amino sugars


Summary: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.

Top Publications

  1. Naderer T, Heng J, McConville M. Evidence that intracellular stages of Leishmania major utilize amino sugars as a major carbon source. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001245 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present evidence that intracellular amastigote stages of Leishmania exploit amino sugars in the phagolysosome of mammalian macrophages as a source of carbon and energy. L...
  2. Kilcoyne M, Perepelov A, Tomshich S, Komandrova N, Shashkov A, Romanenko L, et al. Structure of the O-polysaccharide of Idiomarina zobellii KMM 231T containing two unusual amino sugars with the free amino group, 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-glucose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-L-guluronic acid. Carbohydr Res. 2004;339:477-82 pubmed
    ..The O-polysaccharide is distinguished by the presence of two unusual amino sugars, 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-glucose (D-Qui4N) and 2-amino-2-deoxy-L-guluronic acid (L-GulNA), both having the free ..
  3. Szu P, He X, Zhao L, Liu H. Biosynthesis of TDP-D-desosamine: identification of a strategy for C4 deoxygenation. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2005;44:6742-6 pubmed publisher
  4. Nedal A, Zotchev S. Biosynthesis of deoxyaminosugars in antibiotic-producing bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;64:7-15 pubmed
    ..The possibilities for genetic manipulations of the deoxyaminosugar biosynthetic pathways aimed at production of novel secondary metabolites are discussed. ..
  5. Thomas P, Carter M, Atochina O, Da dara A, Piskorska D, McGuire E, et al. Maturation of dendritic cell 2 phenotype by a helminth glycan uses a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent mechanism. J Immunol. 2003;171:5837-41 pubmed
    ..These data support a new understanding of how APCs integrate signaling pathways to produce a Th1- or Th2-promoting phenotype. ..
  6. Latowski D, Banaś A, Strzałka K, Gabrys H. Amino sugars: new inhibitors of zeaxanthin epoxidase, a violaxanthin cycle enzyme. J Plant Physiol. 2007;164:231-7 pubmed
    ..No effect of sugars and amino sugars on violaxanthin de-epoxidase was observed independent of incubation time; however, epoxidation of zeaxanthin to ..
  7. Kitayama K, Hayashida Y, Nishida K, Akama T. Enzymes responsible for synthesis of corneal keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30085-96 pubmed
  8. Schakel K, Kannagi R, Kniep B, Goto Y, Mitsuoka C, Zwirner J, et al. 6-Sulfo LacNAc, a novel carbohydrate modification of PSGL-1, defines an inflammatory type of human dendritic cells. Immunity. 2002;17:289-301 pubmed
    ..Thus, 6-sulfo LacNAc-expressing DCs appear as a novel proinflammatory DC subset. ..
  9. Atochina O, Da dara A, Walker M, Harn D. The immunomodulatory glycan LNFPIII initiates alternative activation of murine macrophages in vivo. Immunology. 2008;125:111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In the future we hope to determine if upregulation of these initial AA maturational events is sufficient for these macrophages to exert immunoregulatory activity in vivo. ..

More Information


  1. Harn D, McDonald J, Atochina O, Da dara A. Modulation of host immune responses by helminth glycans. Immunol Rev. 2009;230:247-57 pubmed publisher
  2. Lee H, Chung H, Hang C, Khosla C, Walsh C, Kahne D, et al. Reconstitution and characterization of a new desosaminyl transferase, EryCIII, from the erythromycin biosynthetic pathway. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:9924-5 pubmed
    ..These studies lay the groundwork for detailed structural and mechanistic analysis of an important member of the desosaminyl transferase family of enzymes. ..
  3. Schakel K, von Kietzell M, Hänsel A, Ebling A, Schulze L, Haase M, et al. Human 6-sulfo LacNAc-expressing dendritic cells are principal producers of early interleukin-12 and are controlled by erythrocytes. Immunity. 2006;24:767-77 pubmed
    ..While strictly controlled in the blood by erythrocytes, the high IL-12- and TNF-alpha-producing capacity of slanDC in tissues may be critical in fighting off pathogens; if uncontrolled, it may lead to adverse inflammatory reactions. ..
  4. Mobli M, Almond A. N-Acetylated amino sugars: the dependence of NMR 3J(HNH2)-couplings on conformation, dynamics and solvent. Org Biomol Chem. 2007;5:2243-51 pubmed
    N-Acetylated amino sugars are essential components of living organisms, but their dynamic conformational properties are poorly understood due to a lack of suitable experimental methodologies...
  5. Dutta P, Hullett D, Roenneburg D, Torrealba J, Sollinger H, Harn D, et al. Lacto-N-fucopentaose III, a pentasaccharide, prolongs heart transplant survival. Transplantation. 2010;90:1071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of graft prolongation seems to involve both alternatively activated PDL-1 macrophages and recruitment of Foxp3+ Treg cells. ..
  6. Macauley M, Chan J, Zandberg W, He Y, Whitworth G, Stubbs K, et al. Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: intracellular ?-O-linked N-glycolylglucosamine (GlcNGc), UDP-GlcNGc, and the biochemical and structural rationale for the substrate tolerance of ?-O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28882-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Such plasticity in carbohydrate processing enzymes may be a general feature arising from inaccuracy in hexosamine metabolic pathways. ..
  7. Davies L, Pearce O, Tessier M, Assar S, Smutova V, Pajunen M, et al. Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: resistance of ?2-8-linked N-glycolylneuraminic acid to enzymatic cleavage. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28917-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In keeping with this, polymers of N-propionylneuraminic acid are sensitive to sialidases. Resistance of Neu5Gc-containing polySia to sialidases provides a potential explanation for the rarity of Neu5Gc in the vertebrate brain. ..
  8. Gutiérrez Moreno N, Medrano F, Yatsimirsky A. Schiff base formation and recognition of amino sugars, aminoglycosides and biological polyamines by 2-formyl phenylboronic acid in aqueous solution. Org Biomol Chem. 2012;10:6960-72 pubmed publisher
    Interactions of 2-, 3- and 4-formyl phenylboronic acids (FPBAs) with sugars, amino sugars, aminoglycosides and various poly- and monoamines have been studied by UV-vis, (1)H and (11)B NMR titrations in water at variable pH...
  9. Plumbridge J. Co-ordinated regulation of amino sugar biosynthesis and degradation: the NagC repressor acts as both an activator and a repressor for the transcription of the glmUS operon and requires two separated NagC binding sites. EMBO J. 1995;14:3958-65 pubmed
    ..expression of the divergently transcribed nagE-nagBACD operons involved in the uptake and degradation of the amino sugars, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN)...
  10. Atochina O, Daly Engel T, Piskorska D, McGuire E, Harn D. A schistosome-expressed immunomodulatory glycoconjugate expands peritoneal Gr1(+) macrophages that suppress naive CD4(+) T cell proliferation via an IFN-gamma and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. J Immunol. 2001;167:4293-302 pubmed
    ..These Gr1(+) cells suppress proliferation of naive CD4(+) T cells in an NO-dependent mechanism, and may play a regulatory role in the switching of Th1- to Th2-type responses. ..
  11. Tang L, McDaniel R. Construction of desosamine containing polyketide libraries using a glycosyltransferase with broad substrate specificity. Chem Biol. 2001;8:547-55 pubmed
    ..Since others have demonstrated tolerance towards modifications in the sugar substituent, one can imagine employing this approach to alter both polyketide and deoxysugar pathways to produce 'unnatural' natural product libraries. ..
  12. Suzuki A, Hiraoka N, Suzuki M, Angata K, Misra A, McAuliffe J, et al. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel human beta-Gal-3-O-sulfotransferase that acts preferentially on N-acetyllactosamine in N- and O-glycans. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:24388-95 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the newly cloned Gal3ST-3 plays a critical role in 3'-sulfation of N-acetyllactosamine in both O- and N-glycans. ..
  13. Salah Bey K, Doumith M, Michel J, Haydock S, Cortes J, Leadlay P, et al. Targeted gene inactivation for the elucidation of deoxysugar biosynthesis in the erythromycin producer Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;257:542-53 pubmed
    ..erythraea and reveal that at least some of these enzymes can accommodate alternative substrates...
  14. Plumbridge J, Cochet O, Souza J, Altamirano M, Calcagno M, Badet B. Coordinated regulation of amino sugar-synthesizing and -degrading enzymes in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:4951-6 pubmed
    ..synthase, encoded by the gene glmS in Escherichia coli, is repressed about threefold by growth on the amino sugars glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. This regulation occurs at the level of glmS transcription...
  15. Kumar G, Vijayalakshmi B, Salimath P. Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on constituents of glycosaminoglycans in different tissues in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;286:53-8 pubmed
  16. Rodriguez E, Peirú S, Carney J, Gramajo H. In vivo characterization of the dTDP-D-desosamine pathway of the megalomicin gene cluster from Micromonospora megalomicea. Microbiology. 2006;152:667-73 pubmed
    ..Instead, bioconversion studies demonstrated that MegCII is needed together with MegCIII to catalyse transfer of D-desosamine to 3-alpha-mycarosylerythronolide B...
  17. Moczulska A. Anti-tuberculosis activity of some N-pentopyranosylamines. Acta Pol Pharm. 2004;61:259-62 pubmed
    ..This communication is presenting their antituberculosis activity in the primary screen. ..
  18. Witoonsaridsilp W, Paeratakul O, Panyarachun B, Sarisuta N. Development of mannosylated liposomes using synthesized N-octadecyl-D-mannopyranosylamine to enhance gastrointestinal permeability for protein delivery. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2012;13:699-706 pubmed publisher
    ..5- and 7-folds over those of conventional liposomes and solution, respectively, which might be due to the role of mannose receptor or mannose-binding protein on the intestinal enterocytes. ..
  19. García Aparicio V, Sollogoub M, Blériot Y, Colliou V, Andre S, Asensio J, et al. The conformation of the C-glycosyl analogue of N-acetyl-lactosamine in the free state and bound to a toxic plant agglutinin and human adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin-1. Carbohydr Res. 2007;342:1918-28 pubmed
    ..This endogenous lectin recognizes a local minimum of 1, the syn-PhiPsi conformer, and thus a conformational selection process is correlated with the molecular recognition event. ..
  20. Zhang W, Liang C, Kao Kniffin J, He H, Xie H, Zhang X. Effects of drying and wetting cycles on the transformations of extraneous inorganic N to soil microbial residues. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9477 pubmed publisher
    The incorporation of extraneous nitrogen (N) into amino sugars (AS) could reflect the contribution of microbial residues to soil N transformation...
  21. Li Y, Guan C, Zhao K, Chen Z, Li T. Pharmacokinetics of lactosaminated recombinant human growth hormone in mice. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001;22:450-4 pubmed
    ..9 microg . min . L-1) of hGH-L is bigger than that of hGH(12148.2 microg . min . L-1) (P < 0.05) in liver. The pharmacokinetic parameters of hGH-L has obvious advantage over that of hGH. ..
  22. Baumeister S, Hölig K, Bornhauser M, Meurer M, Rieber E, Schakel K. G-CSF mobilizes slanDCs (6-sulfo LacNAc+ dendritic cells) with a high proinflammatory capacity. Blood. 2007;110:3078-81 pubmed
    ..Thus, slanDCs transfused into recipients of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplants are functionally fully capable and may be critical in supporting graft-versus-host disease as well as graft-versus-leukemia effects. ..
  23. Hyland R, Sun J, Griener T, Mulvey G, Klassen J, Donnenberg M, et al. The bundlin pilin protein of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is an N-acetyllactosamine-specific lectin. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:177-87 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that alpha bundlin possesses lectin-like properties that are responsible for LacNAc-specific initial adherence of alpha bundlin-expressing EPEC strains to host intestinal epithelial cells. ..
  24. Kikuchi H. [Novel biologically active compounds isolated from unexploited organisms, cellular sime molds]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007;127:1431-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, brefelamide inhibited the cellular proliferation of 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. These results show that cellular slime molds are promising sources in natural product chemistry...
  25. Bovin N, Tuzikov A, Chinarev A, Gambaryan A. Multimeric glycotherapeutics: new paradigm. Glycoconj J. 2004;21:471-8 pubmed
    ..blocking is both complete and irreversible; (iii) rapid and rational lead identification and optimization; (iv) minimum side effects; (v) potential for microorganism resistance to natural receptor is lower than in the case of mimetics. ..
  26. Meng P, Guo Y, Zhang Q, Hou J, Bai F, Geng P, et al. A novel amino-oligosaccharide isolated from the culture of Streptomyces strain PW638 is a potent inhibitor of ?-amylase. Carbohydr Res. 2011;346:1898-902 pubmed publisher
    ..SF638-1 inhibited starch hydrolysis and glucose transfer in vitro, and suppressed postprandial blood glucose elevation in vivo. These results suggest that SF638-1 may be a potent antidiabetic agent. ..
  27. Schur M, Lameignere E, Strynadka N, Wakarchuk W. Characterization of ?2,3- and ?2,6-sialyltransferases from Helicobacter acinonychis. Glycobiology. 2012;22:997-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..HAC1267 is a mono-functional ?2,3-sialyltransferase, whereas HAC1268 is a mono-functional ?2,6-sialyltransferase and is the first member of GT-42 to show ?2,6-sialyltransferase activity. ..
  28. Gatzeva Topalova P, May A, Sousa M. Crystal structure and mechanism of the Escherichia coli ArnA (PmrI) transformylase domain. An enzyme for lipid A modification with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose and polymyxin resistance. Biochemistry. 2005;44:5328-38 pubmed
    ..We also propose a mechanism for the transformylation reaction catalyzed by ArnA involving residues N(102), H(104), and D(140). Supporting this hypothesis, point mutation of any of these residues abolishes activity. ..
  29. Yan M, Cheng C, Ding F, Jiang J, Gao L, Xia C, et al. The expression patterns of beta1,4 galactosyltransferase I and V mRNAs, and Galbeta1-4GlcNAc group in rat gastrocnemius muscles post sciatic nerve injury. Glycoconj J. 2008;25:685-701 pubmed publisher
  30. Wang S, Tsai C, Lin K, Khoo K. Advanced mass spectrometry and chemical analyses reveal the presence of terminal disialyl motif on mouse B-cell glycoproteins. Glycobiology. 2013;23:677-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, the expression of mono- and disialylated sulfated LacNAc may constitute novel recognition codes modulating B-cell activation and differentiation. ..
  31. Donati I, Gamini A, Vetere A, Campa C, Paoletti S. Synthesis, characterization, and preliminary biological study of glycoconjugates of poly(styrene-co-maleic acid). Biomacromolecules. 2002;3:805-12 pubmed
    ..The amino sugars were chemically conjugated via formation of an amide bond between the anomeric amino group of the sugar residue ..
  32. Shiba T, Kakuda S, Oka S, Ishiguro M, Kawasaki T, Wakatsuki S, et al. [Molecular mechanisms in acceptor substrate recognition of a human glucuronyltransferase, GlcAT-P, an enzyme critical in the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate epitope HNK-1]. Seikagaku. 2005;77:153-8 pubmed
  33. Ezquerro Sáenz C, Ferrero M, Revilla Nuin B, López Velasco F, Martínez Blanco H, Rodriguez Aparicio L. Transport of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine in Escherichia coli K92: effect on acetyl-amino sugar metabolism and polysialic acid production. Biochimie. 2006;88:95-102 pubmed
    ..The presence of intracellular phosphoderivative acetylamino sugars, generated by the action of the phosphotransferase transport system, can be responsible for this effect. ..
  34. Chung Y, Claridge T, Fleet G, Johnson S, Jones J, Lumbard K, et al. An unsaturated peptidomimetic assembly derived from a carbohydrate. J Pept Sci. 2004;10:1-7 pubmed
    ..The 'dimer' product of coupling these two components with TBTU can be similarly elaborated at either end to give a 'trimer' and a further cycle of selective reduction and coupling gave a 'tetramer', 17, a pseudo-octapeptide. ..
  35. Kim M, Lim S, Ryu S. Molecular analysis of the Salmonella typhimurium tdc operon regulation. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:1024-32 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Tdc enzymes may play a pivotal role in energy metabolism under a sudden change of oxygen tension. ..
  36. Mühlberg M, Jaradat D, Kleineweischede R, Papp I, Dechtrirat D, Muth S, et al. Acidic and basic deprotection strategies of borane-protected phosphinothioesters for the traceless Staudinger ligation. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:3679-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In combination with acidic and basic deprotection strategies for the borane-protected phosphinothioesters, amide bonds can be formed in the presence of azides in moderate to good overall yields. ..
  37. Lee M, Kim Y, Kim T, Park C, Kim J, Moon T, et al. A novel amylolytic enzyme from Thermotoga maritima, resembling cyclodextrinase and alpha-glucosidase, that liberates glucose from the reducing end of the substrates. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:818-25 pubmed
    ..These results support the fact that TMG is a novel exo-acting glucosidase possessing the characteristics of both CD-/pullulan hydrolyzing enzyme and alpha-glucosidase. ..
  38. Aldredge D, Geronimo M, Hua S, Nwosu C, Lebrilla C, Barile D. Annotation and structural elucidation of bovine milk oligosaccharides and determination of novel fucosylated structures. Glycobiology. 2013;23:664-76 pubmed publisher
  39. Bryan M, Lee L, Wong C. High-throughput identification of fucosyltransferase inhibitors using carbohydrate microarrays. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004;14:3185-8 pubmed
    ..Of these compounds, four inhibitors with nanomolar Ki(s) were discovered, with three of the top five inhibitors exhibiting a common architecture. ..
  40. Zhang J, Zhao M, Peng S. Synthesis of mimetic peptides containing glucosamine. Carbohydr Res. 2011;346:1997-2003 pubmed publisher
    ..Of particular interest, bioactive peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) was incorporated into the building block containing valine was also reported. The 15 examples of corresponding di-, tri- and tetra-peptides were obtained as single ?anomers. ..
  41. Li S, Chaulagain M, Knauff A, Podust L, Montgomery J, Sherman D. Selective oxidation of carbolide C-H bonds by an engineered macrolide P450 mono-oxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, unexpected biological activity of a select number of these carbolide systems revealed their potential as a previously unrecorded class of antibiotics. ..
  42. Salameh B, Sundin A, Leffler H, Nilsson U. Thioureido N-acetyllactosamine derivatives as potent galectin-7 and 9N inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006;14:1215-20 pubmed
  43. Elchert B, Li J, Wang J, Hui Y, Rai R, Ptak R, et al. Application of the synthetic aminosugars for glycodiversification: synthesis and antimicrobial studies of pyranmycin. J Org Chem. 2004;69:1513-23 pubmed
  44. Lopez Lopez O, Bols M. Anomer-selective glycosidase inhibition by 2-N-alkylated 1-azafagomines. Chembiochem. 2007;8:657-61 pubmed
    ..The new compounds were stronger beta-glucosidase inhibitors than 1-azafagomine, but weaker alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. ..
  45. De Schutter J, Morrison J, Morrison M, Ciulli A, Imperiali B. Targeting Bacillosamine Biosynthesis in Bacterial Pathogens: Development of Inhibitors to a Bacterial Amino-Sugar Acetyltransferase from Campylobacter jejuni. J Med Chem. 2017;60:2099-2118 pubmed publisher
  46. Price N, Bowman M, Le Gall S, Berhow M, Kendra D, Lerouge P. Functionalized C-glycoside ketohydrazones: carbohydrate derivatives that retain the ring integrity of the terminal reducing sugar. Anal Chem. 2010;82:2893-9 pubmed publisher
  47. Tømmeraas K, Köping Höggård M, Vårum K, Christensen B, Artursson P, Smidsrød O. Preparation and characterisation of chitosans with oligosaccharide branches. Carbohydr Res. 2002;337:2455-62 pubmed
    ..SEC-MALLS (size-exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle laser light scattering detector) further showed that addition of branches did not affect the molar hydrodynamic volume of the chitosan. ..
  48. Barthel S, Antonopoulos A, Cedeno Laurent F, Schaffer L, Hernandez G, Patil S, et al. Peracetylated 4-fluoro-glucosamine reduces the content and repertoire of N- and O-glycans without direct incorporation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21717-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that Gal-1 and E-selectin ligand reduction by 4-F-GlcNAc is not caused by direct 4-F-GlcNAc glycan incorporation and consequent chain termination but rather by interference with UDP-GlcNAc synthesis. ..
  49. Das I, Suresh C, Decout J, Pathak T. Unusual addition of amines to C-2 of vinyl sulfone-modified-beta-D-pent-2-enofuranosyl carbohydrates: synthesis of a new class of beta-anomeric 2-amino-2,3-dideoxy-D-threo-pentofuranosides. Carbohydr Res. 2008;343:1287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..unusual' addition of amines, in which the diastereoselectivity of the reaction was overwhelmingly in favor of amino sugars of the D-arabino configuration...
  50. Nimrichter L, Burdick M, Aoki K, Laroy W, Fierro M, Hudson S, et al. E-selectin receptors on human leukocytes. Blood. 2008;112:3744-52 pubmed publisher
  51. Bridiau N, Issaoui N, Maugard T. The effects of organic solvents on the efficiency and regioselectivity of N-acetyl-lactosamine synthesis, using the ?-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans in hydro-organic media. Biotechnol Prog. 2010;26:1278-89 pubmed publisher
    ..96, whatever the organic solvent used. Finally, this study highlighted the fact that the regioselectivity of Bc?Gal for 1-4 linkage formation could be advantageously managed by controlling the a(w) parameter. ..
  52. Geng P, Meng X, Bai G, Luo G. Profiling of acarviostatin family secondary metabolites secreted by Streptomyces coelicoflavus ZG0656 using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2008;80:7554-61 pubmed publisher
  53. Hong Z, Liu L, Sugiyama M, Fu Y, Wong C. Concise synthesis of iminocyclitols via Petasis-type aminocyclization. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:8352-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpected diastereoselectivities are observed, suggesting that the condensation may proceed through a five- or six-membered cyclic iminium ion intermediate. ..
  54. Ganguly J, Low L, Kamal N, Saile E, Forsberg L, Gutierrez Sanchez G, et al. The secondary cell wall polysaccharide of Bacillus anthracis provides the specific binding ligand for the C-terminal cell wall-binding domain of two phage endolysins, PlyL and PlyG. Glycobiology. 2013;23:820-32 pubmed publisher
    ..cereus G9241 with comparable affinities to SCWPBa. No detectable binding was found to the SCWPs from B. cereus ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 10987 and ATCC 14579, thus demonstrating specificity of lysin binding to SCWPs. ..
  55. Carlow D, Williams M, Ziltener H. Modulation of O-glycans and N-glycans on murine CD8 T cells fails to alter annexin V ligand induction by galectin 1. J Immunol. 2003;171:5100-6 pubmed
  56. Mong T, Lee L, Brown J, Esko J, Wong C. Synthesis of N-acetyllactosamine derivatives with variation in the aglycon moiety for the study of inhibition of sialyl Lewis x expression. Chembiochem. 2003;4:835-40 pubmed
  57. Stepanova L, Nikitina V, Boĭko A. [Isolation and characterization of lectin from the surface of Grifola frondosa (FR.) S.F. Gray mycelium]. Mikrobiologiia. 2007;76:488-93 pubmed
    ..The hemagglutination (HA) caused by lectin was not blocked by any of the 25 tested mono-, di-, and amino sugars; it was also not blocked by some of glyco derivatives. Only 13...
  58. Bobrovskyy M, Vanderpool C. Regulation of bacterial metabolism by small RNAs using diverse mechanisms. Annu Rev Genet. 2013;47:209-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the mechanisms and functions of selected bacterial RNA regulators and discuss their importance in modulating nutrient uptake as well as primary and secondary metabolic pathways. ..
  59. Corbett A, Eckle S, Birkinshaw R, Liu L, Patel O, Mahony J, et al. T-cell activation by transitory neo-antigens derived from distinct microbial pathways. Nature. 2014;509:361-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These pyrimidine adducts are microbial signatures for MAIT-cell immunosurveillance. ..
  60. Rabinovich G, Baum L, Tinari N, Paganelli R, Natoli C, Liu F, et al. Galectins and their ligands: amplifiers, silencers or tuners of the inflammatory response?. Trends Immunol. 2002;23:313-20 pubmed
    ..The current wealth of new information promises a future scenario in which individual members of the galectin family or their ligands will be used as powerful anti-inflammatory mediators and selective modulators of the immune response. ..
  61. Tanaka K, Moriwaki K, Yokoi S, Koyama K, Miyoshi E, Fukase K. Whole-body imaging of tumor cells by azaelectrocyclization: visualization of metastasis dependence on glycan structure. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:1074-7 pubmed publisher
  62. Yamaguchi T, Inoue M, Miyachi K, Tominaga H, Fujita Y. Spectrophotometric determination of glucosamine and its analogous amino sugars with o-hydroxyhydroquinonephthalein and palladium(II). Anal Sci. 2004;20:387-9 pubmed
    A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of glucosamine and its analogous amino sugars was established based on fading of the palladium(II)-o-hydroxyhydroquinonephthalein-hexadecyltrimethylammonium ..
  63. Sörme P, Qian Y, Nyholm P, Leffler H, Nilsson U. Low micromolar inhibitors of galectin-3 based on 3'-derivatization of N-acetyllactosamine. Chembiochem. 2002;3:183-9 pubmed
  64. Lu H, Su Z, Song L, Mariano P. A novel approach to the synthesis of amino-sugars. Routes to selectively protected 3-amino-3-deoxy-aldopentoses based on pyridinium salt photochemistry. J Org Chem. 2002;67:3525-8 pubmed
  65. Gubica T, Stępień D, Temeriusz A, Paradowska K, Głowacka E, Cyrański M, et al. Solid-state structure of N-o-, N-m-, and N-p-nitrophenyl-2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-?-D-xylopyranosylamines. Carbohydr Res. 2011;346:2491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant differences in (13)C chemical shifts between solution and solid-state NMR for selected carbon atoms confirmed the existence of intra- and/or intermolecular interactions. ..
  66. Biemel K, Conrad J, Lederer M. Unexpected carbonyl mobility in aminoketoses: the key to major Maillard crosslinks. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2002;41:801-4 pubmed
  67. Nicolaou K, Snyder S, Nalbandian A, Longbottom D. A new method for the stereoselective synthesis of alpha- and beta-glycosylamines using the Burgess reagent. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:6234-5 pubmed
    ..In this communication, we report an operationally simple method for the synthesis of both alpha- and beta-glycosylamines using the Burgess reagent that overcomes many of these limitations in a bare minimum of synthetic steps. ..
  68. Ji X, Mo J, Liu H, Sun H. Synthesis of new amino sugar derivatives from keto-sugars of D-xylose. Carbohydr Res. 2006;341:2312-20 pubmed
    Several amino sugars and imino sugar derivatives were synthesized from keto-sugars of D-xylose through a series of reactions such as the Henry reaction, hydrogenation reactions, and nucleophilic addition reactions or substitution ..
  69. Wang Y, Da dara A, Thomas P, Harn D. Dendritic cells activated by an anti-inflammatory agent induce CD4(+) T helper type 2 responses without impairing CD8(+) memory and effector cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Immunology. 2010;129:406-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of APCs by the anti-inflammatory glycan LNFPIII did not impair their ability to drive CD8(+) effector and memory cell-mediated immunity. ..
  70. Tamura M, Igarashi T, Kasai K, Arata Y. Crosslinking of N-acetyllactosamine-containing glycoproteins to galectin-1 with an introduced cysteine using a photoactivatable sulfhydryl reagent. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:581-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This procedure should be useful for the detection of important, and as yet unidentified, ligands for galectins which cannot be currently detected because of their relatively weak interaction. ..
  71. Letourneau N, Vimal P, Klepacki D, Mankin A, Melman A. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of desosamine-modified macrolide derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:4575-8 pubmed publisher
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