Summary: Crystalline saturated MONOTERPENES, precursors of borneols and CAMPHENE.

Top Publications

  1. Yan Yu X, Qi neng P, Zhi peng C. The enhancing effect of synthetical borneol on the absorption of tetramethylpyrazine phosphate in mouse. Int J Pharm. 2007;337:74-9 pubmed
    ..SB did enhance the oral absorption of TMPP and the concentration of TMPP in brain tissue, especially in the early period. But the use of SB did not change the behavior in vivo of TMPP. ..
  2. Shen Q, Li X, Li W, Zhao X. Enhanced intestinal absorption of daidzein by borneol/menthol eutectic mixture and microemulsion. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2011;12:1044-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5- and 3.65-fold, respectively, compared with a daidzein suspension. In conclusion, a borneol/menthol eutectic mixture can enhance the absorption of daidzein, although the mechanism of absorption enhancement is still unclear. ..
  3. Cai Z, Hou S, Li Y, Zhao B, Yang Z, Xu S, et al. Effect of borneol on the distribution of gastrodin to the brain in mice via oral administration. J Drug Target. 2008;16:178-84 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that borneol can accelerate the absorption of gastrodin in the gastrointestinal tract and promote its distribution to the brain. Therefore, borneol is a promising promoter for oral brain-targeting drug delivery. ..
  4. Xu X, Li Y, Hou J, Zhang S, Xu Y, Wang Y, et al. Pharmacokinetic study of borneol and menthol in rats after oral administration of qingyan drop pills. Planta Med. 2011;77:1600-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that the kinetics of borneol and menthol can be described by an open one-compartment model. The pharmacokinetic parameters provide some information for clinical administration of Qingyan drop pills. ..
  5. Giglio S, Chou W, Ikeda H, Cane D, Monis P. Biosynthesis of 2-methylisoborneol in cyanobacteria. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:992-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on a comparison of the component MIB biosynthetic genes in actinomycetes and cyanobacterial organisms, we hypothesize that there have been multiple rearrangements of the genes in this operon. ..
  6. Liu R, Zhang L, Lan X, Li L, Zhang T, Sun J, et al. Protection by borneol on cortical neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion: involvement of anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation through nuclear transcription factor ?appaB signaling pathway. Neuroscience. 2011;176:408-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these effects, the inhibition of I?B?-NF-?B and translocation signaling pathway might play a significant role in the neuroprotection of borneol. ..
  7. Yan Yu X, Qi neng P, Zhi peng C. A simple gas chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of tetramethylpyrazine phosphate and borneol in mouse plasma and brain tissue after oral administration of the fufang tetramethylpyrazine phosphate table. J Chromatogr Sci. 2008;46:395-400 pubmed
    ..The method described is successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of mouse plasma and brain tissue after oral administration of the Fufang TMPP and TMPP tablets to mice. ..
  8. Li Y, Sun X, Zhang Y, Wang N. The antithrombotic effect of borneol related to its anticoagulant property. Am J Chin Med. 2008;36:719-27 pubmed
    ..It suggested that the antithrombotic activity of borneol and its action in combined formula for preventing cardiovascular diseases might be due to anticoagulant activity rather than antiplatelet activity. ..
  9. Horvathova E, Slamenova D, Marsalkova L, Sramkova M, Wsolova L. Effects of borneol on the level of DNA damage induced in primary rat hepatocytes and testicular cells by hydrogen peroxide. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1318-23 pubmed publisher
    ..14 or 34.28 mg/kg it reduces genotoxicity of H2O2 in both hepatocytes and testicular cells. ..

More Information


  1. Jüttner F, Watson S. Biochemical and ecological control of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in source waters. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:4395-406 pubmed
  2. Li L, Wan N, Gan N, Xia B, Song L. Annual dynamics and origins of the odorous compounds in the pilot experimental area of Lake Dianchi, China. Water Sci Technol. 2007;55:43-50 pubmed
    ..beta-ionone, MIB and geosmin contributed collectively to the odour intensity in the lake water. ..
  3. Tian L, Zhou Z, Zhang Q, Sun Y, Li C, Cheng C, et al. Protective effect of (+/-) isoborneol against 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;20:1019-32 pubmed
  4. Wang C, Cane D. Biochemistry and molecular genetics of the biosynthesis of the earthy odorant methylisoborneol in Streptomyces coelicolor. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:8908-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclization of 2-methylgeranyl diphosphate (3) to methylisoborneol (2) likely involves the intermediacy of 2-methyllinalyl diphosphate. ..
  5. Bhatia S, Letizia C, Api A. Fragrance material review on borneol. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46 Suppl 11:S77-80 pubmed publisher
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of borneol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ..
  6. Granger R, Campbell E, Johnston G. (+)- And (-)-borneol: efficacious positive modulators of GABA action at human recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2L GABA(A) receptors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;69:1101-11 pubmed
    ..The relatively rigid cage structure of these bicyclic monoterpenes and their high efficacy may aid in a greater understanding of molecular aspects of positive modulation of the activation of GABA(A) receptors. ..
  7. Izaguirre G, Taylor W. A guide to geosmin- and MIB-producing cyanobacteria in the United States. Water Sci Technol. 2004;49:19-24 pubmed
  8. Prasad B, Rojubally A, Plettner E. Identification of camphor oxidation and reduction products in Pseudomonas putida: new activity of the cytochrome P450cam system. J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:657-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that in P. putida borneol is less toxic than camphor, whereas in E. coli borneol is more toxic than camphor. We discuss a potental ecological advantage of the camphor reduction reaction for P. putida. ..
  9. Komatsu M, Tsuda M, Omura S, Oikawa H, Ikeda H. Identification and functional analysis of genes controlling biosynthesis of 2-methylisoborneol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7422-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that the biosynthetic pathway involves the methylation of GPP by GPP methyltransferase and its subsequent cyclization by monoterpene cyclase to 2-MIB. ..
  10. Heimstad E, Smalas A, Kallenborn R. Environmental fate of chlorinated bornanes estimated by theoretical descriptors. Chemosphere. 2001;43:665-74 pubmed
    Theoretical molecular descriptors have been calculated for 36 polychlorinated bornanes, the majority compound class of the insecticide Toxaphene...
  11. Ihenetu K, Molleman A, Parsons M, Whelan C. Pharmacological characterisation of cannabinoid receptors inhibiting interleukin 2 release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;464:207-15 pubmed
    ..In contrast, CP55,940 and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol behaved as partial agonists/antagonists in these cells. ..
  12. Park T, Park Y, Lee T, Ha H, Kim K. Inhibition of acetylcholine-mediated effects by borneol. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;65:83-90 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory effect by borneol is more potent than the effect by lidocaine, a commonly used local anesthetic. The data suggest that borneol specifically inhibits the nAChR-mediated effects in a noncompetitive way. ..
  13. Koga T, Fujiwara R, Nakajima M, Yokoi T. Toxicological evaluation of acyl glucuronides of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs using human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011;39:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the AGs of NSAIDs were investigated and AG was not found to be a causal factor in the toxicity. ..
  14. Nowack K, Cannon F, Mazyck D. Enhancing activated carbon adsorption of 2-methylisoborneol: methane and steam treatments. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:276-84 pubmed
    ..5-fold). In contrast, methane treatments alone, at various temperatures, led to significant carbon deposition within the GAC pore structure. As a result, total pore volume was reduced and MIB adsorption performance declined. ..
  15. Zhong L, Geng L, Njie Y, Feng W, Song Z. CB2 cannabinoid receptors in trabecular meshwork cells mediate JWH015-induced enhancement of aqueous humor outflow facility. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:1988-92 pubmed
    ..The results also indicate that functional CB2 cannabinoid receptors are expressed in trabecular meshwork cells, and these receptors are involved in the enhancement of outflow facility induced by JWH015. ..
  16. Raborn E, Marciano Cabral F, Buckley N, Martin B, Cabral G. The cannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol mediates inhibition of macrophage chemotaxis to RANTES/CCL5: linkage to the CB2 receptor. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2008;3:117-29 pubmed publisher
  17. Liu Q, Bhat M, Bowen W, Cheng J. Signaling pathways from cannabinoid receptor-1 activation to inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid mediated calcium influx and neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:1062-70 pubmed publisher
  18. Laudien J, Wencker S, Ferstl R, Pause B. Context effects on odor processing: an event-related potential study. Neuroimage. 2008;41:1426-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Current source densities were most prominent in the frontal lobe in negatively biased participants. The findings show that expecting to perceive an emotionally significant odor affects the early encoding of odors. ..
  19. Liang C, Wang D, Yang M, Sun W, Zhang S. Removal of earthy-musty odorants in drinking water by powdered activated carbon. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2005;40:767-78 pubmed
    ..Adsorptive capacity of PAC for target compounds is reduced by chlorine residual and background organics. Characteristics of raw water have vast influence on the removal of target compounds by PAC. ..
  20. Bai M, Sexton M, Stella N, Bornhop D. MBC94, a conjugable ligand for cannabinoid CB 2 receptor imaging. Bioconjug Chem. 2008;19:988-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary evidence, including in vitro fluorescence imaging and a competition study, showed that NIRmbc94 specifically labeled CB 2-expressing cells. ..
  21. Izaguirre G, Taylor W. Geosmin and MIB events in a new reservoir in southern California. Water Sci Technol. 2007;55:9-14 pubmed
    ..These events showed that a new reservoir in a mild climate can be colonised by benthic cyanobacteria that produce MIB and geosmin, within a relatively short time. ..
  22. Wu L, Rowe E, Jeftinija K, Jeftinija S, Rizshsky L, Nikolau B, et al. Echinacea-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in HEK293. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010;10:72 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway is distinct from that induced in immune associated cells via the CB2 receptor. ..
  23. Maslov L, Lasukova O, Krylatov A, Hanus L, Pertwee R, Ivanchuk I, et al. Role of cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of cardiac contractility during ischemia/reperfusion. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006;142:557-61 pubmed
    ..However, endogenous cannabinoids are not involved in the development of myocardial contractile dysfunction during ischemia/reperfusion of the isolated heart. ..
  24. Guo C, Shah R, Dukor R, Cao X, Freedman T, Nafie L. Determination of enantiomeric excess in samples of chiral molecules using fourier transform vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy: simulation of real-time reaction monitoring. Anal Chem. 2004;76:6956-66 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate the potential for VCD to be used for real-time monitoring of the composition and % EE of chemical reactions involving the synthesis chiral molecules. ..
  25. Vuong L, Mitchell V, Vaughan C. Actions of N-arachidonyl-glycine in a rat neuropathic pain model. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54:189-93 pubmed
    ..HU-210, but not NAGly produced a reduction in rotarod latency. These findings suggest that NAGly may provide a novel analgesic approach to alleviate neuropathic pain. ..
  26. Gao C, Li X, Li Y, Wang L, Xue M. Pharmacokinetic interaction between puerarin and edaravone, and effect of borneol on the brain distribution kinetics of puerarin in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62:360-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide important information for the improved combined use of puerarin and edaravone with borneol pretreatment in clinical practice. ..
  27. Fabris F, De Lucchi O, Nardini I, Crisma M, Mazzanti A, Mason S, et al. (+)-syn-Benzotriborneol an enantiopure C3-symmetric receptor for water. Org Biomol Chem. 2012;10:2464-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report experimental (X-ray and neutron diffraction, VT NMR, DSC, TGA) and stereochemical studies carried out to elucidate and quantify the molecular and thermodynamic aspects of this supramolecular complex. ..
  28. Omur Ozbek P, Dietrich A. Determination of temperature-dependent Henry's law constants of odorous contaminants and their application to human perception. Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:3957-63 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that, after some point, panelists were not able to perceive an increase in the odorant concentration. This has important implications for controlling nuisance odors in the environment. ..
  29. Wang Z, Wang C, Li F, Li Z, Chen M, Wang Y, et al. Fumigant activity of volatiles from Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1 against Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon. J Microbiol. 2013;51:477-83 pubmed publisher
    ..moniliforme by fumigation. All these results suggested that S. alboflavus TD-1 can be a promising starter for the inhibition of F. moniliforme through fumigant action. ..
  30. Drikas M, Dixon M, Morran J. Removal of MIB and geosmin using granular activated carbon with and without MIEX pre-treatment. Water Res. 2009;43:5151-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Ueda Y, Miyagawa N, Wakitani K. Involvement of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in the IgE-mediated triphasic cutaneous reaction in mice. Life Sci. 2007;80:414-9 pubmed
  32. Guan Z, Pu C, Zhao K. [Study on preparation of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compound for borneolumsyntheticum from Huoxuezhitong capsules]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2006;29:66-71 pubmed
    ..The optimum process is feasible, and fit for industrial production, with the advantage of high utilization ratio, shot time and low energy consumption. ..
  33. Liu D, Gao Y, Wang H, Zi J, Huang H, Ji J, et al. Evaluation of the effects of cytochrome P450 nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms on tanshinol borneol ester metabolism and inhibition potential. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:2259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest applications for in vitro P450 assays both for basic research in pharmacogenomics and for drug development. ..
  34. Su J, Chen J, Li L, Li B, Shi L, Zhang H, et al. Preparation of natural borneol/2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex and its effect on the absorption of tetramethylpyrazine phosphate in mouse. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2012;60:736-42 pubmed
    ..However, the use of NB/HP-?-CD did not change the in vivo behavior of TMPP. Our results suggest the application potential of NB/HP-?-CD inclusion in pharmaceutics. ..
  35. Rosen B, Huang C, Percec V. Sequential Ni-catalyzed borylation and cross-coupling of aryl halides via in situ prepared neopentylglycolborane. Org Lett. 2008;10:2597-600 pubmed publisher
  36. Zeh A, Planert M, Klima S, Hein W, Wohlrab D. The flexible Triac-Brace for conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. An alternative treatment option?. Acta Orthop Belg. 2008;74:512-21 pubmed
    ..We do not recommend treatment of thoracic or double curves with the Triac-Brace. Larger studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness in lumbar curves. The improved wearing comfort is a potential advantage. ..
  37. Ding Z, Cowan A, Rawls S. Capsaicin evokes hypothermia independent of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. Brain Res. 2005;1065:147-51 pubmed
    ..p.) or SB 366791 (2 mg/kg, i.p.), a novel TRPV1 antagonist. These data suggest that capsaicin causes hypothermia by a CB(1)- and CB(2)-independent mechanism, and that WIN 55212-2 causes hypothermia by a TRPV1-independent mechanism. ..
  38. Qin X, Yuan F, Zhou D, Huang Y. Oral characteristics of bergenin and the effect of absorption enhancers in situ, in vitro and in vivo. Arzneimittelforschung. 2010;60:198-204 pubmed
    ..42 and 1.75-fold higher with borneol and F68 than that of the control group, respectively. The enhanced bioavailability suggests that borneol and F68 could promote the absorption of bergenin in the GI tract. ..
  39. McCollum L, Howlett A, Mukhopadhyay S. Anandamide-mediated CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor--independent nitric oxide production in rabbit aortic endothelial cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;321:930-7 pubmed
  40. Huang W, Lai C, Cheng Y. Evaluation of extracellular products and mutagenicity in cyanobacteria cultures separated from a eutrophic reservoir. Sci Total Environ. 2007;377:214-23 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the ECPs of three algae species dominating the eutrophic reservoir were mutagenic clearly in the bacterial test. ..
  41. Tolón R, Núñez E, Pazos M, Benito C, Castillo A, Martínez Orgado J, et al. The activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptors stimulates in situ and in vitro beta-amyloid removal by human macrophages. Brain Res. 2009;1283:148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These data corroborate the possible therapeutic interest of CB(2) cannabinoid specific chemicals in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. ..
  42. Mohsen H, Ali F. Essential oil composition of Artemisia herba-alba from southern Tunisia. Molecules. 2009;14:1585-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemical compositions revealed that ten samples had compositions similar to those of other Artemisia herba-alba essential oils analyzed in other countries. The remaining eight samples had an original chemical composition. ..
  43. Papp Z, Kerepeczki E, Pekar F, Gal D. Natural origins of off-flavours in fish related to feeding habits. Water Sci Technol. 2007;55:301-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the off-flavour tainting of common carp may originate from the sediment or benthic algallactinomycete sources. Negligible MIB levels were found in all samples in all of the studied aquatic systems. ..
  44. Duncan M, Kendall D, Ralevic V. Characterization of cannabinoid modulation of sensory neurotransmission in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;311:411-9 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that different classes of cannabinoid agonists attenuate sensory neurotransmission via a prejunctional site and provide evidence for mediation by a CB(1) and/or a non-CB(1)/CB(2) receptor. ..
  45. Frank D, Poole S, Kirchhoff S, Forde C. Investigation of sensory and volatile characteristics of farmed and wild barramundi (Lates calcarifer) using gas chromatography-olfactometry mass spectrometry and descriptive sensory analysis. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:10302-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Multivariate modeling was used to relate the sensory, olfactometry, and instrumental data; overall, there was good agreement between the data sets. ..
  46. Sagehashi M, Shiraishi K, Fujita H, Fujii T, Sakoda A. Ozone decomposition of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in adsorption phase on high silica zeolites with preventing bromate formation. Water Res. 2005;39:2926-34 pubmed
    ..As a result, sufficient decomposition of MIB was achieved with preventing bromate formation. ..
  47. Adamczyk P, Miszkiel J, McCreary A, Filip M, Papp M, Przegalinski E. The effects of cannabinoid CB1, CB2 and vanilloid TRPV1 receptor antagonists on cocaine addictive behavior in rats. Brain Res. 2012;1444:45-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to CB1 receptors, neither CB2 nor TRPV1 receptors play a role in cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. ..
  48. Rahn E, Thakur G, Wood J, Zvonok A, Makriyannis A, Hohmann A. Pharmacological characterization of AM1710, a putative cannabinoid CB2 agonist from the cannabilactone class: antinociception without central nervous system side-effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;98:493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed pattern of pharmacological specificity produced by AM1710 is consistent with limited blood brain barrier penetration of this compound and absence of CNS side-effects. ..
  49. Lachenmeier D, Nathan Maister D, Breaux T, Sohnius E, Schoeberl K, Kuballa T. Chemical composition of vintage preban absinthe with special reference to thujone, fenchone, pinocamphone, methanol, copper, and antimony concentrations. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:3073-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of pinocamphone, fenchone, base spirits, copper, and antimony were inconspicuous. All things considered, nothing besides ethanol was found in the absinthes that was able to explain the syndrome "absinthism". ..
  50. Desautels A, Biswas K, Lane A, Boeckelmann A, Mahmoud S. Suppression of linalool acetate production in Lavandula x intermedia. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4:1533-6 pubmed
    ..This plant, which very likely carries a point mutation in one or more of the genes involved in essential oil production, provides a unique tool for investigating regulation of essential oil biogenesis in plants. ..
  51. Hasanein P, Parviz M, Keshavarz M, Javanmardi K. CB1 receptor activation in the basolateral amygdala produces antinociception in animal models of acute and tonic nociception. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;34:439-49 pubmed
  52. Foti C, Romita P, Rigano L, Zimerson E, Sicilia M, Ballini A, et al. Isobornyl acrylate: an impurity in alkyl glucosides. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2016;35:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Isobornyl acrylate may play a role as hidden allergen, in the form of an impurity collected during the industrial process, explaining some cases of allergic reaction to alkyl glucosides. ..
  53. Stavrakov G, Philipova I, Valcheva V, Momekov G. Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of novel camphane-based agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014;24:165-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the most potent compounds exert low level of cytotoxic activity. These camphane-based amido-alcohols present promising potential lead compounds for further elaboration of antimycobacterial agents. ..
  54. Schlosburg J, Radanova L, Di Marzo V, Imming P, Lichtman A. Evaluation of the endogenous cannabinoid system in mediating the behavioral effects of dipyrone (metamizol) in mice. Behav Pharmacol. 2012;23:722-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that FAAH-dependent arachidonoyl metabolites and cannabinoid receptors are not requisites by which dipyrone exerts these pharmacological effects under noninflammatory conditions. ..
  55. Benamar K, Geller E, Adler M. First in vivo evidence for a functional interaction between chemokine and cannabinoid systems in the brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;325:641-5 pubmed publisher
  56. Dalle Carbonare M, Del Giudice E, Stecca A, Colavito D, Fabris M, D Arrigo A, et al. A saturated N-acylethanolamine other than N-palmitoyl ethanolamine with anti-inflammatory properties: a neglected story. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20 Suppl 1:26-34 pubmed publisher
  57. Raitio K, Savinainen J, Vepsalainen J, Laitinen J, Poso A, Jarvinen T, et al. Synthesis and SAR studies of 2-oxoquinoline derivatives as CB2 receptor inverse agonists. J Med Chem. 2006;49:2022-7 pubmed
    ..As a result, all the compounds were defined as full CB2 receptor inverse agonists, and additionally, except for two 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalkylamides, they were found to be equally potent as SR144528. ..
  58. Lv X, Sun M, Sun F. [Research of bornrol promote drugs through blood-brain barrier]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2012;37:878-81 pubmed
    ..It can also promote other therapeutic drugs through the BBB. It has two-ways regulations on BBB permeability and the damage of brain tissue is small, this have important theoretical significances and application values. ..
  59. Zhang N, Liu P, He X. [Effect of single-used borneol and combining it with diazepam on content of neurotransmitter in corpus striatum of rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:3180-3 pubmed
    ..05), while Asp and Glu showed no significant difference. Borneol can improve permeability of diazepam through BBB. ..
  60. Giannini L, Nistri S, Mastroianni R, Cinci L, Vannacci A, Mariottini C, et al. Activation of cannabinoid receptors prevents antigen-induced asthma-like reaction in guinea pigs. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:2381-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that targeting cannabinoid receptors could be a novel preventative therapeutic strategy in asthmatic patients. ..
  61. Dickschat J, Nawrath T, Thiel V, Kunze B, Muller R, Schulz S. Biosynthesis of the off-flavor 2-methylisoborneol by the myxobacterium Nannocystis exedens. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2007;46:8287-90 pubmed
  62. Gangemi F, Gangemi R, Longhi G, Abbate S. Experimental and ab-initio calculated vcd spectra of the first OH-stretching overtone of (1R)-(-) and (1S)-(+)-endo-BORNEOL. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2009;11:2683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Absorption features for the fundamental and for the second overtone of the OH stretching are also compared with experiment. ..
  63. Horvathova E, Kozics K, Srancíková A, Hunáková L, Galova E, Sevcovicova A, et al. Borneol administration protects primary rat hepatocytes against exogenous oxidative DNA damage. Mutagenesis. 2012;27:581-8 pubmed publisher
  64. Ariyawutthiphan O, Ose T, Tsuda M, Gao Y, Yao M, Minami A, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of a methyltransferase involved in 2-methylisoborneol biosynthesis in Streptomyces lasaliensis. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2011;67:417-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Two crystal forms of the tertiary complex with GPP and sinefungin were also obtained. Structure analysis of these crystals is currently under way in order to understand the enzyme reaction mechanism. ..
  65. Lachenmeier D, Nathan Maister D, Breaux T, Kuballa T. Long-term stability of thujone, fenchone, and pinocamphone in vintage preban absinthe. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:2782-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A previous evaluation of preban absinthe was therefore valid and not confounded by significant thujone deterioration over time. ..
  66. Saravanakumar M, Manivannan J, Sivasubramanian J, Silambarasan T, Balamurugan E, Raja B. Molecular metabolic fingerprinting approach to investigate the effects of borneol on metabolic alterations in the liver of nitric oxide deficient hypertensive rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;362:203-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All the above mentioned modifications were protected by borneol in liver and showed its ability to exert a novel defensive action on hepatic metabolism. ..
  67. Scott D, Wright C, Angus J. Evidence that CB-1 and CB-2 cannabinoid receptors mediate antinociception in neuropathic pain in the rat. Pain. 2004;109:124-31 pubmed
    ..005). These results suggest a role for CB-2 receptor-mediated antinociception in both acute and neuropathic pain in addition to centrally located CB-1 mechanisms. ..
  68. Lu Y, Du S, Yao Z, Zhao P, Zhai Y. [Study on natural borneol and synthetic borneol affecting mucosal permeability of gardenia extract]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:1207-10 pubmed
    ..By using more natural borneol, the mucosal permeability of Gardenia extract can be increased, the time-lag can be reduced, and Jasminoidin has better stability. ..
  69. Dong L, Wang J, Deng C, Shen X. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following pressurized hot water extraction and solid-phase microextraction for quantification of eucalyptol, camphor, and borneol in Chrysanthemum flowers. J Sep Sci. 2007;30:86-9 pubmed
    ..The results showed that PHWE-SPME-GC-MS is a simple, rapid, efficient, and solvent-free technique for the quantitative determination of eucalyptol, camphor, and borneol in TCMs and is potentially useful for the TCM quality assessment. ..
  70. Sagar D, Jhaveri M, Richardson D, Gray R, de Lago E, Fernandez Ruiz J, et al. Endocannabinoid regulation of spinal nociceptive processing in a model of neuropathic pain. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:1414-22 pubmed publisher
  71. Young G, Bush J. Assessment of the allelopathic potential of Juniperus ashei on germination and growth of Bouteloua curtipendula. J Chem Ecol. 2009;35:74-80 pubmed publisher
    ..ashei. Chemical analyses indicate that monoterpenes are released through leaching and volatilization from J. ashei, and germination and field studies suggest that these compounds inhibit B. curtipendula...
  72. Kim H, Kim K, Ku H, Park S, Choi H, Moon J, et al. Identification and characterization of potent CYP2B6 inhibitors in Woohwangcheongsimwon suspension, an herbal preparation used in the treatment and prevention of apoplexy in Korea and China. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36:1010-5 pubmed publisher
  73. Kishimoto S, Kobayashi Y, Oka S, Gokoh M, Waku K, Sugiura T. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, induces accelerated production of chemokines in HL-60 cells. J Biochem. 2004;135:517-24 pubmed
    ..Detailed studies on the cannabinoid receptor system are thus essential to gain a better understanding of the precise regulatory mechanisms of inflammatory reactions and immune responses. ..
  74. Carrier E, Auchampach J, Hillard C. Inhibition of an equilibrative nucleoside transporter by cannabidiol: a mechanism of cannabinoid immunosuppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7895-900 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that CBD has the ability to enhance adenosine signaling through inhibition of uptake and provide a non-cannabinoid receptor mechanism by which CBD can decrease inflammation. ..
  75. Chou W, Gould C, Cane D. Incubation of 2-methylisoborneol synthase with the intermediate analog 2-methylneryl diphosphate. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2017;70:625-631 pubmed publisher
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    ..Therefore, bornyl acetate and nezukol fractionated from C. japonica essential oil, which showed highly active whitening and antioxidant activities, have potential applications in cosmeceutical materials. ..
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    ..Thus, UGT2B12 and UGT 2B1 isoforms are responsible for catalyzing HAL glucuronidation in rats. Our HPLC assay provides a specific and sensitive technique for the measurement of in vitro HAL-UGT activity. ..
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