pleural cavity


Summary: Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.

Top Publications

  1. Tremblay A, Michaud G. Single-center experience with 250 tunnelled pleural catheter insertions for malignant pleural effusion. Chest. 2006;129:362-8 pubmed
    ..Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are a common cause of dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer. Tunnelled pleural catheters (TPCs) can be used in patients with this condition, but the published experience with them is limited...
  2. Tremblay A, Mason C, Michaud G. Use of tunnelled catheters for malignant pleural effusions in patients fit for pleurodesis. Eur Respir J. 2007;30:759-62 pubmed
    ..Tunnelled pleural catheters are an effective way of controlling malignant pleural effusions when used as first-line treatment in patients who appear to be candidates for pleurodesis procedures...
  3. Seyhan E, Altin S, Cetinkaya E, Sokucu S, Gunluoglu M, Demir A, et al. The importance of pleural fluid and serum NT-proBNP levels in differentiating pleural effusion due to heart failure from other causes of effusion. Intern Med. 2009;48:287-93 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to assess the diagnostic performance of the amino-terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in pleural fluid and serum for the identification of pleural effusion owing to heart failure...
  4. Noishiki Y, Shintani N. Anti-adhesive membrane for pleural cavity. Artif Organs. 2010;34:224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..membrane containing a large amount of glycerin was developed for lung surgery and was tested in the pleural cavity of six dogs...
  5. Eskandarlou M, Moaddab A. Chest wall necrosis and empyema resulting from attempting suicide by injection of petroleum into the pleural cavity. Emerg Med J. 2010;27:616-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Liu K, Liu S, Chen H, Huang Y, Peng Y, Wu R, et al. Steady antibiotic release from biodegradable beads in the pleural cavity: an in vitro and in vivo study. Chest. 2012;141:1197-1202 pubmed publisher
    ..We designed and fabricated a poly(D,L)-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)-based biodegradable drug delivery system and evaluated the release of antibiotics both in vitro and in vivo...
  7. Guazzelli L, Severo C, Hoff L, Pinto G, Camargo J, Severo L. Aspergillus fumigatus fungus ball in the pleural cavity. J Bras Pneumol. 2012;38:125-32 pubmed
    To report the cases of 6 patients with fungus ball caused by Aspergillus fumigatus (aspergilloma) in the pleural cavity.
  8. McLeod N, Vallely M, Mathur M. Massive immature mediastinal teratoma extending into the left pleural cavity. Heart Lung Circ. 2005;14:45-7 pubmed
    ..The tumor arose from the left lobe of the thymus and extended into the left pleural cavity, completely compressing the left lung and extensively shifting the mediastinum to the right...
  9. Matsui M, Kojima A, Kakizaki S, Nagasaka K, Sohara N, Sato K, et al. Ectopic varices in a right diaphragm that ruptured into the pleural cavity. Acta Med Okayama. 2006;60:229-32 pubmed
    ..experienced a rare case of ectopic varices that developed in the right diaphragm and ruptured into the pleural cavity. A 68-year-old female with hepatocellular carcinoma complicated with liver cirrhosis was admitted due to an ..

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Adamowicz Czoch E, Głowacki J, Hawranek M, Dziubek B, Gierlotka M, Zembala M. [An old ventricular lead migration and subsequent dislodgement to the pleural cavity - an unusual complication of permanent cardiac pacing]. Kardiol Pol. 2008;66:869-72 pubmed
    ..Chest radiogram and computerised tomography revealed an unusual location of an old ventricular lead which proximal, sharp end migrated through the venous system via right ventricle and pericardium to the left pleural cavity.
  2. Tiro A, Talukdar R, Lewis M. A unique case of serous psammocarcinoma of the ovary presenting with pleural effusion and manifesting psammoma body implants in the pleural cavity and pericardium. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;113:402-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Psammomatous carcinoma is rare, with few cases having been reported to date...
  3. Xie T, Liu G, Kreuter K, Mahon S, Colt H, Mukai D, et al. In vivo three-dimensional imaging of normal tissue and tumors in the rabbit pleural cavity using endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography with thoracoscopic guidance. J Biomed Opt. 2009;14:064045 pubmed publisher
    ..The imaging probe of the system was found to be easily adaptable to various sites within the thoracic cavity and can be readily adapted to other sites, including rigid airway endoscopic examinations...
  4. Braga A, Miranda J, Ferreira G, Bilheiro R, Duarte I, Francischi J, et al. Blockade of proteinase-activated receptor-4 inhibits the eosinophil recruitment induced by eotaxin-1 in the pleural cavity of mice. Pharmacology. 2010;86:224-30 pubmed publisher
  5. Xu J, Futakuchi M, Shimizu H, Alexander D, Yanagihara K, Fukamachi K, et al. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes translocate into the pleural cavity and induce visceral mesothelial proliferation in rats. Cancer Sci. 2012;103:2045-50 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pleural cavity lavage fluid, lung and chest wall were then collected...
  6. Matos N, Silva J, Matsui T, Damasceno K, Duarte I, Lemos V, et al. Mast cell tryptase induces eosinophil recruitment in the pleural cavity of mice via proteinase-activated receptor 2. Inflammation. 2013;36:1260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the ability of MC tryptase or PAR-2 activating peptide (SLIGRL-NH2) to induce eosinophil recruitment to the pleural cavity of mice. Mast cell tryptase-injected mice were pretreated with PAR-2 antagonist ENMD-1068...
  7. Sawada Y, Kamihira M, Asano S, Nakashima Y, Kihara M, Ochiai K, et al. [A case of mediastinal pancreatic pseudocysts which ruptured into the pleural cavity and emerged pancreatic pleural effusion]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2004;101:188-90 pubmed
  8. Ramsaroop L, Singh B, Moodley J, Partab P, Satyapal K. Anatomical basis for a successful upper limb sympathectomy in the thoracoscopic era. Clin Anat. 2004;17:294-9 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that ANPs have little clinical significance when a second thoracic ganglionectomy is undertaken. Technical failures may be avoided if the surgeon is mindful of anatomical variations at surgery. ..
  9. Tsukioka T, Inoue K, Oka H, Mizuguchi S, Morita R, Nishiyama N. Intraoperative mechanical and chemical pleurodesis with 50 % glucose solution for secondary spontaneous pneumothorax in patients with pulmonary emphysema. Surg Today. 2013;43:889-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the therapeutic process and effectiveness of adding mechanical plus chemical pleurodesis, with a 50 % glucose solution, to bullectomy, for patients with pulmonary emphysema-related pneumothorax...
  10. Vallabhajosyula S, Sundaragiri P, Berim I. Boerhaave Syndrome Presenting as Tension Pneumothorax: First Reported North American Case. J Intensive Care Med. 2016;31:349-52 pubmed publisher
    ..It communicates with the left pleural space in 80% to 90% of cases, but <5% of cases involve the right pleural cavity. Unexplained and rapidly progressive pleural effusions have been associated with this entity...
  11. Kondov G, Kondov B, Srceva M, Damjanovski G, Ferati I, Karapetrov I, et al. Giant Mediastinal Thymic Cyst. Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki). 2017;38:139-145 pubmed publisher
    ..the small right anterior thoracotomy from which a giant part of the cyst was mobilized, which was in the right pleural cavity, but, also, the thymus with the origin of the cyst in the anterior and superior mediastinum was completely ..
  12. Petrella F, Spaggiari L. Stem Cells Application in Thoracic Surgery: Current Perspective and Future Directions. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1089:143-147 pubmed publisher
    ..Bronchopleural fistula is a pathological connection between the bronchus and the pleural cavity that may develop after lung resection, thus causing pleural empyema due to colonization by resident airway ..
  13. Sakamoto K, Ohmori T, Takei H, Hasuo K, Rino Y, Takanashi Y. Autologous salvaged blood transfusion in spontaneous hemopneumothorax. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78:705-7 pubmed
    ..We herein report two cases of successful autologous blood transfusions using blood in the pleural space, decreasing or obviating the need for allogeneic blood transfusion. ..
  14. Mihos P, Gakidis I, Potaris K, Stathopoulou S. Tonsillitis, descending necrotizing mediastinitis, and a different neck drainage. Am J Otolaryngol. 2006;27:341-3 pubmed
  15. Wang X, Zheng H, Zhu Z, Wei Y, Chen L. Clinical pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel liposome with a new route of administration in human based on the analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography. J Pharm Sci. 2010;99:4746-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results might offer new opportunities to design and determine individually appropriate therapeutic dosage regimens based on a pharmacokinetic profile. ..
  16. Muraoka M, Oka T, Akamine S, Tagawa T, Morinaga M, Inoue M, et al. Modified intrapleural cisplatin treatment for lung cancer with positive pleural lavage cytology or malignant effusion. J Surg Oncol. 2006;93:323-9 pubmed
    ..After pulmonary resection, the pleural cavity was filled with cisplatin with a normal saline solution for 30 min...
  17. Nagdyman N, Ewert P, Schmitt K, Hubler M, Stiller B, Muller C, et al. Protein S-100 is present in extracerebral fluids before and after cardiac surgery in children. Ann Clin Biochem. 2008;45:409-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein S-100 is present in extracerebral fluids before and after cardiac surgery in children. The time point of fluid withdrawal after the operation did not influence the protein S-100 concentration. ..
  18. Kocijancic K, Vidmar G, Kocijancic I. Sonographic evaluation of pleural fluid in a large group of adult healthy individuals--end trial results. Coll Antropol. 2009;33:805-10 pubmed
  19. Petrakis I, Heffner J, Klein J. Surgery should be the first line of treatment for empyema. Respirology. 2010;15:202-7 pubmed publisher
  20. Yokohira M, Nakano Y, Yamakawa K, Kishi S, Ninomiya F, Saoo K, et al. Strain differences in pleural mesothelial cell reactions induced by potassium octatitanate fibers (TISMO) infused directly into the thoracic cavity. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2013;65:925-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This difference in response to TISMO fibers in vivo is important information when considering the development of mesothelioma as an animal model and the extrapolation to human risk from such animal studies. ..
  21. Royo Crespo I, Rivas De Andrés J, Embún Flor R, Cortés Franco S. Chondroid chordoma in an atypical location. Arch Bronconeumol. 2013;49:491-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the case of a patient with a chondroid chordoma involving the thoracic vertebrae and pleural cavity, and the treatment performed.
  22. Kozower B, Meyers B, Ciccone A, Guthrie T, Patterson G. Potential for detrimental hyperinflation after lung transplantation with application of negative pleural pressure to undersized lung grafts. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;125:430-2 pubmed
  23. Karakaya D, Baris S, Ozkan F, Demircan S, Gok U, Ustun E, et al. Analgesic effects of interpleural bupivacaine with fentanyl for post-thoracotomy pain. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2004;18:461-5 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that total fentanyl consumption via PCA decreased in all interpleural groups, but pain during coughing and deep breathing was significantly reduced in only the interpleural bupivacaine/fentanyl with epinephrine group. ..
  24. Topalov I, Iordanov D, Vasilev B. [Set for hermetization during transportation and draining of the pleural cavity]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia). 2003;59:54-6 pubmed
    ..transportation of the injured requires hermetization of the open pneumothorax with ensured draining of the pleural cavity in order to eliminate the possibility of the appearance of a valve pneumothorax...
  25. Harrop Griffiths W, Denny N. Migration of interscalene catheter--not proven. Br J Anaesth. 2006;96:266, author reply 266-7 pubmed
  26. Rodriguez Panadero F, Montes Worboys A. Mechanisms of pleurodesis. Respiration. 2012;83:91-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, the type of tumor in the pleural cavity may also affect the outcome of pleurodesis (diffuse malignant mesothelioma and metastatic lung carcinomas have ..
  27. Banga A, Khilnani G, Sharma S, Dey A, Wig N, Banga N. A study of empyema thoracis and role of intrapleural streptokinase in its management. BMC Infect Dis. 2004;4:19 pubmed
    ..All patients were diagnosed on the basis of aspiration of frank pus from pleural cavity. Clinical profile, response to therapy and outcome were compared between the patients who received ..
  28. Tan P, Chan C. Bilateral pleural effusions following central venous cannulation. J Postgrad Med. 2007;53:117-8 pubmed
    ..Respiratory distress should not only raise the clinical suspicion of a pneumothorax but also of erosion and perforation of the central vein. The mechanism, diagnosis, management and prevention of this complication are discussed. ..
  29. West C, Erskine K, Hamdan K. Transthoracic Littre's hernia presenting with faecopneumothorax following perforation of the Meckel's diverticulum: a late complication of oesophagectomy. BMJ Case Rep. 2017;2017: pubmed publisher
    ..After a chest drain was placed, bowel contents were drained from the pleural cavity and he was taken to theatre...
  30. Hong T, Choi Y. Delayed Iatrogenic Diaphragmatic Hernia after Left Lower Lobectomy. Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017;50:456-459 pubmed publisher
    ..Abdominal computed tomography showed the stomach herniating into the left thoracic cavity. We explored the pleural cavity via video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)...
  31. Bodega F, Tresoldi C, Porta C, Zocchi L, Agostoni E. Distribution and mixing of a liquid bolus in pleural space. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2006;150:287-99 pubmed
    ..3 ml hydrothoraces lasting 3 h [Bodega, F., Agostoni, E., 2004. Contribution of lymphatic drainage through stomata to albumin removal from pleural space. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 142, 251-263]. ..
  32. Papla B, Harazda M, Kuzdzał J, Wozniak A, Limon J, Stachura J. Primary intrathoracic biphasic synovial sarcoma--a case report. Pol J Pathol. 2005;56:207-10 pubmed
    ..The authors present a rare case of a synovial sarcoma involving both pleural cavities in a 66-year old woman, confirmed by the t(X;18) translocation detected using the FISH method. ..
  33. Maurer K, Blumenthal S, Rentsch K, Schmid E. Continuous extrapleural infusion of ropivacaine 0.2% after cardiovascular surgery via the lateral thoracotomy approach. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;22:249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma concentrations of ropivacaine, administered at the given dose and rates during continuous extrapleural infusion, are unpredictable and may reach toxic levels in patients undergoing major cardiothoracic surgery. ..
  34. Jackson Jones L, Duncan S, Magalhaes M, Campbell S, Maizels R, McSorley H, et al. Fat-associated lymphoid clusters control local IgM secretion during pleural infection and lung inflammation. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12651 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about the physiological cues that activate FALCs in the pleural cavity and more generally the mechanisms controlling B-cell activation in FALCs...
  35. Sparano D, Kohli P, Gulati M. A 63-year-old woman with a pericardial effusion, bilateral pleural effusions, and ascites: is the whole greater than the sum of its parts?. Echocardiography. 2010;27:454-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The case and review of this condition are described. Patients with a pericardial effusion and symptoms unresponsive to pericardiocentesis or with pericardial thickening should undergo evaluation for effusive-constrictive pericarditis. ..
  36. Vakil N, Su J, Mason D, Reyes K, Murthy S, Pettersson G. Allograft entrapment after lung transplantation: a simple solution using a pleurocutaneous catheter. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;58:299-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct catheter-related complications included hemothorax (1) and empyema (1). Use of an indwelling pleurocutaneous catheter effectively achieves its intended goals of pleurodesis and management of entrapped lungs after LTx. ..
  37. DePew Z, Iqbal S, Mullon J, Nichols F, Maldonado F. The role for tunneled indwelling pleural catheters in patients with persistent benign chylothorax. Am J Med Sci. 2013;346:349-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Utilization of a TIPC for the management of persistent benign chylothorax should be considered early because pleurodesis may be frequently and safely achieved in this patient population. ..
  38. Pedra F, Tambellini A, Pereira B, da Costa A, de Castro H. Mesothelioma mortality in Brazil, 1980-2003. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2008;14:170-5 pubmed
    ..Mortality was highest among males and people over age 65. Given the history of asbestos exposure in Brazil, our findings support the need for policies that limit or ban the use of this product. ..
  39. Taniguchi Y, Nakamura H, Miwa K, Adachi Y, Fujioka S, Haruki T, et al. Prognostic significance of pleural lavage cytology after thoracotomy and before closure of the chest in lung cancer. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2009;9:102-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, PLC before closure was an independent prognostic factor based on multivariate analyses. We conclude that PLC before closure was found to be a better prognostic factor than PLC after thoracotomy for NSCLC patients. ..
  40. Korona Glowniak I, Los R, Rybojad P, Sawicki M, Malm A. Bacterial colonization of pleural drains in patients with lung cancer: an analysis of risk factors. Med Sci Monit. 2010;16:CR84-91 pubmed
    ..Patients with resectable lung cancer showed a high rate of pleural drain colonization, mainly by opportunistic pathogens, even in the absence of clinical signs of infection. ..
  41. Sunderland N, Maweni R, Akunuri S, Karnovitch E. Re-expansion pulmonary oedema: a novel emergency therapeutic option. BMJ Case Rep. 2016;2016: pubmed publisher acute respiratory decompensation that was treated by reintroducing the drained pleural fluid back into the pleural cavity. We also present a review of the literature specifically assessing the reported incidence rate of REPO after ..
  42. Jameel N, Frey B, Frey F, Gowda T, Vishwanath B. Inhibition of secretory phospholipase A(2) enzyme by bilirubin: a new role as endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;276:219-25 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that inhibition of sPLA(2) by bilirubin is mediated by direct interaction with the enzyme and bilirubin may act as an endogenous regulator of sPLA(2) enzyme activity. ..
  43. Dohmen K, Tanaka H, Haruno M, Niho Y. Hepatic hydrothorax occurring rapidly after manual abdominal compression. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:6284-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, the causal factors for rapid passage of ascitic fluid into the pleural cavity are unknown...
  44. Khaleeq G, Musani A. Emerging paradigms in the management of malignant pleural effusions. Respir Med. 2008;102:939-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite multiple new therapies placement of chest tube with sclerotherapy remains the standard of care. The purpose of this article is to review the emerging therapeutic options for MPE management. ..
  45. Ando H, Kobayashi S, Abu Lila A, Eldin N, Kato C, Shimizu T, et al. Advanced therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma via the intrapleural administration of liposomal pemetrexed. J Control Release. 2015;220:29-36 pubmed publisher
    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer that proliferates in the pleural cavity. Pemetrexed (PMX) in combination with cisplatin is currently the approved standard care for MPM, but a dismal response rate persists...
  46. Reser D, Holubec T, Yilmaz M, Guidotti A, Maisano F. Right lateral mini-thoracotomy for mitral valve surgery. Multimed Man Cardiothorac Surg. 2015;2015: pubmed publisher
    ..With a double-lumen tube, the right lung is deflated before entering the pleural cavity. A soft tissue retractor is used to minimize rib spreading...
  47. Vigil de Mello S, da Rosa J, Facchin B, Luz A, Vicente G, Faqueti L, et al. Beneficial effect of Ageratum conyzoides Linn (Asteraceae) upon inflammatory response induced by carrageenan into the mice pleural cavity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;194:337-347 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-inflammatory action of A. conyzoides L. may be because of the inhibition of p65 NF-?B and MAPK activation by the isolated compounds. ..
  48. Beigelman Aubry C, Brauner M. [Computed tomographic anatomy of the intercostal space and the pleura. Pleural plaques: positive and differential diagnosis]. Rev Pneumol Clin. 2006;62:93-6 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis of pleural plaques depends on adequate knowledge of the normal anatomy of the pleura and intercostals spaces which is indispensable for understanding the normal computed tomographic images of the thorax and anatomic variants. ..
  49. Flores R, Pass H, Seshan V, Dycoco J, Zakowski M, Carbone M, et al. Extrapleural pneumonectomy versus pleurectomy/decortication in the surgical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma: results in 663 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;135:620-6, 626.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..At present, the choice of resection should be tailored to the extent of disease, patient comorbidities, and type of multimodality therapy planned. ..
  50. Aldea A, Scarlat M, Bosânceanu M, Rusu V, Iosep G, Pricopi C, et al. [Unique monoblock lung right-left, unique pleural cavity]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2010;114:460-4 pubmed
    ..During the surgical intervention multiple anatomical anomalies were detected, like unique pleural cavity, monoblock lung left-right, hypoplasic left lung, no scissures on the left side, no left pulmonary arteria ..
  51. Kartaloglu Z, Okutan O, Isitmangil T, Kunter E, Sebit S, Apaydin M, et al. Pyo-pneumothorax in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis: an analysis of 17 cases without intrapleural fibrinolytic treatment. Med Princ Pract. 2006;15:33-8 pubmed
    ..To review the medical records of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and pyo-pneumothorax (PPT)...
  52. Ceron J, Peñalver J, Escriva J, Padilla J. Unusual evolution of a pneumonectomy cavity. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;32:796 pubmed
  53. Seo H, Kim T, Jin K, Lee K. Multi-detector row computed tomographic evaluation of bronchopleural fistula: correlation with clinical, bronchoscopic, and surgical findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2010;34:13-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the usefulness of multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of bronchopleural fistula (BPF) and to correlate CT features with clinical, bronchoscopic, and surgical findings...
  54. Kaul P, George R, Paniagua R, Petsa A, Congiu S. Innominate truncal dissection and rupture into right pleural cavity following acute type A dissection of the aorta with right coronary ostial avulsion and inferior STEMI. Perfusion. 2011;26:435-40 pubmed publisher
    An innominate truncal dissection and rupture into the right pleural cavity with massive hemothorax is the initial presentation in this 66-year-old lady with type A dissection of the aorta complicated by right coronary ostial avulsion and ..
  55. Zemer O, Brenner O, Ginnsburg R, Cohen L, Milgram J. Intrathoracic pseudocyst in a kitten. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15:345-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Serosanguinous fluid, consistent with a modified transudate, was aspirated from the pleural cavity immediately after the physical examination, with an immediate decrease in respiratory rate and effort...
  56. Lian R, Zhang G, Zhang G. Empyema caused by a colopleural fistula: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8165 pubmed publisher
    ..If normal intestinal bacteria are detected, the empyema may be derived from intestinal disease. In addition, an abdominal examination should be performed in patients with an empyema of unknown origin. ..
  57. Medina L, Calixto S, Klipper R, Phillips W, Goins B. Avidin/biotin-liposome system injected in the pleural space for drug delivery to mediastinal lymph nodes. J Pharm Sci. 2004;93:2595-608 pubmed
  58. Ahidjo A, Hammangabdo A, Anka M. The chest radiographic appearance and frequency distribution of cavities in pulmonary tuberculosis among adults in northeastern, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2005;34:281-4 pubmed
    ..Multiple, thick wall cavitations were the common presentation. Fungal balls and fluid levels were rare...
  59. Nataraju A, Raghavendra Gowda C, Rajesh R, Vishwanath B. Group IIA secretory PLA2 inhibition by ursolic acid: a potent anti-inflammatory molecule. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7:801-9 pubmed
    ..These studies revealed that the strong anti-inflammatory activity of ursolic acid is by inhibiting sPLA2 enzymes...
  60. Attout T, Martin C, Babayan S, Kozek W, Bazzocchi C, Oudet F, et al. Pleural cellular reaction to the filarial infection Litomosoides sigmodontis is determined by the moulting process, the worm alteration, and the host strain. Parasitol Int. 2008;57:201-11 pubmed publisher
    ..used to decipher the complex in vivo relationships between filariae, granulomas and leukocytes in the host's pleural cavity. The study was performed from D5 p.i.: to D47 p.i. in resistant C57BL/6 mice, to D74 p.i...
  61. Kinoshita F, Saida Y, Okajima Y, Honda S, Sato T, Hayashibe A, et al. Thoracolithiasis: 11 cases with a calcified intrapleural loose body. J Thorac Imaging. 2010;25:64-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe clinical and imaging characteristics of thoracolithiasis...
  62. Martha V, Fraga J, Amantea S, Sanches P, Kulczynski J, Machado D, et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha in experimental empyema thoracis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010;45:1201-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine serum and pleural concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) in an experimental model of empyema induced by intrapleural inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae...
  63. Wang G, Xu T, Bu X, Liu B. Anti-inflammation effects of corn silk in a rat model of carrageenin-induced pleurisy. Inflammation. 2012;35:822-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Supplementation with CSEX may be a promising treatment for inflammatory diseases that involve oxidative stress...
  64. Pramesh C, Mistry R, Agarwal J. Intraoperative pleural lavage cytology should not influence decision for radical surgery in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:1564; author reply 1565 pubmed
  65. Kawaoka T, Yoshino S, Kondo H, Yamamoto K, Hazama S, Oka M. [Clinical evaluation of intrapleural or peritoneal repetitive administration of Lentinan and OK-432 for malignant effusion]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2005;32:1565-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, a repetitive intracavital administration of LTN and OK-432 is effective for malignant effusion...
  66. Babayan S, Attout T, Harris A, Taylor M, Le Goff L, Vuong P, et al. Vaccination against filarial nematodes with irradiated larvae provides long-term protection against the third larval stage but not against subsequent life cycle stages. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:903-14 pubmed
    ..i. The developmental stage targeted was the L3, since no nematodes died once they reached the pleural cavity of vaccinated mice, as has been previously shown in short-term protocols...
  67. Kawada M, Murakami G, Yajima T, Sato T, Mizobuchi S, Sasaguri S. Potential foramen to allow communication between the pleural cavity and retroperitoneal space during laparoscopic surgery: a cadaver study of Bochdalek's triangle. Surg Radiol Anat. 2007;29:105-13 pubmed
    ..6%). To avoid the distal end of the 12th rib, in laparoscopic retroperitoneal surgery, we recommend making a transverse skin incision at the midpoint between the end of the 12th rib and the iliac crest...
  68. Medford A, Agrawal S, Bennett J, Free C, Entwisle J. Thoracic ultrasound prior to medical thoracoscopy improves pleural access and predicts fibrous septation. Respirology. 2010;15:804-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential role of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) pre-MT has not been fully evaluated. We hypothesized TUS would reduce failure to access the pleural space and enable detection of thick fibrous adhesions...
  69. Finley D, Rusch V. Anatomy of the pleura. Thorac Surg Clin. 2011;21:157-63, vii pubmed publisher
    ..and lymphatic system just deep to the mesothelial layer, the pleura is a dynamic layer protecting the lung and pleural cavity from infection while transmitting the forces of respiration without damage to the underlying lung parenchyma.
  70. Liang C, Shuang L, Wei L, Bolduc J, Deslauriers J. Correlative anatomy of the pleura and pleural spaces. Thorac Surg Clin. 2011;21:177-82, vii-viii pubmed publisher
  71. Allegra M, Ianaro A, Tersigni M, Panza E, Tesoriere L, Livrea M. Indicaxanthin from cactus pear fruit exerts anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenin-induced rat pleurisy. J Nutr. 2014;144:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Rat pleurisy was achieved by injection of 0.2 mL of ?-carrageenin in the pleural cavity, and rats were killed 4, 24, and 48 h later; exudates were collected to analyze inflammatory parameters, such ..
  72. Satoh Y. Management of chest drainage tubes after lung surgery. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016;64:305-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The management of chest tubes must be based on careful observation, the patient's characteristics, and the operative procedures that had been performed. ..
  73. Sun W, Chang Y, Chung Y. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after interpleural analgesia. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:1033-4 pubmed
  74. Kocijancic K. Ultrasonographic forms of pleural space in healthy children. Coll Antropol. 2007;31:999-1002 pubmed
    ..Such a positive result (less than 4 mm in the elbow position), if isolated, should be taken as normal finding, and requires no additional investigation...
  75. Tomaske M, Pretre R, Rahn M, Bauersfeld U. Epicardial and pleural lead ICD systems in children and adolescents maintain functionality over 5 years. Europace. 2008;10:1152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe our 5-year experience with epicardial pacing/sensing leads secured on the left cardiac chambers and a pleural defibrillation lead insertion along the third intercostal space...
  76. Sarge T, Talmor D. Targeting transpulmonary pressure to prevent ventilator induced lung injury. Minerva Anestesiol. 2009;75:293-9 pubmed
    ..Quantifying these variables and individualizing ventilator management based on individual patient physiology may be useful to intensive care clinicians who treat patients with ARDS...
  77. Makris K, Rieder E, Swanstrom L. Natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) in thoracic surgery. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;22:302-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although initially thought of as a highly improbable application, the "home run" of per-oral endoscopic myotomy is indicating that the thorax may be one of the most useful places for NOTES...
  78. Kohno M, Steinbruchel D. Median sternotomy for double lung transplantation with cardiopulmonary bypass in seven consecutive patients. Surg Today. 2012;42:406-9 pubmed publisher
    ..pleural space is less optimal, abundant pleural adhesions can be dissected, particularly in the left posterior pleural cavity, using pericardial traction stitches, exposing the retrocardiac pleura with minimal manipulation of the heart.
  79. Kinoshita T, Miyoshi S, Suzuma T, Sakurai T, Enomoto K, Yoshimasu T, et al. Intrapleural administration of a large amount of diluted fibrin glue for intractable pneumothorax. A clinical study based on 57 cases: including 2 unsuccessful cases. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;51:41-7 pubmed
    ..This treatment, however, is sometimes unsuccessful in patients with intractable pneumothorax. We have developed intrapleural administration of diluted fibrin glue as an effective treatment for such patients...
  80. de Assis E, Silva A, Caiado L, Marathe G, Zimmerman G, Prescott S, et al. Synergism between platelet-activating factor-like phospholipids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists generated during low density lipoprotein oxidation that induces lipid body formation in leukocytes. J Immunol. 2003;171:2090-8 pubmed
    ..fractions or butanoyl and butenoyl PAF, a phospholipid previously shown to be present in oxLDL, into the pleural cavity of mice induced lipid body formation in leukocytes recovered after 3 h...
  81. Felekis V. The contribution of intrapleural pressures to the pathogenesis of emphysema. Med Hypotheses. 2005;64:298-302 pubmed
    ..It is claimed that the form of the emphysema depends on the conditions created in the lung microenvironment and that negative intrapleural pressure plays a greater or lesser role in all forms of emphysema, including panacinar emphysema...
  82. Avirutnan P, Punyadee N, Noisakran S, Komoltri C, Thiemmeca S, Auethavornanan K, et al. Vascular leakage in severe dengue virus infections: a potential role for the nonstructural viral protein NS1 and complement. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1078-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Complement activation mediated by NS1 leads to local and systemic generation of anaphylatoxins and SC5b-9, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the vascular leakage that occurs in patients with DHF/DSS...
  83. Stern J, Pean Y, Girard P, Kitzis M, Caliandro R, Grima R, et al. [Pleural diffusion of amoxicillin 1 and vancomycin in patients treated for post-surgical empyema]. Rev Mal Respir. 2007;24:853-8 pubmed
    ..Data in human on the diffusion of antibiotics in pleural cavity after post surgical empyema are lacking.
  84. De Troyer A, Wilson T. Effect of acute inflation on the mechanics of the inspiratory muscles. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this synergistic interaction becomes particularly prominent at high lung volumes, lung inflation, either bilateral or unilateral, places a substantial stress on the inspiratory muscle pump...
  85. Medford A. The utility of thoracic ultrasound before local anesthetic video-assisted thoracoscopy in patients with suspected pleural malignancy. J Clin Ultrasound. 2010;38:222-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of lateral decubitus pre-VAT TUS that helped locate the optimal access to the pleural space and demonstrated fibrinous intrapleural septation, thereby affecting the decision to avoid thoracoscopic pleurodesis...
  86. Chen Y, Chen C, Hsu C, Yu C. Malpositioning of the chest tube across the anterior mediastinum is risky in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with pneumothorax. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2011;13:109-11 pubmed publisher
    ..COPD) in whom malpositioned chest tubes penetrated through the anterior mediastinum to the contralateral pleural cavity, and were later removed without complications...
  87. Kotik A, Zaitsev K, Hiss J. [Detection of wooden rod in pleural and peritoneal cavities during forensic autopsy]. Harefuah. 2013;152:451-2, 500 pubmed
    ..Examination of the body at the scene did not raise any suspicion of assault while the subsequent autopsy revealed findings that changed the assessment of the cause of death and the circumstances...
  88. Peng Z, Wu E. [Clinical value of hypertonic glucose injection in the treatment of recurrent pneumothorax]. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2002;27:256-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the clinical value of the 50% hypertonic glucose injection in the treatment of recurrent pneumothorax...
  89. Kocijancic K, Kocijancic I, Vidmar G. Sonography of pleural space in healthy individuals. J Clin Ultrasound. 2005;33:386-9 pubmed
  90. Feller Kopman D, Berkowitz D, Boiselle P, Ernst A. Large-volume thoracentesis and the risk of reexpansion pulmonary edema. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84:1656-61 pubmed
    ..There are, however, significant clinical benefits to removing more than 1 L of fluid. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence of RPE among patients undergoing large-volume (> or = 1 L) thoracentesis...
  91. Kosuga T, Shiozaki A, Ichikawa D, Fujiwara H, Komatsu S, Iitaka D, et al. Pleural lavage with distilled water during surgery for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:577-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrated the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock on ESCC cells, and clearly support the efficacy of pleural lavage with distilled water during surgery for ESCC...
  92. Psallidas I, Stathopoulos G, Maniatis N, Magkouta S, Moschos C, Karabela S, et al. Secreted phosphoprotein-1 directly provokes vascular leakage to foster malignant pleural effusion. Oncogene. 2013;32:528-35 pubmed publisher
    ..001). SPP1 of host origin elicited macrophage recruitment into the cancer-affected pleural cavity and boosted tumor angiogenesis, whereas tumor-derived SPP1 curtailed cancer cell apoptosis in vivo...