Summary: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.

Top Publications

  1. Sack U, Walther W, Scudiero D, Selby M, Aumann J, Lemos C, et al. S100A4-induced cell motility and metastasis is restricted by the Wnt/?-catenin pathway inhibitor calcimycin in colon cancer cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:3344-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this screen calcimycin was identified as a transcriptional inhibitor of S100A4...
  2. Zhang J, Ding X, Bian Z, Xia Y, Lu C, Wang S, et al. The effect of anti-eppin antibodies on ionophore A23187-induced calcium influx and acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that eppin can modulate intracellular calcium concentrations and subsequently affect the calcium ionophore A23187-induced acrosome reaction. ..
  3. Ying Yan W, Tao W, Xin L, Hong Wei G, Bing Cheng L, Qi W. The analysis of chemotherapy resistance in human lung cancer cell line with microchip-based system. Biomed Microdevices. 2008;10:429-35 pubmed publisher
    ..16 +/- 0.95% versus 57.06 +/- 4%). GRP78 is correlated to the resistance to VP-16 in human lung cancer cell line. The microchip-based system has the potential application and feasibility for cell culture and its functional research. ..
  4. Lee S, Rangiah K, Williams M, Wehr A, DuBois R, Blair I. Cyclooxygenase-2-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid by rat intestinal epithelial cells. Chem Res Toxicol. 2007;20:1665-75 pubmed
    ..These data further highlight the importance of endogenous COX-2-mediated lipid peroxidation and illustrate the necessity to monitor eicosanoid formation from endogenous stores of AA in cell culture experiments. ..
  5. Wu Q, Liang J, Lin S, Zhou X, Bai L, Deng Z, et al. Characterization of the biosynthesis gene cluster for the pyrrole polyether antibiotic calcimycin (A23187) in Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:974-82 pubmed publisher
    The pyrrole polyether antibiotic calcimycin (A23187) is a rare ionophore that is specific for divalent cations. It is widely used as a biochemical and pharmacological tool because of its multiple, unique biological effects...
  6. Yu S, Chan D, Liu V, Ngan H. Inhibition of cervical cancer cell growth through activation of upstream kinases of AMP-activated protein kinase. Tumour Biol. 2009;30:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that A23187 could be an alternative potential therapeutic drug used for anti-proliferation in LKB1-deficient cancer cells. ..
  7. Yin W, Ghebrehiwet B, Peerschke E. Expression of complement components and inhibitors on platelet microparticles. Platelets. 2008;19:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Complement activation contributes to a variety of vascular and inflammatory disease states including atherosclerosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury. ..
  8. Wang Q, Wang T, Wang Y, Wang W, Wang Y, Hu X, et al. VP-16 resistance in the NCI-H460 human lung cancer cell line is significantly associated with glucose-regulated protein78 (GRP78) induction. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:2359-64 pubmed
    ..Based on the trend of the change in IC50 and the expression of GRP78 in differently exposed cells, we conclude that the induction of GRP78 by A23187 is significantly associated with the resistance to VP-16. ..
  9. Bando Y, Katayama T, Aleshin A, Manabe T, Tohyama M. GRP94 reduces cell death in SH-SY5Y cells perturbated calcium homeostasis. Apoptosis. 2004;9:501-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that suppression of GRP94 is associated with accelerated cell death. Moreover, expression of GRP94 suppressed A23187-induced cell death and stabilized calcium homeostasis. ..

More Information


  1. Yao Y, Duh E. VEGF selectively induces Down syndrome critical region 1 gene expression in endothelial cells: a mechanism for feedback regulation of angiogenesis?. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;321:648-56 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that DSCR1 up-regulation may represent a potential molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of angiogenic genes activated by the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway in endothelial cells. ..
  2. Hawley S, Pan D, Mustard K, Ross L, Bain J, Edelman A, et al. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase. Cell Metab. 2005;2:9-19 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a potential Ca(2+)-dependent neuroprotective pathway involving phosphorylation and activation of AMPK by CaMKKbeta. ..
  3. Gwak J, Cho M, Gong S, Won J, Kim D, Kim E, et al. Protein-kinase-C-mediated beta-catenin phosphorylation negatively regulates the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4702-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the depletion of PKCalpha inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of beta-catenin. Therefore, our findings suggest that the PKC pathway negatively regulates the beta-catenin level outside of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. ..
  4. Lee S, Williams M, DuBois R, Blair I. Cyclooxygenase-2-mediated DNA damage. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28337-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, inhibition of COX-2-mediated lipid hydroperoxide formation offers a potential therapeutic alternative to COX-2 inhibitors in chemoprevention strategies. ..
  5. Galitzine M, Capiod T, Le Deist F, Meyer D, Freyssinet J, Kerbiriou Nabias D. Ca2+ ionophores trigger membrane remodeling without a need for store-operated Ca2+ entry. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;327:335-41 pubmed
    ..Results imply that ionophores trigger membrane remodeling without the requirement for a functional SOCE. ..
  6. Freyssenet D, Irrcher I, Connor M, Di Carlo M, Hood D. Calcium-regulated changes in mitochondrial phenotype in skeletal muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;286:C1053-61 pubmed
    ..05) and reduced GDH mRNA by 37% (P < 0.05) but had no effect on MDH or beta-subunit F(1)ATPase mRNA. These results indicate that changes in intracellular Ca(2+) can modify mitochondrial phenotype, in part via the involvement of Egr-1. ..
  7. Henningsson F, Hergeth S, Cortelius R, Abrink M, Pejler G. A role for serglycin proteoglycan in granular retention and processing of mast cell secretory granule components. FEBS J. 2006;273:4901-12 pubmed
  8. Hamahata K, Adachi S, Matsubara H, Okada M, Imai T, Watanabe K, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction is related to necrosis-like programmed cell death induced by A23187 in CEM cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;516:187-96 pubmed
    ..Differences in the responses to A23187 between these two cell lines might derive from differences in the susceptibility of the mitochondrial membrane to rapid increases in intra-cellular calcium. ..
  9. Duque J, Fresno M, Iñiguez M. Expression and function of the nuclear factor of activated T cells in colon carcinoma cells: involvement in the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:8686-93 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate the presence and activation of NFAT in human colon carcinoma cells, with important implications in the regulation of genes involved in the transformed phenotype as COX-2. ..
  10. Murase T, Imaeda N, Yamada H, Miyazawa K. Seasonal changes in semen characteristics, composition of seminal plasma and frequency of acrosome reaction induced by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187 in Large White boars. J Reprod Dev. 2007;53:853-65 pubmed
    ..These changes may be modulated by heat/humidity stress and/or photoperiod-regulated testosterone. ..
  11. Shimizu M, Nakamura H, Hirabayashi T, Suganami A, Tamura Y, Murayama T. Ser515 phosphorylation-independent regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA2alpha) by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase: possible interaction with catalytic domain A of cPLA2alpha. Cell Signal. 2008;20:815-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show a possible effect of CaM kinase on cPLA(2)alpha in a catalytic domain A-dependent and Ser515-independent manner. ..
  12. Oliveira A, Lunardi C, Rodrigues G, Bendhack L. Relaxation induced by calcium ionophore is impaired in carotid arteries from 2K-1C rats due to failed effect of nitric oxide on the smooth muscle cells. Vascul Pharmacol. 2009;50:153-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All these effects are higher in 2K, which contribute to the impaired relaxation to A23187 in 2K-1C rat arteries. ..
  13. Shin H, Kim H, Kim S, Chung W, Kim S, Um J. Inhibitory effects of chelidonic acid on IL-6 production by blocking NF-?B and caspase-1 in HMC-1 cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2011;33:614-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, CA suppresses the activation and expression of caspase-1. These results provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of CA as a potential molecule for use in therapy in mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. ..
  14. Yazaki M, Kashiwagi K, Aritake K, Urade Y, Fujimori K. Rapid degradation of cyclooxygenase-1 and hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase through ubiquitin-proteasome system in response to intracellular calcium level. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:12-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that COX-1 and H-PGDS were rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome system in response to the elevation of the intracellular calcium level. ..
  15. Sahu R, Batra S, Kandala P, Brown T, Srivastava S. The role of K-ras gene mutation in TRAIL-induced apoptosis in pancreatic and lung cancer cell lines. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;67:481-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates an association between TRAIL resistance to apoptosis in human pancreatic and lung cancer cell lines and G12D K-ras(12) mutation. ..
  16. Papezikova I, Pekarova M, Chatzopoulou M, Nicolaou I, Demopoulos V, Kubala L, et al. The effect of aldose reductase inhibition by JMC-2004 on hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008;29:775-8 pubmed
    ..JMC-2004 exerted high selectivity towards ALR-2. ALR-2 inhibition with JMC-2004 was able to abolish hyperglycemia- induced endothelial dysfunction in bovine aortic endothelial cells. ..
  17. Shin C, Moores J, Best A, Tew J, Schenkein H, Barbour S. Differential platelet-activating factor synthesis by monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes from subjects with localized aggressive periodontitis. J Periodontal Res. 2007;42:202-11 pubmed
  18. Wong M, Delansorne R, Man R, Vanhoutte P. Vitamin D derivatives acutely reduce endothelium-dependent contractions in the aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that vitamin D(3) modulates vascular tone by reducing calcium influx into the endothelial cells and hence decreasing the production of endothelium-derived contracting factors. ..
  19. Yasuda E, Nagasawa K, Nishida K, Fujimoto S. Decreased expression of phospholipase C-beta 1 protein in endoplasmic reticulum stress-loaded neurons. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:719-21 pubmed
    ..Overall, we demonstrated that ER stress decreases the expression of PLC-beta 1, but not -gamma 1, in neurons. ..
  20. Han N, Moon P, Jeong H, Kim H. Hydrogen sulfide diminishes the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in activated mast cells. Arch Dermatol Res. 2016;308:103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these findings show that H2S, as an active compound of BS is a potential agent to cure allergic inflammation. ..
  21. Li S, Wu Y. Synthesis and absolute configuration of demethyl (C-11) cezomycin. Chem Asian J. 2013;8:2792-800 pubmed publisher
    ..The absolute configuration for the natural product was thus established as the mirror image of the synthetic sample. ..
  22. Gu S, Young S, Lin J, Lin P. Involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis by prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..mori prothoracic glands between insulin and PTTH signaling, which may play a critical role in precisely regulated ecdysteroidogenesis during development...
  23. Hasegawa T, Azlina A, Javkhlan P, Yao C, Akamatsu T, Hosoi K. Novel phosphorylation of aquaporin-5 at its threonine 259 through cAMP signaling in salivary gland cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C667-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that AQP5 is phosphorylated at its Thr259 by PKA through cAMP, but not Ca(2+), signaling pathways, and that this phosphorylation does not contribute to AQP5 trafficking in the salivary gland cells. ..
  24. Raizman I, De Croos J, Pilliar R, Kandel R. Calcium regulates cyclic compression-induced early changes in chondrocytes during in vitro cartilage tissue formation. Cell Calcium. 2010;48:232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in chondrocyte mechanotransduction may lead to the development of improved bioengineered cartilage. ..
  25. Goravanahally M, Sen A, Inskeep E, Flores J. PKC epsilon and an increase in intracellular calcium concentration are necessary for PGF2 alpha to inhibit LH-stimulated progesterone secretion in cultured bovine steroidogenic luteal cells. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2007;5:37 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that differential expression of PKC epsilon and an elevation of [Ca(2+)]i are important for acquisition of luteolytic response to PGF2 alpha. ..
  26. Jin S, Zhang Y, Yi F, Li P. Critical role of lipid raft redox signaling platforms in endostatin-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:485-90 pubmed
    ..The early injury effect of EST on the vascular endothelium is associated with the formation of redox signaling platforms via lipid raft clustering. ..
  27. Celedón G, Gonzalez G, Lissi E, Cerda T, Martinez D, Soto C, et al. Effect of calcium on the hemolytic activity of Stichodactyla helianthus toxin sticholysin II on human erythrocytes. Toxicon. 2009;54:845-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Results reported suggest an improved St II membrane pore-forming capacity promoted by intracellular calcium associated to membrane phospholipids translocation. ..
  28. Hosokawa J, Suzuki K, Nakagomi D, Tamachi T, Takatori H, Suto A, et al. Role of calcium ionophore A23187-induced activation of IkappaB kinase 2 in mast cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2013;161 Suppl 2:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Ca(2+)-IKK2 signaling is involved in the degranulation and cytokine production in activated mast cells by a mechanism independent of PKC?. ..
  29. Monshausen G, Messerli M, Gilroy S. Imaging of the Yellow Cameleon 3.6 indicator reveals that elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ follow oscillating increases in growth in root hairs of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:1690-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations are consistent with a model in which the maximal oscillatory increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) is triggered by cell expansion associated with tip growth and plays a role in the subsequent restriction of growth. ..
  30. Lee H, Seo H, Kim G, Jeon C, Park J, Jang B, et al. Houttuynia cordata Thunb inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of the NF?B signaling pathway in HMC-1 human mast cells. Mol Med Rep. 2013;8:731-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that HCT is an inhibitor of NF-?B and cytokines blocking mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. These results indicate that HCT may be used for the treatment of mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory diseases. ..
  31. Simard J, Tsymbalyuk O, Keledjian K, Ivanov A, Ivanova S, Gerzanich V. Comparative effects of glibenclamide and riluzole in a rat model of severe cervical spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2012;233:566-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in specificity, dose-limiting potency, or in spectrum of action may account for the apparent superiority of glibenclamide over riluzole in this model of severe SCI. ..
  32. Han N, Kim I, Kim H, Jeong H. Methallyl isothiocyanate inhibits the caspase-1 activity through the inhibition of intracellular calcium levels. Biochimie. 2012;94:816-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we can conclude that MAITC showed an anti-inflammatory effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory reaction. ..
  33. Fujiwara H, Wake Y, Hashikawa Hobara N, Makino K, Takatori S, Zamami Y, et al. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor-mediated vasodilation in mouse mesenteric vascular beds. J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;118:373-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the endothelium in mouse mesenteric arteries regulates vascular tone by prostanoids, EDHF, and partially by nitric oxide, different from the endothelium of rat mesenteric arteries. ..
  34. Winkler J, Rand M, Schmugge M, Speer O. Omi/HtrA2 and XIAP are components of platelet apoptosis signalling. Thromb Haemost. 2013;109:532-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that platelets have a functional intrinsic apoptotic-signalling pathway including the pro-apoptotic protease Omi/HtrA2 and its target protein XIAP...
  35. Sosa C, Zanetti M, Pocognoni C, Mayorga L. Acrosomal Swelling Is Triggered by cAMP Downstream of the Opening of Store-Operated Calcium Channels During Acrosomal Exocytosis in Human Sperm. Biol Reprod. 2016;94:57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that swelling is a required process for acrosomal exocytosis triggered by activation of an adenylyl cyclase downstream of the opening of store-operated calcium channels. ..
  36. Steffen P, Jung A, Nguyen D, Müller T, Bernhardt I, Kaestner L, et al. Stimulation of human red blood cells leads to Ca2+-mediated intercellular adhesion. Cell Calcium. 2011;50:54-61 pubmed publisher
  37. Parlar A, Can C, Erol A, Ulker S. Posttransplantation therapeutic rapamycin concentration protects nitric oxide-related vascular endothelial function: comparative effects in rat thoracic aorta and coronary endothelial cell culture. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:1923-30 pubmed publisher
  38. Wang Z, Ren X, Wang D, Guan Y, Xia L. Effects of thioglycolic acid on parthenogenetic activation of Xenopus oocytes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16220 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the toxicity of TGA, especially its reproductive toxicity, gradually calls the attention of more and more researchers...
  39. Kenmotsu Y, Yamamura Y, Ogita S, Katoh Y, Kurosaki F. Transcriptional activation of putative calmodulin genes am-cam-1 and am-cam-2 from Aquilaria microcarpa, in response to external stimuli. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:1911-4 pubmed
    ..microcarpa, accompanying the change in the transcriptional activities. ..
  40. Chandrasekaran C, Deepak H, Thiyagarajan P, Kathiresan S, Sangli G, Deepak M, et al. Dual inhibitory effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™) on COX and LOX products. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:278-84 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of GutGard™ and its phytoconstituents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), calcimycin (A23187) induced thromboxane (TXB(2)), and leukotriene (LTB(4)) release was studied using murine macrophages (..
  41. George A, Shah R, Sharma R, Palta P, Singla S, Manik R, et al. Activation of zona-free buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes by chemical or electrical stimulation, and subsequent parthenogenetic embryo development. Reprod Domest Anim. 2011;46:444-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Out of different agents examined, CaI followed by 6-DMAP resulted in the highest blastocyst rate. ..
  42. Kuhn S, Bussemer J, Chigri F, Vothknecht U. Calcium depletion and calmodulin inhibition affect the import of nuclear-encoded proteins into plant mitochondria. Plant J. 2009;58:694-705 pubmed publisher
  43. Shimada T, Hirose T, Matsumoto I, Aikawa T. Cross-regulation of cortisol secretion by adrenocorticotropin and platelet-activating factor in perfused guinea pig adrenals. J Endocrinol. 2007;195:29-38 pubmed
    ..Cross-regulation between processes activated by PAF receptor-PKC and by ACTH receptor-PKA might function in the multifactorial regulation of adrenocortical steroidogenesis. ..
  44. Kunuthur S, Milliken P, Gibson C, Suckling C, Wadsworth R. Tetrahydrobiopterin analogues with NO-dependent pulmonary vasodilator properties. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;650:371-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemically stable analogues of BH(4) may be able to limit endothelial dysfunction in the pulmonary vasculature. ..
  45. Morita T, Okada M, Hara Y, Yamawaki H. Mechanisms underlying impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation by fetal bovine serum in organ-cultured rat mesenteric artery. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;668:401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that FBS impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation by inhibiting events upstream of phospholipase C activation including phospholipase C, G-protein, and receptors in endothelium. ..
  46. Sakai H, Kurihara Y, Hashimoto Y, Chiba Y, Misawa M. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-mediated contraction of the stimulated bronchial smooth muscles of mice. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010;173:120-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a certain level of intracellular Ca(2+) might be needed both for an activation of CPI-17 and an induction of contraction induced by PDBu in mouse BSMs. ..
  47. Bleyl J, Heller A, Heintz M, Schlemmer M, Koch R, de Abreu M, et al. Effects of perfluorohexane vapor in the treatment of experimental lung injury. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2010;23:450-5 pubmed publisher
    ..PFH. Inflammatory lung injury was attenuated by the treatment with 4.5 vol.% PFH and 18 vol.% PFH vapor in the isolated perfused rabbit lung. Therapeutic effects were more pronounced with a concentration of 4.5 vol.% PFH. ..
  48. Oh Y, Kang O, Kim S, Mun S, Park C, Kim Y, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of sinomenine by inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators in PMA plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 Cells. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2012;16:1184-91 pubmed
  49. Jin X, Satoh Otonashi Y, Zamami Y, Hobara N, Koyama T, Sun P, et al. Age-related disappearance of the inhibitory effect of vascular endothelium on agonist-induced vasoconstriction in rat mesenteric vascular beds. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;111:372-80 pubmed
  50. Zharikov S, Krotova K, Hu H, Baylis C, Johnson R, Block E, et al. Uric acid decreases NO production and increases arginase activity in cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C1183-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that UA-induced arginase activation is a potential mechanism for reduction of NO production in PAEC. ..
  51. Hupalowska A, Kalaszczynska I, Hoffmann S, Tsurumi C, Kubiak J, Polanski Z, et al. Metaphase I arrest in LT/Sv mouse oocytes involves the spindle assembly checkpoint. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:1102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show for the first time that there is a direct link between the SAC function and the heritable meiotic incompetence of a mammalian oocyte. ..
  52. Murtha A, Feng L, Yonish B, Leppert P, Schomberg D. Progesterone protects fetal chorion and maternal decidua cells from calcium-induced death. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196:257.e1-5 pubmed
    ..was to determine whether progesterone exerts a protective effect in chorion and decidua cells when exposed to calcimycin. Fetal membrane samples were collected from term elective repeat cesarean deliveries and chorion and decidua ..
  53. Sugaya S. Pregnancy following calcium ionophore oocyte activation in an oligozoospermia patient with repeated failure of fertilization after ICSI. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2010;37:261-2 pubmed
    ..Oocyte activation using calcium ionophore was thus found to be a useful method in a case of repeated failure of fertilization after ICSI. ..