Summary: A class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n. The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES.

Top Publications

  1. Eugster M, Loessner M. Rapid analysis of Listeria monocytogenes cell wall teichoic acid carbohydrates by ESI-MS/MS. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21500 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis and characterization of teichoic acids and similar macromolecules from diverse bacterial species, and represents a significant advance in the identification of serovar-specific carbohydrates and sugar molecules on bacteria.
  2. Olmos J, Ochoa L, Paniagua Michel J, Contreras R. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:1119-32 pubmed publisher
    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to ..
  3. Sørensen J, Giese H. Influence of carbohydrates on secondary metabolism in Fusarium avenaceum. Toxins (Basel). 2013;5:1655-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in the strains was observed for production of fusarin C, 2-AOD-3-ol, chlamydosporol and antibiotic Y, which suggests that carbon source plays a role in the regulation of their biosynthesis. ..
  4. Xu B, Escamilla Trevino L, Sathitsuksanoh N, Shen Z, Shen H, Zhang Y, et al. Silencing of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase in switchgrass leads to reduced lignin content and improved fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production. New Phytol. 2011;192:611-25 pubmed publisher
  5. Underwood G, Aslam S, Michel C, Niemi A, Norman L, Meiners K, et al. Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15734-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a ..
  6. Qin W, Gui G, Zhang K, Twelves D, Kliethermes B, Sauter E. Proteins and carbohydrates in nipple aspirate fluid predict the presence of atypia and cancer in women requiring diagnostic breast biopsy. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining uPA, PAI-1 and TF in the assessment of women requiring diagnostic breast surgery maximized disease prediction. The assessment of these markers may prove useful in early breast cancer detection. ..
  7. Esseili M, Wang Q, Saif L. Binding of human GII.4 norovirus virus-like particles to carbohydrates of romaine lettuce leaf cell wall materials. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:786-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Since human NoVs use carbohydrates of histo-blood group antigens as receptors/coreceptors, we examined the role of carbohydrates in the ..
  8. Peri F. Clustered carbohydrates in synthetic vaccines. Chem Soc Rev. 2013;42:4543-56 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also pointed out that the understanding of the chemical and biochemical processes related to immunization allows the modern chemist to rationally design carbohydrate vaccines with improved efficiency. ..
  9. Lattova E, Perreault H. The usefulness of hydrazine derivatives for mass spectrometric analysis of carbohydrates. Mass Spectrom Rev. 2013;32:366-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This review is also aimed at correcting some past misconceptions or interpretations reported in the literature. ..

More Information


  1. Sapay N, Nurisso A, Imberty A. Simulation of carbohydrates, from molecular docking to dynamics in water. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;924:469-83 pubmed publisher
    Modeling of carbohydrates is particularly challenging because of the variety of structures resulting for the high number of monosaccharides and possible linkages and also because of their intrinsic flexibility...
  2. Cruz L, Tacken P, Pots J, Torensma R, Buschow S, Figdor C. Comparison of antibodies and carbohydrates to target vaccines to human dendritic cells via DC-SIGN. Biomaterials. 2012;33:4229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we used two strategies to target vaccines components to DC-SIGN: 1) carbohydrates as natural receptor ligands and 2) receptor-specific antibodies (Abs)...
  3. Safina G. Application of surface plasmon resonance for the detection of carbohydrates, glycoconjugates, and measurement of the carbohydrate-specific interactions: a comparison with conventional analytical techniques. A critical review. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;712:9-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbohydrates (glycans) and their conjugates with proteins and lipids contribute significantly to many biological processes. That makes these compounds important targets to be detected, monitored and identified...
  4. Richardson A, Carbone M, Keenan T, Czimczik C, Hollinger D, Murakami P, et al. Seasonal dynamics and age of stemwood nonstructural carbohydrates in temperate forest trees. New Phytol. 2013;197:850-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the nonstructural carbohydrates are both highly dynamic and about a decade old...
  5. Canales A, Jimenez Barbero J, Martin Pastor M. Review: Use of residual dipolar couplings to determine the structure of carbohydrates. Magn Reson Chem. 2012;50 Suppl 1:S80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..couplings provides long-range structural information, a valuable complement for the structural study of carbohydrates either in its free form or in the bound state to proteins...
  6. Vidal C, Sanmartín C, Armisen M, Rodriguez V, Linneberg A, Gonzalez Quintela A. Minor interference of cross-reactive carbohydrates with the diagnosis of respiratory allergy in standard clinical conditions. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;157:176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CCDs do not represent a major obstacle for the diagnosis of respiratory allergy in a specialized setting. Hymenoptera stings are associated with CCD sensitization. ..
  7. Batista B, Eng W, Pilobello K, Hendricks Munoz K, Mahal L. Identification of a conserved glycan signature for microvesicles. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:4624-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Although numerous proteomic studies of these particles exist, little is known about their glycosylation. Carbohydrates are involved in protein trafficking and cellular recognition...
  8. Smith I, Kranke P, Murat I, Smith A, O Sullivan G, Søreide E, et al. Perioperative fasting in adults and children: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011;28:556-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The searches also identified 20 potentially relevant studies of oral carbohydrates and 53 on early resumption of oral intake...
  9. Asakuma S, Hatakeyama E, Urashima T, Yoshida E, Katayama T, Yamamoto K, et al. Physiology of consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by infant gut-associated bifidobacteria. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34583-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The predominance of type 1 chains in HMOs and the preferential use of type 1 HMO by infant gut-associated bifidobacteria suggest the coevolution of the bacteria with humans...
  10. Plata M, Koch C, Wechselberger P, Herwig C, Lendl B. Determination of carbohydrates present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:8241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a refractive index detector and total carbohydrates were measured using the phenol-sulfuric method...
  11. Widmalm G. A perspective on the primary and three-dimensional structures of carbohydrates. Carbohydr Res. 2013;378:123-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbohydrates, in more biologically oriented areas referred to as glycans, constitute one of the four groups of biomolecules. The glycans, often present as glycoproteins or glycolipids, form highly complex structures...
  12. Halford N, Muttucumaru N, Powers S, Gillatt P, Hartley L, Elmore J, et al. Concentrations of free amino acids and sugars in nine potato varieties: effects of storage and relationship with acrylamide formation. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:12044-55 pubmed publisher
    ..It also highlighted the complex relationship between precursor concentration and acrylamide risk in potatoes...
  13. Huang Y, Dodds E. Ion mobility studies of carbohydrates as group I adducts: isomer specific collisional cross section dependence on metal ion radius. Anal Chem. 2013;85:9728-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbohydrates play numerous critical roles in biological systems...
  14. Aune D, Chan D, Vieira A, Navarro Rosenblatt D, Vieira R, Greenwood D, et al. Dietary fructose, carbohydrates, glycemic indices and pancreatic cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:2536-46 pubmed
    Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and glycemic index have been hypothesized to influence pancreatic cancer risk, but epidemiological studies have been inconsistent...
  15. Bertolo L, Boncheff A, Ma Z, Chen Y, Wakeford T, Friendship R, et al. Clostridium difficile carbohydrates: glucan in spores, PSII common antigen in cells, immunogenicity of PSII in swine and synthesis of a dual C. difficile-ETEC conjugate vaccine. Carbohydr Res. 2012;354:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, with the intent of creating a dual anti-diarrheal vaccine against C. difficile and enterotoxin Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections in humans, we describe the conjugation of PSII to the ETEC-associated LTB enterotoxin. ..
  16. Higgins M, Ficko Blean E, Meloncelli P, Lowary T, Boraston A. The overall architecture and receptor binding of pneumococcal carbohydrate-antigen-hydrolyzing enzymes. J Mol Biol. 2011;411:1017-36 pubmed publisher
    ..were revealed in structures determined by X-ray crystallography, CBM51-2 appears to be incapable of binding carbohydrates. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data in combination with the available high-resolution X-ray crystal ..
  17. Yu P. Short communication: Relationship of carbohydrate molecular spectroscopic features to carbohydrate nutrient profiles in co-products from bioethanol production. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:2091-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the changes in CHO molecular structures during the processing for bioethanol production were highly associated with carbohydrate degradable subfractions in ruminants. ..
  18. Kaltner H, Gabius H. A toolbox of lectins for translating the sugar code: the galectin network in phylogenesis and tumors. Histol Histopathol. 2012;27:397-416 pubmed publisher
    ..It is under dynamic and spatially controlled regulation. Since their chemical properties allow carbohydrates to reach unsurpassed structural diversity in oligomers, they are ideal for high density information coding...
  19. Schlegel M, Hütter J, Eriksson M, Lepenies B, Seeberger P. Defined presentation of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold. Chembiochem. 2011;12:2791-800 pubmed publisher
    A new method for the spatially defined alignment of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold is presented...
  20. Guo X, Kulkarni A, Doepke A, Halsall H, Iyer S, Heineman W. Carbohydrate-based label-free detection of Escherichia coli ORN 178 using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Anal Chem. 2012;84:241-6 pubmed publisher
  21. Kreisman L, Cobb B. Infection, inflammation and host carbohydrates: a Glyco-Evasion Hypothesis. Glycobiology. 2012;22:1019-30 pubmed publisher
    Microbial immune evasion can be achieved through the expression, or mimicry, of host-like carbohydrates on the microbial cell surface to hide from detection...
  22. Iakovlev M, van Heiningen A. Efficient fractionation of spruce by SO(2)-ethanol-water treatment: closed mass balances for carbohydrates and sulfur. ChemSusChem. 2012;5:1625-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemicelluloses are hydrolysed, producing up to 50 % monomeric sugars, whereas dehydration and oxidation of carbohydrates are insignificant...
  23. Markou G, Angelidaki I, Georgakakis D. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;96:631-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels...
  24. Grünstein D, Maglinao M, Kikkeri R, Collot M, Barylyuk K, Lepenies B, et al. Hexameric supramolecular scaffold orients carbohydrates to sense bacteria. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:13957-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbohydrates are integral to biological signaling networks and cell-cell interactions, yet the detection of discrete carbohydrate-lectin interactions remains difficult since binding is generally weak...
  25. Jo S, Song K, Desaire H, MacKerell A, Im W. Glycan Reader: automated sugar identification and simulation preparation for carbohydrates and glycoproteins. J Comput Chem. 2011;32:3135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..files containing glycans through (i) detection of carbohydrate molecules, (ii) automatic annotation of carbohydrates based on their three-dimensional structures, (iii) recognition of glycosidic linkages between carbohydrates as ..
  26. Harvey D. Analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: an update for 2007-2008. Mass Spectrom Rev. 2012;31:183-311 pubmed publisher
    ..of the original review, published in 1999, on the application of MALDI mass spectrometry to the analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates and brings coverage of the literature to the end of 2008...
  27. Wittmann V, Pieters R. Bridging lectin binding sites by multivalent carbohydrates. Chem Soc Rev. 2013;42:4492-503 pubmed publisher
    ..While chelating binding of the discussed ligands is likely, experimental proof, for example by X-ray crystallography, is limited to only a few cases. ..
  28. de Menezes E, Giuntini E, Dan M, Sardá F, Lajolo F. Codex dietary fibre definition - Justification for inclusion of carbohydrates from 3 to 9 degrees of polymerisation. Food Chem. 2013;140:581-5 pubmed publisher
    ..about the DF definition, adopted by the commission of Codex Alimentarius, refers to the inclusion of carbohydrates of 3-9 degrees of polymerisation (DP), decision which may be made individually by the authorities of each ..
  29. Lee D, Williamson C, Chan L, Taylor M. Regioselective, borinic acid-catalyzed monoacylation, sulfonylation and alkylation of diols and carbohydrates: expansion of substrate scope and mechanistic studies. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:8260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the selective acylation, sulfonylation, and alkylation is extended to 1,2- and 1,3-diols not derived from carbohydrates (28 examples); the efficiency, generality, and operational simplicity of this method are competitive with ..
  30. Chou W, Pai T, Jiang T, Chou W, Tang C, Chang M. Hydrophilic aromatic residue and in silico structure for carbohydrate binding module. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24814 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the pre-simulated CBM structures have been deposited in the Database of Simulated CBM structures (DS-CBMs). The web service is publicly available at and ..
  31. Theerarattananoon K, Xu F, Wilson J, Staggenborg S, McKinney L, Vadlani P, et al. Effects of the pelleting conditions on chemical composition and sugar yield of corn stover, big bluestem, wheat straw, and sorghum stalk pellets. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2012;35:615-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Wheat straw pellets had the highest sugar yield (92.5-94.1%) and big bluestem pellets had the lowest sugar yield (83.6-91.1%). Optimum pelleting condition is 6.5 mm screen size and 44.5 mm die thickness. ..
  32. Brustein V, Cavalcanti C, de Melo Junior M, Correia M, Beltrão E, Carvalho L. Chemiluminescent detection of carbohydrates in the tumoral breast diseases. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;166:268-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, a lectin chemiluminescence is proposed as new histochemistry method to identify carbohydrates in mammary tumoral tissues...
  33. Gunther W, Wang Y, Ji Y, Michaelis V, Hunt S, Griffin R, et al. Sn-Beta zeolites with borate salts catalyse the epimerization of carbohydrates via an intramolecular carbon shift. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1109 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides a general method of performing carbohydrate epimerizations that surmounts the main disadvantages of current enzymatic and inorganic processes...
  34. Van Oostende N, Moerdijk Poortvliet T, Boschker H, Vyverman W, Sabbe K. Release of dissolved carbohydrates by Emiliania huxleyi and formation of transparent exopolymer particles depend on algal life cycle and bacterial activity. Environ Microbiol. 2013;15:1514-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We then compared the dynamics of dissolved carbohydrates and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) between cultures of non-axenic and axenic diploid E. huxleyi...
  35. Xie R, Hong S, Feng L, Rong J, Chen X. Cell-selective metabolic glycan labeling based on ligand-targeted liposomes. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:9914-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The delivered azidosugars are metabolically incorporated into cell-surface glycans, which are then imaged via a bioorthogonal reaction. ..
  36. Linden A, Li S, Choi H, Fang F, Fukasawa M, Uyeda K, et al. Interplay between ChREBP and SREBP-1c coordinates postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis in livers of mice. J Lipid Res. 2018;59:475-487 pubmed publisher
    ..These overlapping, but distinct, actions ensure that the liver synthesizes FAs only when insulin and carbohydrates are both present.
  37. Grondin J, Langelaan D, Smith S. Characterization of Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions by NMR Spectroscopy. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1588:143-156 pubmed publisher
  38. Muthu K, Priya S. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata flower extract separated fraction. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2017;179:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..and determined the presence of preliminary phytochemicals such as tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates and polyphenolic compounds...
  39. Chaves J, Damasceno J, Paula M, de Oliveira P, Azevedo G, Matos R, et al. Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxic and antitubercular activities of new gold(I) and gold(III) complexes containing ligands derived from carbohydrates. Biometals. 2015;28:845-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Gold(I) compounds (1), (2), (3), (4) and (6) exhibited relevant antitubercular activity even when compared with first line drugs such as rifampicin. ..
  40. Marques Vidal P, Waeber G, Vollenweider P, Guessous I. Socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of dietary patterns in French-speaking Switzerland, 2009-2012. BMC Public Health. 2018;18:131 pubmed publisher
    ..The "Meat & fries" pattern showed the strongest correlations with total and animal protein and cholesterol carbohydrates, dietary fibre and calcium...
  41. Peasura N, Laohakunjit N, Kerdchoechuen O, Vongsawasdi P, Chao L. Assessment of biochemical and immunomodulatory activity of sulphated polysaccharides from Ulva intestinalis. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;91:269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..unfractionated (USP) and fractionated sulphated polysaccharides (FSP4, FSP30, and FSP32) consisted mostly of carbohydrates (4.84-26.55%) and sulphates (2.85-20.42%)...
  42. Labre F, Mathieu S, Chaud P, Morvan P, Vallée R, Helbert W, et al. DMTMM-mediated amidation of alginate oligosaccharides aimed at modulating their interaction with proteins. Carbohydr Polym. 2018;184:427-434 pubmed publisher
    ..AOS) with a weight average molecular weight of 5?kDa were efficiently amidated with amino acids and carbohydrates in aqueous media in the presence of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM)...
  43. Olennikov D, Chirikova N, Kashchenko N, Gornostai T, Selyutina I, Zilfikarov I. Effect of Low Temperature Cultivation on the Phytochemical Profile and Bioactivity of Arctic Plants: A Case of Dracocephalum palmatum. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..and electrospray ionization mass-spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) techniques, as well as free carbohydrates and water soluble polysaccharides. For the first time, it was established that the cold acclimation of D...
  44. Cappello T, Pereira P, Maisano M, Mauceri A, Pacheco M, Fasulo S. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of mercury toxicity in wild golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) by 1H NMR-based metabolomics. Environ Pollut. 2016;219:139-148 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous metabolites, i.e. amino acids, osmolytes, carbohydrates, and nucleotides, were identified as potential biomarkers of Hg toxicity in fish gills...
  45. Clavier Rogez S, Rogez J, Labrín L, Branger B, Dabadie A. [Effectiveness of a nutritional program based upon a ready-to-use therapeutic food in Chad]. Arch Pediatr. 2015;22:1247-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The RUTF was made in a specific laboratory. The product consisted of 49% carbohydrates, 33% lipids, 16% proteins, and 1.5% vitamins...
  46. Iyer A, Brown L, Whitehead J, Prins J, Fairlie D. Nutrient and immune sensing are obligate pathways in metabolism, immunity, and disease. FASEB J. 2015;29:3612-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Diets rich in carbohydrates and fats can overload these systems, leading to obesity, metabolic dysfunction, impaired immunity, and ..
  47. Jewkes B, Barlow L, Delay E. Effect of radiation on sucrose detection thresholds of mice. Chem Senses. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..2012). Thus, even a single dose of irradiation can significantly alter detection of carbohydrates, an important consideration for patients undergoing radiotherapy.
  48. Khan M, Lee M, Shin J, Kim J. Pretreatment optimization of the biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa for efficient bioethanol production. AMB Express. 2017;7:19 pubmed publisher
    Microalgae are considered to be the future promising sources of biofuels and bio products. The algal carbohydrates can be fermented to bioethanol after pretreatment process...
  49. Tan H, Gan C. Polysaccharide with antioxidant, α-amylase inhibitory and ACE inhibitory activities from Momordica charantia. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;85:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicated that MCBP is a promising functional macromolecular carbohydrate for the food and nutraceutical industries. ..
  50. Bülow J, Agergaard J, Kjaer M, Holm L, Reitelseder S. No additional effect of different types of physical activity on 10-hour muscle protein synthesis in elderly men on a controlled energy- and protein-sufficient diet. Exp Gerontol. 2016;79:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..All groups undertook a normal eating routine containing carbohydrates (52 E%), fat (32 E%), and protein (16 E%)...
  51. Aléman Nava G, Muylaert K, Cuellar Bermudez S, Depraetere O, Rittmann B, Parra Saldívar R, et al. Two-stage cultivation of Nannochloropsis oculata for lipid production using reversible alkaline flocculation. Bioresour Technol. 2017;226:18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The composition of total lipids, carbohydrates, and protein was similar for biomass harvested via alkaline flocculation or centrifugation...
  52. Matsuo H, Kudo C, Li J, Tonouchi A. Acidicapsa acidisoli sp. nov., from the acidic soil of a deciduous forest. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:862-867 pubmed publisher
    ..Strain SK-11T utilized various carbohydrates as growth substrates as well as yeast extract and protein hydrolysates...
  53. Civiš S, Szabla R, Szyja B, Smykowski D, Ivanek O, Knížek A, et al. TiO2-catalyzed synthesis of sugars from formaldehyde in extraterrestrial impacts on the early Earth. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23199 pubmed publisher
    ..85 billion years ago. In addition, we present an in-depth theoretical analysis of the most challenging step of the reaction pathway, i.e., the TiO2-catalyzed dimerization of formaldehyde leading to glycolaldehyde. ..
  54. Schneider L, Haverinen J, Jaakkola M, Lassi U. Solid acid-catalyzed depolymerization of barley straw driven by ball milling. Bioresour Technol. 2016;206:204-210 pubmed publisher
  55. Yang Q, Zhang Z, Gregg E, Flanders W, Merritt R, Hu F. Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174:516-24 pubmed publisher
    ..CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Most US adults consume more added sugar than is recommended for a healthy diet. We observed a significant relationship between added sugar consumption and increased risk for CVD mortality. ..
  56. Vannam R, Peczuh M. A practical and scalable synthesis of carbohydrate based oxepines. Org Biomol Chem. 2016;14:3989-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The practicality of the method make it amenable to scale up as demonstrated by the gram-scale synthesis of the d-glucose derived oxepine. ..
  57. Abdel Naby M, Ibrahim M, El Refai H. Catalytic, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of Bacillus pumilus FH9 keratinase conjugated with activated pectin. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;85:238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Both native and conjugated enzymes were slightly activated by CaCl2 and MgCl2. However, the inhibitory effects of EDTA, HgCl2 and ZnSO4 were more pronounced with the native enzyme. ..
  58. Nespovitaya N, Gath J, Barylyuk K, Seuring C, Meier B, Riek R. Dynamic Assembly and Disassembly of Functional ?-Endorphin Amyloid Fibrils. J Am Chem Soc. 2016;138:846-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Several low-molecular-weight carbohydrates exhibit the same effect on ?-endorphin aggregation as phosphate...
  59. Quirós M, Rojas V, Gonzalez R, Morales P. Selection of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains for reducing alcohol levels in wine by sugar respiration. Int J Food Microbiol. 2014;181:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..pulcherrima, design of an aeration regime allowing for lowering ethanol yields though preserving grape must components from excessive oxidation, would be conceivable. ..
  60. Moradi P, Ford Lloyd B, Pritchard J. Metabolomic approach reveals the biochemical mechanisms underlying drought stress tolerance in thyme. Anal Biochem. 2017;527:49-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant metabolites belonging to different chemical classes consisting amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and lipids have been compared in tolerant and sensitive plants...
  61. Arruda F, Melo A, Vasconcelos M, Carneiro R, Barroso Neto I, Silva S, et al. Toxicity and binding profile of lectins from the Genus canavalia on brine shrimp. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:154542 pubmed publisher
    ..To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins. ..
  62. Lourenço E, Ventura M. Improvement of the stereoselectivity of the glycosylation reaction with 2-azido-2-deoxy-1-thioglucoside donors. Carbohydr Res. 2016;426:33-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The anomeric stereoselectivity was highly dependent on the acceptor. ..
  63. Tipton J. Using the theory of planned behavior to understand caregivers' intention to serve sugar-sweetened beverages to non-Hispanic black preschoolers. J Pediatr Nurs. 2014;29:564-75 pubmed publisher
    ..1% of variance in intention. Nurses and other health care professionals can use these findings to tailor behaviorally-based obesity prevention programs at the individual, family, and community-based levels. ..
  64. Park J, Shin M, Kim S, Kim H, Kim K, Shin K, et al. Polysaccharides from Korean Citrus hallabong peels inhibit angiogenesis and breast cancer cell migration. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;85:522-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, inhibition of tube formation and MMP-9-mediated migration observed in HUVEC and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively, are likely to be important therapeutic targets in triple-negative breast cancer metastasis. ..
  65. Koubaa M, Thomasset B, Roscher A. Quantifying ¹³C-labeling in free sugars and starch by GC-MS. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1090:121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, mass distributions are corrected for natural isotope abundance using a home-written program. The method is illustrated by sugar isotopomer analysis of (13)C-labeled rapeseed embryos. ..
  66. Jimenez Gomez Y, Mattison J, Pearson K, Martin Montalvo A, Palacios H, Sossong A, et al. Resveratrol improves adipose insulin signaling and reduces the inflammatory response in adipose tissue of rhesus monkeys on high-fat, high-sugar diet. Cell Metab. 2013;18:533-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, chronic administration of resveratrol exerts beneficial metabolic and inflammatory adaptations in visceral WAT from diet-induced obese monkeys. ..
  67. Zorenc Z, Veberic R, Stampar F, Koron D, Mikulic Petkovsek M. White versus blue: Does the wild 'albino' bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) differ in fruit quality compared to the blue one?. Food Chem. 2016;211:876-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Blue bilberry contained 1.6-fold higher levels of flavanols, 2.1-fold higher levels of flavonols, 2.5-fold higher levels of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and consequently, 4.6-fold higher total phenolic content. ..
  68. Jurak E, Kabel M, Gruppen H. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;101:281-8 pubmed publisher
    ..At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with ..
  69. Meekins D, Raththagala M, Husodo S, White C, Guo H, Kötting O, et al. Phosphoglucan-bound structure of starch phosphatase Starch Excess4 reveals the mechanism for C6 specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:7272-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide important insights into the structural basis of glucan phosphatase site-specific activity and open new avenues for their biotechnological utilization. ..
  70. Nam K, Shin H, Pack I, Park J, Kim H, Kim C. Metabolomic changes in grains of well-watered and drought-stressed transgenic rice. J Sci Food Agric. 2016;96:807-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes in amounts of metabolites may assist in improving drought tolerance in transgenic rice by playing crucial roles in stress-responsive pathways including GABA biosynthesis, sucrose metabolism and antioxidant defenses. ..
  71. Aguirre E, Mytton O, Monsivais P. Liberalising agricultural policy for sugar in Europe risks damaging public health. BMJ. 2015;351:h5085 pubmed publisher