awai K, Mar chal E, Block M, Brun D, Masuda T, Shimada H, et al. Two types of MGDG synthase genes, found widely in both 16:3 and 18:3 plants, differentially mediate galactolipid syntheses in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10960-5 pubmed publisher
    ..e., in inflorescence (atMGD2) and roots (atMGD3), where they conceivably influence the eukaryotic structure prominence in MGDG. In addition, their expression of type B enzymes is enhanced under phosphate deprivation...
  39. Sashidhara K, Singh S, Misra S, Gupta J, Misra Bhattacharya S. Galactolipids from Bauhinia racemosa as a new class of antifilarial agents against human lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;50:230-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the active galactolipids, 1 emerged as the lead molecule which was active on both forms of lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi...
  40. Moellering E, Muthan B, Benning C. Freezing tolerance in plants requires lipid remodeling at the outer chloroplast membrane. Science. 2010;330:226-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This SFR2-based mechanism compensates for changes in organelle volume and stabilizes membranes during freezing. ..
  41. Goss R, Latowski D, Grzyb J, Vieler A, Lohr M, Wilhelm C, et al. Lipid dependence of diadinoxanthin solubilization and de-epoxidation in artificial membrane systems resembling the lipid composition of the natural thylakoid membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1768:67-75 pubmed
  42. Yang W, Zheng Y, Bahn S, Pan X, Li M, Vu H, et al. The patatin-containing phospholipase A pPLAII? modulates oxylipin formation and water loss in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant. 2012;5:452-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Phospholipids are cleaved by pPLAII? at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and galactolipids, including those containing oxophytodienoic acids, can also serve as substrates...
  43. Rudolphi Skórska E, Filek M, Zembala M. α-Tocopherol/Gallic Acid Cooperation in the Protection of Galactolipids Against Ozone-Induced Oxidation. J Membr Biol. 2016;249:87-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be interpreted as indication that products of tocopherol oxidation may stabilize lipid layers. ..
  44. Nakamura Y, Arimitsu H, Yamaryo Y, Awai K, Masuda T, Shimada H, et al. Digalactosyldiacylglycerol is a major glycolipid in floral organs of Petunia hybrida. Lipids. 2003;38:1107-12 pubmed
    ..Its specific activity for incorporation of UDP-galactose to yield galactolipids was estimated to be more than twice that of leaves, which are the major site of galactolipid synthesis in ..
  45. Ostberg Y, Berg S, Comstedt P, Wieslander A, Bergstr m S. Functional analysis of a lipid galactosyltransferase synthesizing the major envelope lipid in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;272:22-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The membrane packing and immunological properties of MGalDAG are likely to be of great importance in vivo...
  46. Dormann P, Balbo I, Benning C. Arabidopsis galactolipid biosynthesis and lipid trafficking mediated by DGD1. Science. 1999;284:2181-4 pubmed
    ..Diacylglycerol galactolipids are common in thylakoid membranes but are excluded from all others...
  47. Khozin Goldberg I, Shrestha P, Cohen Z. Mobilization of arachidonyl moieties from triacylglycerols into chloroplastic lipids following recovery from nitrogen starvation of the microalga Parietochloris incisa. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1738:63-71 pubmed
    ..When sudden changes occur, the eukaryotic pathway is enhanced and can be even further augmented by influx of acyl moieties from TAG to maximize the exploitation of growth conditions that may possibly be transitory. ..
  48. Shimojima M, Ohta H. Critical regulation of galactolipid synthesis controls membrane differentiation and remodeling in distinct plant organs and following environmental changes. Prog Lipid Res. 2011;50:258-66 pubmed publisher
    The plant galactolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), are the most abundant lipids in chloroplast membranes, and they constitute the majority of total membrane lipids in plants...
  49. Li C, Wang Y, Liu L, Hu Y, Zhang F, Mergen S, et al. A rice plastidial nucleotide sugar epimerase is involved in galactolipid biosynthesis and improves photosynthetic efficiency. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002196 pubmed publisher
    ..biomass, and grain production, suggesting that PHD1 plays an important role in supplying sufficient galactolipids to thylakoid membranes for proper chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity...
  50. Rey F, Costa E, Campos A, Cartaxana P, Maciel E, Domingues P, et al. Kleptoplasty does not promote major shifts in the lipidome of macroalgal chloroplasts sequestered by the sacoglossan sea slug Elysia viridis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11502 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach allowed the identification of 81 molecular species, namely galactolipids (8 in both organisms), sulfolipids (17 in C. tomentosum and 13 in E. viridis) and betaine lipids (51 in C...
  51. Ruberto G, Tringali C. Secondary metabolites from the leaves of Feijoa sellowiana Berg. Phytochemistry. 2004;65:2947-51 pubmed
  52. Tomczak M, Hincha D, Estrada S, Wolkers W, Crowe L, Feeney R, et al. A mechanism for stabilization of membranes at low temperatures by an antifreeze protein. Biophys J. 2002;82:874-81 pubmed
    ..The data suggest a hydrophobic interaction between the peptide and the bilayer. Further, we suggest that the expression of AFP type I in transgenic plants may be significant for thermal adaptation of chilling-sensitive plants. ..
  53. Mannock D, McElhaney R, Harper P, Gruner S. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies of the thermotropic phase behavior of the diastereomeric di-tetradecyl-beta-D-galactosyl glycerols and their mixture. Biophys J. 1994;66:734-40 pubmed
    ..These observations are discussed in relation to the effect of glycerol chirality on the molecular packing of these glycolipids, particularly on hydrogen bonding and hydration in the interfacial region of the bilayer. ..
  54. Serianni A. Carbohydrate - 25th international symposium. IDrugs. 2010;13:686-8 pubmed
  55. Xu C, Moellering E, Muthan B, Fan J, Benning C. Lipid transport mediated by Arabidopsis TGD proteins is unidirectional from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plastid. Plant Cell Physiol. 2010;51:1019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..tgd4-3 double mutants showed drastic reductions in the relative levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and of galactolipids. The growth of these plants and the development of photosynthetic membrane systems were severely compromised, ..
  56. Li M, Welti R, Wang X. Quantitative profiling of Arabidopsis polar glycerolipids in response to phosphorus starvation. Roles of phospholipases D zeta1 and D zeta2 in phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and digalactosyldiacylglycerol accumulation in phosphorus-starved plants. Plant Physiol. 2006;142:750-61 pubmed
    ..In response to phosphorus starvation, the concentration of phospholipids was decreased and that of galactolipids was increased...
  57. Hincha D, Oliver A, Crowe J. Lipid composition determines the effects of arbutin on the stability of membranes. Biophys J. 1999;77:2024-34 pubmed
    ..From these data we were able to derive a physical model of the perturbing or nonperturbing interactions of arbutin with lipid bilayers. ..
  58. Matos A, d Arcy Lameta A, Franca M, Petres S, Edelman L, Kader J, et al. A novel patatin-like gene stimulated by drought stress encodes a galactolipid acyl hydrolase. FEBS Lett. 2001;491:188-92 pubmed
    ..An involvement in drought-induced galactolipid degradation is proposed for VUPAT1. ..
  59. Nakashima A, von Reuss S, Tasaka H, Nomura M, Mochizuki S, Iijima Y, et al. Traumatin- and dinortraumatin-containing galactolipids in Arabidopsis: their formation in tissue-disrupted leaves as counterparts of green leaf volatiles. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:26078-88 pubmed publisher
    ..were cleaved by HPL to form volatile six-carbon aldehydes and non-volatile 12/10-carbon aldehyde-containing galactolipids. Based on these results, we propose a novel oxylipin pathway that does not require the lipase reaction to form ..
  60. Matyas F, Urbán G, Watanabe M, Mackie K, Zimmer A, Freund T, et al. Identification of the sites of 2-arachidonoylglycerol synthesis and action imply retrograde endocannabinoid signaling at both GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses in the ventral tegmental area. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54:95-107 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that retrograde synaptic signaling mediated by 2-AG via CB(1) may influence the drug-reward circuitry at multiple types of synapses in the VTA. ..
  61. Batsmanova L, Taran N, Okanenko O, Musiienko M. [Glycolipid changes in tissues of wheat leaves induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2005;77:142-5 pubmed
    ..The most typical reaction was galactolipid (MGDG, DGDG) content increase while lower sulpholipid variations at low doses of the root treatment and at leaf spraying. ..
  62. Iijima H, Musumi K, Hada T, Maeda N, Yonezawa Y, Yoshida H, et al. Inhibitory effect of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, extracted from spinach using supercritical CO2, on mammalian DNA polymerase activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:1627-32 pubmed
    ..The extract of Ujyou, which was the optimal subspecies for the extraction of MGDG, inhibited the activity of calf DNA polymerase alpha with IC(50) values of 145 microg/mL but was not effective against DNA polymerase beta. ..
  63. Georgiev G, Ivanova S, Jordanova A, Tsanova A, Getov V, Dimitrov M, et al. Interaction of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol with cytochrome b?f complex in surface films. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;419:648-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction occured even at very low sub-nanomolar concentration of the complex. This effect most probably could be attributed to hydrogen bonding between the galactose headgroup of the lipid and the protein moiety of cyt b(6)f. ..
  64. Imbs T, Ermakova S, Fedoreyev S, Anastyuk S, Zvyagintseva T. Isolation of fucoxanthin and highly unsaturated monogalactosyldiacylglycerol from brown alga Fucus evanescens C Agardh and in vitro investigation of their antitumor activity. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2013;15:606-12 pubmed publisher
    ..MGDG and FX inhibited the growth of human melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 values for growth inhibition were 104 and 114 ?M, correspondently...
  65. Grabowska K, Podolak I, Galanty A, Załuski D, Makowska Wąs J, Sobolewska D, et al. In vitro anti-denaturation and anti-hyaluronidase activities of extracts and galactolipids from leaves of Impatiens parviflora DC. Nat Prod Res. 2016;30:1219-23 pubmed publisher
    The in vitro anti-denaturation and anti-hyaluronidase activities of Impatiens parviflora extracts and isolated galactolipids (MGDG-1, DGDG-1) were investigated. This is the first report on these compounds in I. parviflora...
  66. So B, Kim J, Choi H. A new diacylgalactolipid containing 4Z-16:1 from the marine cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. Lipids. 2001;36:427-9 pubmed