Summary: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.

Top Publications

  1. Xu H, Zhang X, Christe A, Ebner L, Zhang S, Luo Z, et al. Anatomic pathways of peripancreatic fluid draining to mediastinum in recurrent acute pancreatitis: visible human project and CT study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62025 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, the anatomic pathways of peripancreatic fluid extension to the mediastinum that may potentially transform into fistulas were studied.
  2. Inoue Y, Abe Y, Itoh Y, Asano Y, Kikuchi K, Sakamoto Y, et al. Acquisition protocols and correction methods for estimation of the heart-to-mediastinum ratio in 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac sympathetic imaging. J Nucl Med. 2013;54:707-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated acquisition protocols (collimator choice and energy window setting) and correction methods for estimating the heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio in cardiac (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging.
  3. Iskender I, Kadioglu S, Cosgun T, Kapicibasi H, Sagiroglu G, Kosar A, et al. False-positivity of mediastinal lymph nodes has negative effect on survival in potentially resectable non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;41:874-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that an increased metabolic activity of mediastinal lymph nodes would have worse survival even if it is false...
  4. Thuillier F, Venot J. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the anterior mediastinum with a normally located gland: a case report. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2012;73:34-6 pubmed publisher
    Ectopic thyroid tissue occurs in about 7 to 10% of the general population. Localization in the anterior mediastinum is rare: seven cases reported in the literature, most associated with thyroid dysfunction...
  5. Shiota Y, Imai S, Sasaki N, Tahara K, Noma B, Horita N, et al. A case of mediastinal lymph node carcinoma of unknown primary site treated with docetaxel and cisplatin with concurrent thoracic radiation therapy. Acta Med Okayama. 2011;65:407-11 pubmed
    ..Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a large tumor 9.5 × 8.2 cm, in the mediastinum, compressing the right main bronchus, the right pulmonary artery, and the superior vena cava...
  6. Nakajima K, Okuda K, Matsuo S, Yoshita M, Taki J, Yamada M, et al. Standardization of metaiodobenzylguanidine heart to mediastinum ratio using a calibration phantom: effects of correction on normal databases and a multicentre study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012;39:113-9 pubmed publisher
    This study was performed to demonstrate that the results obtained with a calibration phantom could be used as a tool for standardizing measurement of heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio in cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging.
  7. Kadota Y, Utsumi T, Kawamura T, Inoue M, Sawabata N, Minami M, et al. Lymphatic and venous malformation or "lymphangiohemangioma" of the anterior mediastinum: case report and literature review. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;59:575-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They are rarely found in the mediastinum. We present a case of mediastinal LVM, with review of the literature...
  8. Arafah M, Zaidi S. Poorly differentiated monophasic synovial sarcoma of the mediastinum. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011;54:384-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Most commonly they occur in the soft tissue of the extremities and are rare in the mediastinum. They can be indistinguishable from other "round cell tumors" based on the morphology alone or at ..
  9. Guauque Olarte S, Gaudreault N, Piché M, Fournier D, Mauriege P, Mathieu P, et al. The transcriptome of human epicardial, mediastinal and subcutaneous adipose tissues in men with coronary artery disease. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19908 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Darling G, Maziak D, Inculet R, Gulenchyn K, Driedger A, Ung Y, et al. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography compared with invasive mediastinal staging in non-small cell lung cancer: results of mediastinal staging in the early lung positron emission tomography trial. J Thorac Oncol. 2011;6:1367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..If the mediastinum is positive on PET-CT examination, some practitioners conclude that the patient is inoperable and refer the ..
  2. Yoo D, Kim Y, Kim D, Kim H, Park S. Clinical feasibility and surgical benefits of video-assisted mediastinoscopic lymphadenectomy in the treatment of resectable lung cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;40:1483-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was performed to assess the clinical feasibility and surgical outcomes of video-assisted mediastinoscopic lymphadenectomy in the treatment of resectable lung cancer...
  3. Yi C, Lee K, Kim B, Shim S, Chung M, Sung Y, et al. Efficacy of helical dynamic CT versus integrated PET/CT for detection of mediastinal nodal metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188:318-25 pubmed
    ..015. In stage T1 NSCLC, contrast-enhanced helical dynamic CT better predicts, but not significantly so, mediastinal nodal metastasis than PET/CT, whereas PET/CT shows perfect specificity and higher accuracy than helical dynamic CT. ..
  4. Inoue Y, Suzuki A, Shirouzu I, Machida T, Yoshizawa Y, Akita F, et al. Effect of collimator choice on quantitative assessment of cardiac iodine 123 MIBG uptake. J Nucl Cardiol. 2003;10:623-32 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the effect of collimator choice on estimation of the heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio in cardiac I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging...
  5. Rintoul R, Skwarski K, Murchison J, Wallace W, Walker W, Penman I. Endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided real-time fine-needle aspiration for mediastinal staging. Eur Respir J. 2005;25:416-21 pubmed
    Accurate staging of the mediastinum in lung cancer is essential for optimising treatment strategies...
  6. Zammit D, Turner D, Klonowski K, Lefrancois L, Cauley L. Residual antigen presentation after influenza virus infection affects CD8 T cell activation and migration. Immunity. 2006;24:439-49 pubmed
    ..These data show that antigen that is retained after pulmonary influenza virus infection controls the migratory pattern and activation state of virus-specific CD8 T cells near the site of virus amplification. ..
  7. Chetaille B, Massard G, Falcoz P. [Mediastinal germ cell tumors: anatomopathology, classification, teratomas and malignant tumors]. Rev Pneumol Clin. 2010;66:63-70 pubmed publisher
    ..As for the nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, the situation is dramatically different. The treatment strategy is less standardised--association of chemotherapy and surgery--and the prognosis is very severe...
  8. Smith C, Schoder H, Yeung H. Thymic extension in the superior mediastinum in patients with thymic hyperplasia: potential cause of false-positive findings on 18F-FDG PET/CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188:1716-21 pubmed
    ..One such false-positive is activity within the superior extent of the thymus in the superior mediastinum. We reviewed all PET/CT examinations performed in children and young adults under the age of 20 years at our ..
  9. Wong Y, Ng C, Wang L, Hsu K, Chen C. Left mediastinal width and mediastinal width ratio are better radiographic criteria than general mediastinal width for predicting blunt aortic injury. J Trauma. 2004;57:88-94 pubmed
    ..Trauma patients with positive test results based on the combined LMW and MWR criteria should proceed immediately to aortography or helical computed tomography. ..
  10. Weissferdt A, Kalhor N, Suster S, Moran C. Primary angiosarcomas of the anterior mediastinum: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 9 cases. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:1711-7 pubmed publisher
    We report 9 cases of primary angiosarcomas of the anterior mediastinum. Patient ages ranged from 25 to 62 years (mean, 40.7 years); 5 patients were male and 4 were female. Main presenting symptoms included chest pain, dyspnea, and cough...
  11. Annema J, Veselic M, Rabe K. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Eur Respir J. 2005;25:405-9 pubmed
    ..The current authors expect that endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration will reduce the number of mediastinoscopies for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis dramatically. ..
  12. Jacobson A, Senior R, Cerqueira M, Wong N, Thomas G, Lopez V, et al. Myocardial iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine imaging and cardiac events in heart failure. Results of the prospective ADMIRE-HF (AdreView Myocardial Imaging for Risk Evaluation in Heart Failure) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:2212-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Subjects underwent (123)I-mIBG myocardial imaging (sympathetic neuronal integrity quantified as the heart/mediastinum uptake ratio [H/M] on 4-h delayed planar images) and myocardial perfusion imaging and were then followed up for ..
  13. Adams M, Lipsitz S, Colan S, Tarbell N, Treves S, Diller L, et al. Cardiovascular status in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease treated with chest radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:3139-48 pubmed
    ..We recommend serial, comprehensive cardiac screening of HD survivors who fit this profile. ..
  14. Robert J, Sgourdos G, Kritikos N, Didier D, Terraz S. Preoperative embolization of hypervascular Castleman's disease of the mediastinum. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2008;31:186-8 pubmed
    ..This large tumor was safely resected after arterial embolization. We describe the steps of this interventional procedure and discuss related necessary precautions. ..
  15. Chapet O, Kong F, Quint L, Chang A, Ten Haken R, Eisbruch A, et al. CT-based definition of thoracic lymph node stations: an atlas from the University of Michigan. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;63:170-8 pubmed
    ..Studies are ongoing at the University of Michigan to measure quantitatively the incidental nodal radiation received by patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. ..
  16. Trisolini R, Cancellieri A, Tinelli C, Paioli D, Scudeller L, Casadei G, et al. Rapid on-site evaluation of transbronchial aspirates in the diagnosis of hilar and mediastinal adenopathy: a randomized trial. Chest. 2011;139:395-401 pubmed publisher; No.: NCT00915330; URL: ..
  17. Okuda K, Nakajima K, Hosoya T, Ishikawa T, Konishi T, Matsubara K, et al. Semi-automated algorithm for calculating heart-to-mediastinum ratio in cardiac Iodine-123 MIBG imaging. J Nucl Cardiol. 2011;18:82-9 pubmed publisher
    We have developed novel software for semi-automatically measuring heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio in cardiac Iodine-123 (¹²³I)-labeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging...
  18. Toker A, Tanju S, Ziyade S, Kaya S, Erus S, Ozkan B, et al. Alternative paratracheal lymph node dissection in left-sided hilar lung cancer patients: comparing the number of lymph nodes dissected to the number of lymph nodes dissected in right-sided mediastinal dissections. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;39:974-80 pubmed publisher
    ..From these data, regardless of approach, more lymph nodes are obtained from the right paratracheal space; this appears to be due to the fact that there are more right-sided paratracheal lymph nodes. ..
  19. Cameron S, Andrade R, Pambuccian S. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration cytology: a state of the art review. Cytopathology. 2010;21:6-26 pubmed publisher
    ..An algorithmic approach to the cytological diagnosis, starting with the determination of the adequacy of the sample, is also presented. ..
  20. Pantarotto J, Piet A, Vincent A, van Sörnsen de Koste J, Senan S. Motion analysis of 100 mediastinal lymph nodes: potential pitfalls in treatment planning and adaptive strategies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;74:1092-9 pubmed publisher
    ..17-1.64 cm); 77% moved greater than 0.5 cm, and 10% moved greater than 1.0 cm. Motion was greatest in the lower mediastinum (p = 0.002), and nodes measuring 2 cm or greater in diameter showed motion similar to that in smaller nodes...
  21. Cerfolio R, Bryant A, Eloubeidi M, Frederick P, Minnich D, Harbour K, et al. The true false negative rates of esophageal and endobronchial ultrasound in the staging of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;90:427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Accurate false negative rates for endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and esophageal ultrasound (EUS) for mediastinal (N2) lymph nodes are unknown...
  22. Wong W, Loong F, Ooi G, Tse T, Chim C. Primary granulocytic sarcoma of the mediastinum. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004;45:1931-3 pubmed
    ..We presented the clinico-pathological and radiological features of a patient with primary mediastinal GS, and discussed the differential diagnoses and clinical management...
  23. Wobser R, Wilpert J, Kayser G, Walz G, Stubanus M. [Disseminated histoplasmosis with involvement of mediastinum and skin in an immunocompetent patient]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2009;134:589-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A 29-years-old Brazilian woman was admitted to hospital because of progressive dyspnoea, shivering and fever. She reported a noticeable swelling at the right mandible and an ulcerative tumor at the side of the nose...
  24. Szlubowski A, Zielinski M, Soja J, Annema J, Sośnicki W, Jakubiak M, et al. A combined approach of endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided needle aspiration in the radiologically normal mediastinum in non-small-cell lung cancer staging--a prospective trial. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010;37:1175-9 pubmed publisher
    ..combined approach - endobronchial (EBUS) and endoscopic (EUS) ultrasound-guided needle aspiration (combined ultrasound-needle aspiration (CUS-NA)) in the radiologically normal mediastinum in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) staging.
  25. De Troyer A. Impact of diaphragmatic contraction on the stiffness of the canine mediastinum. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;105:887-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, although the canine ventral mediastinum is a delicate structure, it sustained a significant pressure gradient...
  26. Zielinski M. Transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy: results of staging in two hundred fifty-six patients with non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2007;2:370-2 pubmed
    ..2%, and positive predictive value was 100%. Preliminary results may suggest some therapeutic impact for patients who underwent TEMLA and subsequent R0 resection, with a 77.2% survival rate after the mean 24-month follow-up period...
  27. Al Salam S, Al Ashari M. Ectopic pancreatic tissue in the anterior mediastinum. Virchows Arch. 2006;448:661-3 pubmed
  28. Souza C, Muller N, Lee K, Johkoh T, Mitsuhiro H, Chong S. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement in 206 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186:995-9 pubmed
  29. Szlubowski A, Kuzdzał J, Kołodziej M, Soja J, Pankowski J, Obrochta A, et al. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle aspiration in the non-small cell lung cancer staging. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009;35:332-5; discussion 335-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic yield of the endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-NA) in the mediastinal staging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients...
  30. Matsuo S, Nakajima K, Okuda K, Kawano M, Ishikawa T, Hosoya T, et al. Standardization of the heart-to-mediastinum ratio of 123I-labelled-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake using the dual energy window method: feasibility of correction with different camera-collimator combinations. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:560-6 pubmed publisher
    Although the heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio in a planar image has been used for practical quantification in (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging, standardization of the parameter is not yet established...
  31. Palimento D, Picchio M. Meningioma of the mediastinum causing spontaneous hemothorax. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:1903-4 pubmed
    Ectopic meningiomas are extremely rare. Mediastinal tumors may rarely cause spontaneous hemothorax. We report a case of angioblastic meningioma of the posterior mediastinum causing spontaneous hemothorax.
  32. Wong R, Davis T, Peterson K. Complications involving the mediastinum after injection of Enteryx for GERD. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;61:753-6 pubmed
  33. Geusens E, Pans S, Prinsloo J, Fourneau I. The widened mediastinum in trauma patients. Eur J Emerg Med. 2005;12:179-84 pubmed
    ..era of multidetector spiral CT, angiography was the gold standard for the evaluation of patients with a widened mediastinum. Meanwhile, angiography as a risk-carrying invasive examination has widely been replaced by MDCT...
  34. Nakajima T, Yasufuku K, Suzuki M, Hiroshima K, Kubo R, Mohammed S, et al. Assessment of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration. Chest. 2007;132:597-602 pubmed
    ..EBUS-TBNA enables the sampling of histologic cores, which can be used for genetic analysis...
  35. Parker M, Pfluke J, Shaddix K, Asbun H, Smith C, Bowers S. Video: transcervical videoscopic esophageal dissection in minimally invasive esophagectomy. Surg Endosc. 2011;25:941-2 pubmed publisher
    ..A simultaneous laparoscopic and TVED approach may decrease operative time and blood loss while improving visualization and avoiding single-lung ventilation...
  36. Kim B, Lee K, Shim S, Choi J, Kwon O, Kim H, et al. Stage T1 non-small cell lung cancer: preoperative mediastinal nodal staging with integrated FDG PET/CT--a prospective study. Radiology. 2006;241:501-9 pubmed
  37. Kawasaki K, Kamigaki T, Takase S, Maki K, Tamura T, Shirasaka D, et al. [A case of unknown primary cancer responding to TS-1]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2006;33:1125-8 pubmed
    ..PET revealed an accumulation of FDG at para-aortic LNs from the mediastinum to the inguinal region...
  38. Manduch M, Dexter D, Ellis P, Reid K, Isotalo P. Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the posterior mediastinum with t(11;22)(q24;q12). Tumori. 2008;94:888-91 pubmed
    ..radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extraosseous, dumbbell-shaped mass of the posterior mediastinum with extension into the spinal canal...
  39. Jenkins P, Salmon C, Mannion C. Analysis of the movement of calcified lymph nodes during breathing. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;61:329-34 pubmed
    ..To identify and measure the respiratory-induced movement of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes...
  40. Amir A, van Dullemen H, Plukker J. Selective approach in the treatment of esophageal perforations. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2004;39:418-22 pubmed
    ..We analyzed our data, evaluating morbidity and mortality in this selective approach...
  41. Sakurai H, Kaji M, Suemasu K. Thymoma of the middle mediastinum: 11C-acetate positron emission tomography imaging. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87:1271-4 pubmed publisher
    Thymomas arising outside the anterior mediastinum are very rare. Their occurrence is likely to be related to ectopic thymus tissue. We report a case of thymoma in the middle mediastinum, right paratracheal region...
  42. Hoekstra C, Stroobants S, Smit E, Vansteenkiste J, Van Tinteren H, Postmus P, et al. Prognostic relevance of response evaluation using [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:8362-70 pubmed
  43. Lardinois D, Suter H, Hakki H, Rousson V, Betticher D, Ris H. Morbidity, survival, and site of recurrence after mediastinal lymph-node dissection versus systematic sampling after complete resection for non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:268-74; discussion 274-5 pubmed
  44. Henzler T, Schmid Bindert G, Schoenberg S, Fink C. Diffusion and perfusion MRI of the lung and mediastinum. Eur J Radiol. 2010;76:329-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review article recent MR perfusion and diffusion techniques of the lung and mediastinum as well as their clinical applications are reviewed.
  45. Nakajima K, Matsubara K, Ishikawa T, Motomura N, Maeda R, Akhter N, et al. Correction of iodine-123-labeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake with multi-window methods for standardization of the heart-to-mediastinum ratio. J Nucl Cardiol. 2007;14:843-51 pubmed the choice of collimator for an iodine-123 ((123)I)-labeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio, we examined multi-window correction methods with (123)I dual-window (IDW) and triple-energy window ..
  46. Priola S, Priola A, Cardinale L, Perotto F, Fava C. The anterior mediastinum: anatomy and imaging procedures. Radiol Med. 2006;111:295-311 pubmed
    The mediastinum is divided into compartments (anterior, middle, posterior) on the basis of lateral chest radiographs. Several anatomical and radiological classifications of the mediastinum are reported in the literature...
  47. Berrocal T, Madrid C, Novo S, Gutiérrez J, Arjonilla A, Gomez Leon N. Congenital anomalies of the tracheobronchial tree, lung, and mediastinum: embryology, radiology, and pathology. Radiographics. 2004;24:e17 pubmed
    ..aspects of certain common and uncommon congenital anomalies affecting the tracheobronchial tree, lung, and mediastinum, with emphasis on radiologic manifestations...
  48. De Leyn P, Lardinois D, Van Schil P, Rami Porta R, Passlick B, Zielinski M, et al. ESTS guidelines for preoperative lymph node staging for non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;32:1-8 pubmed
    ..Both endoscopic techniques and surgical procedures are available. If they yield a positive result, non-surgical treatment is indicated in most patients...
  49. Vassiliou V, Christopoulos C, Kardamakis D, Tinniakou M, Puglisi M, Vomvas D, et al. Isolated granulocytic sarcoma involving the mediastinum and bilateral cervical lymph nodes. Eur J Haematol. 2007;78:548 pubmed
  50. Detterbeck F, Puchalski J, Rubinowitz A, Cheng D. Classification of the thoroughness of mediastinal staging of lung cancer. Chest. 2010;137:436-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a schema is needed for a thoughtful discussion of how mediastinal staging tests should be integrated and for the development of standards of good quality care for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. ..
  51. Behbahani M, Ahmad F, Siddiqui M, Stewart W, Alakandy L. Transjugular extension of meningioma into the mediastinum-a case report. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:151-4 pubmed publisher
    ..features invading the transverse sinus and extending along the internal jugular vein up to the superior mediastinum is described...
  52. Donnelly E, Parikh P, Lu W, Zhao T, Lechleiter K, Nystrom M, et al. Assessment of intrafraction mediastinal and hilar lymph node movement and comparison to lung tumor motion using four-dimensional CT. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69:580-8 pubmed
    ..To quantify the amount of free-breathing motion measured using Four-dimensional (4D) CT scans of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes and to compare this motion to the primary lung tumor motion...
  53. Verberne H, Somsen G, Povinec P, van Eck Smit B, Jacobson A. Impact of mediastinal, liver and lung (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ( (123)I-MIBG) washout on calculated (123)I-MIBG myocardial washout. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:1322-8 pubmed publisher
    In planar (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) myocardial imaging mediastinum (M) activity is often used as a background correction in calculating "washout" (WO)...
  54. Fujimoto K, Takamori S, Yano H, Sadohara J, Matsuo T, Terazaki Y, et al. Focal cholesterol granuloma in the anterior mediastinum: [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. J Thorac Oncol. 2007;2:1054-6 pubmed
    ..We report a rare case of focal cholesterol granuloma in the anterior mediastinum of a 62-year-old asymptomatic man that presented as an indeterminate anterior mediastinal nodule on [18F]-..
  55. Verberne H, Brewster L, Somsen G, van Eck Smit B. Prognostic value of myocardial 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) parameters in patients with heart failure: a systematic review. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:1147-59 pubmed publisher
    ..To derive a more precise estimate of the prognostic significance of myocardial 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) parameters [early heart mediastinal ratio (H/M), late H/M, and myocardial washout] in heart failure (HF)...
  56. Tilak M, Proctor S, Donovan J, Fitch J. Extravascular placement of a central venous catheter in the mediastinum. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2004;18:75-7 pubmed
  57. Perigaud C, Bridji B, Roussel J, Sagan C, Mugniot A, Duveau D, et al. Prospective preoperative mediastinal lymph node staging by integrated positron emission tomography-computerised tomography in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009;36:731-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to evaluate prospectively the accuracy of preoperative integrated 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography-computerised tomography ((18)FDG PET-CT) for mediastinal lymph node staging...
  58. Medford A, Bennett J, Free C, Agrawal S. Mediastinal staging procedures in lung cancer: EBUS, TBNA and mediastinoscopy. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2009;15:334-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Traditionally, cervical mediastinoscopy has been utilized. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EBUS) has recently emerged as a potential alternative...
  59. Chera B, Rodriguez C, Morris C, Louis D, Yeung D, Li Z, et al. Dosimetric comparison of three different involved nodal irradiation techniques for stage II Hodgkin's lymphoma patients: conventional radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and three-dimensional proton radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75:1173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the dose distribution to targeted and nontargeted tissues in Hodgkin's lymphoma patients using conventional radiotherapy (CRT), intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), and three-dimensional proton RT (3D-PRT)...
  60. Verberne H, Verschure D, Somsen G, van Eck Smit B, Jacobson A. Vascular time-activity variation in patients undergoing ¹²³I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy: implications for quantification of cardiac and mediastinal uptake. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011;38:1132-8 pubmed publisher
    For the quantification of cardiac (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake, the mediastinum is commonly used as a reference region reflecting nonspecific background activity...
  61. Howington J. The role of VATS for staging and diagnosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;19:212-6 pubmed
    ..Several techniques have been adopted to allow successful thoracoscopic biopsy of these subcentimeter lung nodules...
  62. Khadilkar U, Rao A, Sahoo K, Pai M. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of mediastinal node. Indian J Pediatr. 2008;75:294-6 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis was confirmed by histological examination of the biopsy material.S-100 protein localization in the LCH cells is often positive on immunohistochemistry...
  63. Puri V, Meyers B. Utility of positron emission tomography in the mediastinum: moving beyond lung and esophageal cancer staging. Thorac Surg Clin. 2009;19:7-15 pubmed publisher
    PET and PET-CT are rapidly evolving as modalities of thoracic imaging. In the mediastinum, PET can provide information to distinguish thymic hyperplasia from neoplasia, although the use of this imaging for this purpose is not accepted ..
  64. Kim T, Lee K, Kim B, Kim K, Chun E, Bajpai V, et al. Regional variance of visually lossless threshold in compressed chest CT images: lung versus mediastinum and chest wall. Eur J Radiol. 2009;69:483-8 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the visually lossless threshold (VLT) for the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) 2000 compression of chest CT images and to demonstrate the variance of the VLT between the lung and mediastinum/chest wall.
  65. Chabbert V, Canevet G, Baixas C, Galinier M, Deken V, Duhamel A, et al. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy in congestive heart failure: a sequential CT evaluation with clinical and echocardiographic correlations. Eur Radiol. 2004;14:881-9 pubmed
    ..06). Mediastinal lymphadenopathy associated with subacute left heart failure was observed in 13 patients (42%), showing regression after initiation of treatment in 8 of 13 patients (62%)...
  66. Herth F, Eberhardt R, Krasnik M, Ernst A. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of lymph nodes in the radiologically and positron emission tomography-normal mediastinum in patients with lung cancer. Chest. 2008;133:887-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Few data are available on the use of endoscopic procedures to stage the mediastinum in clinical stage 1 lung cancer...
  67. Groth S, Whitson B, D Cunha J, Maddaus M, Alsharif M, Andrade R. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes: a single institution's early learning curve. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86:1104-9; discussion 1109-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We report our initial experience with this procedure...
  68. Fischer B, Mortensen J, Hansen H, Vilmann P, Larsen S, Loft A, et al. Multimodality approach to mediastinal staging in non-small cell lung cancer. Faults and benefits of PET-CT: a randomised trial. Thorax. 2011;66:294-300 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to describe faults and benefits of positron emission tomography (PET)-CT in multimodality mediastinal staging...
  69. Ishiguro F, Matsuo K, Fukui T, Mori S, Hatooka S, Mitsudomi T. Effect of selective lymph node dissection based on patterns of lobe-specific lymph node metastases on patient outcome in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer: a large-scale retrospective cohort study applying a propensity score. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;139:1001-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, selective mediastinal lymph node dissection based on lobe-specific metastases (selective dissection) has often been performed. This study was designed to evaluate the validity of the selective lymph node dissection...
  70. Sher D, Wolfgang J, Niemierko A, Choi N. Quantification of mediastinal and hilar lymph node movement using four-dimensional computed tomography scan: implications for radiation treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69:1402-8 pubmed
    ..To quantitatively describe mediastinal and hilar lymph node movement in patients with lymph node-positive lung cancer...
  71. Szlubowski A, Herth F, Soja J, Kołodziej M, Figura J, Cmiel A, et al. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle aspiration in non-small-cell lung cancer restaging verified by the transcervical bilateral extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy--a prospective study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010;37:1180-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic yield of the endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in restaging of the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after neo-adjuvant therapy...