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Summary

Summary: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.

Top Publications

  1. Sung P, Zurcher U, Kaufman M. Reliability difference between spectral and entropic measures of erector spinae muscle fatigability. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2010;20:25-30 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated back muscle fatigability of the erector spinae (ES) muscles during submaximal contractions with the use of surface electromyography (sEMG)...
  2. Tesarz J, Hoheisel U, Wiedenhofer B, Mense S. Sensory innervation of the thoracolumbar fascia in rats and humans. Neuroscience. 2011;194:302-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the role of the fascia as a potential source of pain in the low back is difficult to assess...
  3. Corey S, Vizzard M, Bouffard N, Badger G, Langevin H. Stretching of the back improves gait, mechanical sensitivity and connective tissue inflammation in a rodent model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29831 pubmed publisher
    The role played by nonspecialized connective tissues in chronic non-specific low back pain is not well understood...
  4. Clair J, Okuma Y, Misiaszek J, Collins D. Reflex pathways connect receptors in the human lower leg to the erector spinae muscles of the lower back. Exp Brain Res. 2009;196:217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..we tested the hypothesis that reflexes also link sensory receptors in the lower leg with muscles of the lower back (erector spinae; ES)...
  5. Sánchez Zuriaga D, Adams M, Dolan P. Is activation of the back muscles impaired by creep or muscle fatigue?. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:517-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Intervention study on healthy human subjects...
  6. Taylor W, Consmüller T, Rohlmann A. A novel system for the dynamic assessment of back shape. Med Eng Phys. 2010;32:1080-3 pubmed publisher
    Low back pain can be exacerbated by poor posture, particularly over extended stationary periods such as when sitting or standing...
  7. Heuscher Z, Gilkey D, Peel J, Kennedy C. The association of self-reported backpack use and backpack weight with low back pain among college students. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2010;33:432-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Back pain has consistently ranked among the top general health complaints among college students, but few studies have examined risk factors for back pain in this age group...
  8. Keir P, Sanei K, Holmes M. Task rotation effects on upper extremity and back muscle activity. Appl Ergon. 2011;42:814-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to gross task differences, overlaps in muscle activity between "low back" and "upper extremity" tasks must be considered when creating effective job rotation schemes.
  9. Rha D, Shin J, Kim Y, Jung J, Kim Y, Lee S. Detecting local twitch responses of myofascial trigger points in the lower-back muscles using ultrasonography. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92:1576-1580.e1 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the role of ultrasonography for detecting local twitch responses (LTRs) of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in deeply located lower-back muscles.

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Frigon A, Thibaudier Y, Johnson M, Heckman C, Hurteau M. Cutaneous inputs from the back abolish locomotor-like activity and reduce spastic-like activity in the adult cat following complete spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2012;235:588-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that pinching the skin of the back abolished spontaneous locomotor-like activity...
  2. Bettany Saltikov J, Cole L. The effect of frontpacks, shoulder bags and handheld bags on 3D back shape and posture in young university students: an ISIS2 study. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2012;176:117-21 pubmed
    ..been shown to cause significant postural adaptations that can lead to injuries in the shoulder, arms, hands and back. Whilst backpacks have been well researched, there is a paucity of literature on the effects of frontpacks, ..
  3. Hirano K, Imagama S, Hasegawa Y, Wakao N, Muramoto A, Ishiguro N. Impact of spinal imbalance and back muscle strength on locomotive syndrome in community-living elderly people. J Orthop Sci. 2012;17:532-7 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; The current study investigates the influence of spinal factors on "locomo" in the elderly...
  4. Wong K, Lee R, Yeung S. The association between back pain and trunk posture of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009;10:43 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aims to determine the time spent in different static trunk postures during a typical working day of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps...
  5. Shin G, D Souza C, Liu Y. Creep and fatigue development in the low back in static flexion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:1873-8 pubmed publisher
    In vivo measurements of low back flexion posture and muscle activity before, during, and after static flexion.
  6. Harris M, Richards K. The physiological and psychological effects of slow-stroke back massage and hand massage on relaxation in older people. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19:917-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines the physiological and psychological effects of slow-stroke back massage and hand massage on relaxation in older people and identifies effective protocols for massage in older ..
  7. Trask C, Teschke K, Morrison J, Johnson P, Koehoorn M. Optimising sampling strategies: components of low-back EMG variability in five heavy industries. Occup Environ Med. 2010;67:853-60 pubmed publisher
    Direct/ measurement of work activities is costly, so researchers need to distribute resources efficiently to elucidate the relationships between exposures and back injury.
  8. Imagama S, Matsuyama Y, Hasegawa Y, Sakai Y, Ito Z, Ishiguro N, et al. Back muscle strength and spinal mobility are predictors of quality of life in middle-aged and elderly males. Eur Spine J. 2011;20:954-61 pubmed publisher
    ..the simultaneous effects of degenerative changes on radiograph, spinal range of motion (ROM), sagittal balance, and back muscle strength, and examine the influence of these effects on QOL of the middle-aged and elderly male subjects...
  9. Tsao H, Tucker K, Hodges P. Changes in excitability of corticomotor inputs to the trunk muscles during experimentally-induced acute low back pain. Neuroscience. 2011;181:127-33 pubmed publisher
    Acute low back pain (LBP) is associated with differential changes in motor coordination of deep and superficial trunk muscles...
  10. Debnath B, Biswas S. Heteropagus twinning on back -- a case report. J Indian Med Assoc. 2011;109:514-5 pubmed
    ..It was attached to the back of the host by a broad pedicle...
  11. Van Damme B, Stevens V, Van Tiggelen D, Duvigneaud N, Neyens E, Danneels L. Velocity of isokinetic trunk exercises influences back muscle recruitment patterns in healthy subjects. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2013;23:378-86 pubmed publisher
    ..exercises at different angular velocities on Cybex devices are often used for assessment and therapy in chronic low back pain patients...
  12. Sung P. Disability and back muscle fatigability changes following two therapeutic exercise interventions in participants with recurrent low back pain. Med Sci Monit. 2013;19:40-8 pubmed
    The level of disability and endurance of back muscles have been investigated, but there is conflicting evidence following specific exercise interventions for participants with recurrent low back pain (LBP)...
  13. Van Hulle L, Juravle G, Spence C, Crombez G, Van Damme S. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements. Conscious Cogn. 2013;22:420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention...
  14. Peham C, Kotschwar A, Borkenhagen B, Kuhnke S, Molsner J, Baltacis A. A comparison of forces acting on the horse's back and the stability of the rider's seat in different positions at the trot. Vet J. 2010;184:56-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to compare the stability of the rider as well as the forces acting on a horse's back with different seating positions at the trot (sitting trot, rising trot and two-point seat)...
  15. Verdin V, Preud Homme L, Lemaire V, Jacquemin D. [Giant lipoma on the back]. Rev Med Liege. 2009;64:414-7 pubmed
    ..Otherwise, total surgical excision is indicated with pathological analysis. We describe the clinical history of a patient suffering from a giant dorsal lipoma...
  16. de Cocq P, Duncker A, Clayton H, Bobbert M, Muller M, van Leeuwen J. Vertical forces on the horse's back in sitting and rising trot. J Biomech. 2010;43:627-31 pubmed publisher
    In equestrian sports, it is generally assumed that rising and sitting trot load the horse's back differently. The objective of this study was to quantify the load on the horse's back in these riding techniques...
  17. Nadeau S, Jacquemin G, Fournier C, Lamarre Y, Rossignol S. Spontaneous motor rhythms of the back and legs in a patient with a complete spinal cord transection. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2010;24:377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Spontaneous activity originating from the spinal cord has been sporadically reported in humans...
  18. Campbell A, Briggs A, O Sullivan P, Smith A, Burnett A, Moss P, et al. An exploration of the relationship between back muscle endurance and familial, physical, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors in adolescents and young adults. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011;41:486-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Cross-sectional investigation...
  19. Mannion A, O Riordan D, Dvorak J, Masharawi Y. The relationship between psychological factors and performance on the Biering-Sørensen back muscle endurance test. Spine J. 2011;11:849-57 pubmed publisher
    Many studies report an association between low back pain (LBP) and reduced back muscle endurance and consider this to indicate muscular dysfunction...
  20. Bollegala D, Perruccio A, Badley E. Combined impact of concomitant arthritis and back problems on health status: results from a nationally representative health survey. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011;63:1584-91 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether people who report both arthritis and back problems report poorer health outcomes than those who have either condition alone.
  21. Rusin B, Kotwicki T, Głodek A, Andrusiewicz M, Urbaniak P, Kotwicka M. Estrogen receptor 2 expression in back muscles of girls with idiopathic scoliosis - relation to radiological parameters. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2012;176:59-62 pubmed
    ..Estrogen acts through estrogen receptors: ESR1 and ESR2. There are no studies describing ESR2 expression in back muscles in girls with idiopathic scoliosis...
  22. Foreman K, Dibble L, Droge J, Carson R, Rockwell W. The impact of breast reduction surgery on low-back compressive forces and function in individuals with macromastia. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124:1393-9 pubmed publisher
    Macromastia can be a morbid condition causing affected women to endure shoulder pain, back pain, intertrigo, and shoulder grooving from the bra straps. Subjective symptoms are effectively relieved by reduction mammaplasty surgery...
  23. Inani S, Selkar S. Effect of core stabilization exercises versus conventional exercises on pain and functional status in patients with non-specific low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2013;26:37-43 pubmed publisher
    Low Back Pain (LBP) results in significant level of disability, producing significant restriction on usual activity such as an inability to work...
  24. Grabiner M, Koh T, el Ghazawi A. Decoupling of bilateral paraspinal excitation in subjects with low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1992;17:1219-23 pubmed
    This study compared bilateral paraspinal excitation in normal subjects and subjects with low back pain...
  25. Stokes I, Moreland M. Concordance of back surface asymmetry and spine shape in idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1989;14:73-8 pubmed
    ..For correctly identified curves, the greatest back surface rotation was, on average, 1.0 vertebral levels below the skeletal curve apex in the thoracic region and 0...
  26. Suter E, Lindsay D. Back muscle fatigability is associated with knee extensor inhibition in subjects with low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:E361-6 pubmed
    Cross-sectional study of 25 male golfers with chronic low back pain and 16 healthy controls of similar age. To assess the association between functional capacity of the back extensors and the quadriceps muscles...
  27. Kramer M, Ebert V, Kinzl L, Dehner C, Elbel M, Hartwig E. Surface electromyography of the paravertebral muscles in patients with chronic low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:31-6 pubmed
    To investigate the differences in the electromyographic signals of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and healthy subjects. Cross-sectional study with a matched-pair design. University hospital...
  28. Kawaguchi Y, Matsui H, Gejo R, Tsuji H. Preventive measures of back muscle injury after posterior lumbar spine surgery in rats. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1998;23:2282-7; discussion 2288 pubmed
    Postoperative back muscle injury was studied in rats...
  29. Borg K, Hensing G, Alexanderson K. Predictive factors for disability pension--an 11-year follow up of young persons on sick leave due to neck, shoulder, or back diagnoses. Scand J Public Health. 2001;29:104-12 pubmed
    Although back diagnoses are recurrent and the main diagnoses behind sickness absence and disability pension surprisingly few longitudinal studies have been performed...
  30. Owen B, Keene K, Olson S. An ergonomic approach to reducing back/shoulder stress in hospital nursing personnel: a five year follow up. Int J Nurs Stud. 2002;39:295-302 pubmed
    ..Eighteen months after ergonomic interventions, the back and shoulder injuries were reduced, and the lost workdays and restricted/transitional days were decreased...
  31. Geldhof E, Cardon G, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Danneels L, Coorevits P, Vanderstraeten G, et al. Effects of back posture education on elementary schoolchildren's back function. Eur Spine J. 2007;16:829-39 pubmed
    The possible effects of back education on children's back function were never evaluated. Therefore, main aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of back education in elementary schoolchildren on back function parameters...
  32. Tomioka K, Kumagai S, Higuchi Y, Tsujimura H, Arai Y, Yoshida J. [Low back load and satisfaction rating of caregivers & care receivers in bathing assistance given in a nursing home for the elderly practicing individual care]. Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2007;49:54-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in a nursing home for the elderly practicing the individual bathing assistance method, we explored low back load using surface electromyography and trunk inclination angle measurement...
  33. Soleimani R, Van der Elst J, Heytens E, Van den Broecke R, Gerris J, Dhont M, et al. Back muscle as a promising site for ovarian tissue transplantation, an animal model. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:619-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the transplantation to the back muscle (B) versus the kidney capsule (K) in a mouse allograft model...
  34. Heidemann J, Gockel H, Winde G, Herbst H, Domschke W, Lugering N. Signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown primary location. Metastatic to lower back musculature - remission following FU/FA chemotherapy. Z Gastroenterol. 2002;40:33-6 pubmed
    ..After 2 years of follow up, metastatic recurrence was detected to the lower back musculature...
  35. Goodfellow L. The effects of therapeutic back massage on psychophysiologic variables and immune function in spouses of patients with cancer. Nurs Res. 2003;52:318-28 pubmed
    ..Therapeutic back massage (TBM) has been shown to enhance relaxation and thus, may reduce stress associated with caring for an ill ..
  36. Yalcin S, Karnak I, Ciftci A, Senocak M. An unusual penetrating injury in an infant: straight-pin migration from the back to the stomach. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:1332-4 pubmed
    ..An 11-month-old infant is presented for straight-pin migration into the abdomen with penetration from the back and through the left diaphragm, spleen, and stomach...
  37. Gundewall B, Liljeqvist M, Hansson T. Primary prevention of back symptoms and absence from work. A prospective randomized study among hospital employees. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993;18:587-94 pubmed
    ..One group was allowed to exercise during working hours to improve back muscle strength, endurance, and coordination...
  38. Pedersen M, Essendrop M, Skotte J, Jørgensen K, Schibye B, Fallentin N. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:1454-60 pubmed
    Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading...
  39. Oh J, Cynn H, Won J, Kwon O, Yi C. Effects of performing an abdominal drawing-in maneuver during prone hip extension exercises on hip and back extensor muscle activity and amount of anterior pelvic tilt. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37:320-4 pubmed
    ..maneuver (ADIM) using a pressure biofeedback unit on electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude of the hip and back extensors, and the angle of anterior pelvic tilt during hip extension in the prone position...
  40. Lariviere C, Gagnon D, Gravel D, Bertrand Arsenault A. The assessment of back muscle capacity using intermittent static contractions. Part I - Validity and reliability of electromyographic indices of fatigue. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2008;18:1006-19 pubmed
    b>Back muscle capacity is impaired in chronic low back pain patients but no motivation-free test exists to measure it...
  41. Rainov N, Demmel W, Heidecke V. Dual electrode spinal cord stimulation in chronic leg and back pain. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2007;97:85-9 pubmed
    Patients with chronic back and leg pain (CBLP) suffer from a disabling spinal condition of multifactorial origin and are often resistant to medical therapy...
  42. Keller A, Johansen J, Hellesnes J, Brox J. Predictors of isokinetic back muscle strength in patients with low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1999;24:275-80 pubmed
    Testing for trunk muscle strength was performed on 105 patients with chronic low back pain. To investigate prediction of isokinetic back muscle strength in patients with low back pain...
  43. Trinkoff A, Lipscomb J, Geiger Brown J, Brady B. Musculoskeletal problems of the neck, shoulder, and back and functional consequences in nurses. Am J Ind Med. 2002;41:170-8 pubmed
    ..Data on neck, shoulder, and back MSD problems were analyzed in 1,163 working nurses (response rate = 74%)...
  44. Papageorgiou K, Kaniorou Larai M, Mathew R. An unusual presentation of hydatid cyst within the soft tissues of the back: re-investigation of the undiagnosed lung opacity. Respir Med. 2005;99:1191-4 pubmed
    ..A case of a 68-year-old man, who presented with a cystic lesion on his back, which was presumed to be a lipoma or a sebaceous cyst. Surgical excision of the lesion was performed...
  45. Skotte J, Essendrop M, Hansen A, Schibye B. A dynamic 3D biomechanical evaluation of the load on the low back during different patient-handling tasks. J Biomech. 2002;35:1357-66 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to investigate the low-back loading during common patient-handling tasks...
  46. Panjabi M. Clinical spinal instability and low back pain. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2003;13:371-9 pubmed
    Clinical instability is an important cause of low back pain...
  47. Hu Y, Mak J, Luk K. Effect of electrocardiographic contamination on surface electromyography assessment of back muscles. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2009;19:145-56 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relative effect of electrocardiography (ECG) on back muscle surface electromyography (SEMG) parameters and their corresponding sensitivity in low back pain (LBP) assessment...
  48. Seven Y, Akalan N, Yucesoy C. Effects of back loading on the biomechanics of sit-to-stand motion in healthy children. Hum Mov Sci. 2008;27:65-79 pubmed publisher
    The goal of the present study was to determine the thus far unstudied effects of back loading on the kinematics and kinetics of sit-to-stand (STS) motion in healthy children. Fifteen children (8 boys, 7 girls, mean age 9.6 years, SD 1...
  49. Flor H, Braun C, Elbert T, Birbaumer N. Extensive reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in chronic back pain patients. Neurosci Lett. 1997;224:5-8 pubmed
    ..The hypothesis of reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex in states of chronic pain was assessed in 10 low back pain patients and nine matched healthy controls...
  50. Mannion A, Taimela S, Muntener M, Dvorak J. Active therapy for chronic low back pain part 1. Effects on back muscle activation, fatigability, and strength. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:897-908 pubmed
    Randomized prospective study of the effects of three types of active therapy on back muscle function in chronic low back pain patients...
  51. Mirka G, Kelaher D, Nay D, Lawrence B. Continuous assessment of back stress (CABS): a new method to quantify low-back stress in jobs with variable biomechanical demands. Hum Factors. 2000;42:209-25 pubmed
    Jobs with a high degree of variability in manual materials handling requirements expose limitations in current low-back injury risk assessment tools and emphasize the need for a probabilistic representation of the biomechanical stress in ..
  52. Zoabli G, Mathieu P, Aubin C. Back muscles biometry in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine J. 2007;7:338-44 pubmed
    Many studies have been devoted to the role of back muscle activity in the development of scoliosis...
  53. Sung P, Lammers A, Danial P. Different parts of erector spinae muscle fatigability in subjects with and without low back pain. Spine J. 2009;9:115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..differences exist in the thoracic and lumbar parts of the erector spinae muscles in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP). This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Motion Analysis Lab at Cleveland State University...
  54. Kollmitzer J, Ebenbichler G, Sabo A, Kerschan K, Bochdansky T. Effects of back extensor strength training versus balance training on postural control. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:1770-6 pubmed
    Aim of this study was to investigate effects of 1) regular back extensor strength training as opposed to balance training, and 2) the influence of the sequence of both training types on postural control, force, and muscle efficiency...
  55. Verna J, Mayer J, Mooney V, Pierra E, Robertson V, Graves J. Back extension endurance and strength: the effect of variable-angle roman chair exercise training. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:1772-7 pubmed
    ..Progressive resistance exercise for the lumbar extensors has been used successfully for low back pain rehabilitation, but the limitations of currently available back exercise devices have negatively affected its ..
  56. Kajihara M, Sugawara Y, Sakayama K, Abe Y, Miki H, Mochizuki T. Subcutaneous fibrolipoma in the back. Radiat Med. 2006;24:520-4 pubmed
    A 65-year-old man presented with a subcutaneous giant mass in his upper back. The tumor had a massive fatty and non-adipose component that enhanced heterogeneously on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging...
  57. Danneels L, Coorevits P, Cools A, Vanderstraeten G, Cambier D, Witvrouw E, et al. Differences in electromyographic activity in the multifidus muscle and the iliocostalis lumborum between healthy subjects and patients with sub-acute and chronic low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2002;11:13-9 pubmed
    The present study was carried out to examine possible mechanisms of back muscle dysfunction by assessing a stabilising and a torque-producing back muscle, the multifidus (MF) and the iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis (ICLT), ..
  58. van Zuuren E, Posma A. Diffuse neurofibroma on the lower back. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48:938-40 pubmed
    ..This tumor presents most often in the head and neck region. We have seen a young girl with a diffuse neurofibroma on the lower back that was successfully excised.
  59. Ropponen A, Gibbons L, Videman T, Battie M. Isometric back extension endurance testing: reasons for test termination. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2005;35:437-42 pubmed
    Cross-sectional study. The self-reported reasons for terminating isometric back extension endurance testing and their associations with test performance and other factors were investigated to gain insight into determinants of test ..
  60. Geldhof E, Cardon G, De Bourdeaudhuij I, De Clercq D. Effects of a two-school-year multifactorial back education program in elementary schoolchildren. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:1965-73 pubmed
    A quasi-experimental pre/post design. To investigate effects of a 2-school-year multifactorial back education program on back posture knowledge and postural behavior in elementary schoolchildren...
  61. Dankaerts W, O Sullivan P, Burnett A, Straker L. Altered patterns of superficial trunk muscle activation during sitting in nonspecific chronic low back pain patients: importance of subclassification. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:2017-23 pubmed
    A cross-sectional comparative study between healthy controls and two subgroups of nonspecific chronic low back pain (LBP) patients. To determine differences in trunk muscle activation during usual unsupported sitting...
  62. Reguiai Z, Jovenin N, Bernard P, Derancourt C. Melanoma, past severe sunburns and multiple solar lentigines of the upper back and shoulders. Dermatology. 2008;216:330-6 pubmed publisher
    Multiple solar lentigines of the upper back and shoulders (MSLBS) have recently been demonstrated as being associated with intense sunburns in the past. To determine the prevalence of MSLBS among patients with cutaneous melanoma...
  63. Hubley Kozey C, Vezina M. Differentiating temporal electromyographic waveforms between those with chronic low back pain and healthy controls. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2002;17:621-9 pubmed
    Temporal activation patterns from abdominal and lumbar muscles were compared between healthy control subjects and those with chronic low back pain.
  64. Tresser N, Dahms B, Berner J. Cutaneous bronchogenic cyst of the back: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Pathol. 1994;14:207-12 pubmed
    ..We report a case of a bronchogenic cyst occurring on the back. The differential diagnosis includes branchial cleft cyst, thyroglossal duct cyst, cutaneous ciliated cyst, and ..
  65. Bo Andersen L, Wedderkopp N, Leboeuf Yde C. Association between back pain and physical fitness in adolescents. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:1740-4 pubmed
    A cross-sectional study of 9413 adolescents. To study the associations between back pain, physical activity, and physical fitness...
  66. Klink B, Thurman R, Wittpenn G, Lauerman W, Cain J. Muscle flap closure for salvage of complex back wounds. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19:1467-70 pubmed
    ..Five patients in whom traditional, conservative treatment modalities did not work underwent a variety of muscle flap closures with successful healing...
  67. Danneels L, Vanderstraeten G, Cambier D, Witvrouw E, Stevens V, de Cuyper H. A functional subdivision of hip, abdominal, and back muscles during asymmetric lifting. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:E114-21 pubmed
    ..An experimental study of muscle recruitment patterns during asymmetric lifting in healthy individuals...
  68. Moseley G, Hodges P, Gandevia S. External perturbation of the trunk in standing humans differentially activates components of the medial back muscles. J Physiol. 2003;547:581-7 pubmed
    During voluntary arm movements, the medial back muscles are differentially active...
  69. Peuker E, Cummings M. Anatomy for the acupuncturist--facts & fiction 2: The chest, abdomen, and back. Acupunct Med. 2003;21:72-9 pubmed
    ..This article reviews clinically relevant anatomy for somatic needling of the chest and abdomen...
  70. Cosio Lima L, Reynolds K, Winter C, Paolone V, Jones M. Effects of physioball and conventional floor exercises on early phase adaptations in back and abdominal core stability and balance in women. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17:721-5 pubmed
    ..The experimental group (n = 15) performed curl-ups and back extensions on the physioball while the control group (n = 15) performed the same exercises on the floor...
  71. Hackenberg L, Hierholzer E, Bullmann V, Liljenqvist U, Götze C. Rasterstereographic analysis of axial back surface rotation in standing versus forward bending posture in idiopathic scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 2006;15:1144-9 pubmed
    ..In a pilot study the influence of leg length inequalities on the back shape of five normal subjects was clarified...
  72. Garg A, Mahalingam M, Alavian C. Pruritic patches on the back and papules on the legs. Primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis (PLCA) (cutaneous lichen amyloidosis and macular amyloidosis). Arch Dermatol. 2007;143:255-60 pubmed
  73. Carr A, Jefferson R, Turner Smith A, Beavis A. An analysis of normal back shape measured by ISIS scanning. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1991;16:656-9 pubmed
    ..Subjects with any evidence of scoliosis were excluded from the study. Characteristic ISIS parameters of back shape showed no statistically significant differences related to age or sex for the children...
  74. Ali A, Rowen K, Iles J. Vestibular actions on back and lower limb muscles during postural tasks in man. J Physiol. 2003;546:615-24 pubmed
    ..descending brain stem motor pathways to the erectores spinae muscles in the control of postural orientation of the back when sitting and standing...
  75. McNamara M, Burnham D, Smith C, Carroll D. The effects of back massage before diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Altern Ther Health Med. 2003;9:50-7 pubmed
    ..Autonomic nervous system arousal, particularly the sympathetic division, can elicit negative physiological and psychological human responses as a reaction to this threat...
  76. Pedersen M, Essendrop M, Skotte J, Jørgensen K, Fallentin N. Training can modify back muscle response to sudden trunk loading. Eur Spine J. 2004;13:548-52 pubmed
    Sudden, unexpected loading to the trunk has been reported in the literature as a potential cause of low-back disorders...
  77. Rhodin M, Johnston C, Holm K, Wennerstrand J, Drevemo S. The influence of head and neck position on kinematics of the back in riding horses at the walk and trot. Equine Vet J. 2005;37:7-11 pubmed
    A common opinion among riders and in the literature is that the positioning of the head and neck influences the back of the horse, but this has not yet been measured objectively.
  78. Coorevits P, Danneels L, Ramon H, Van Audekercke R, Cambier D, Vanderstraeten G. Statistical modelling of fatigue-related electromyographic median frequency characteristics of back and hip muscles during a standardized isometric back extension test. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2005;15:444-51 pubmed
    ..logarithmic, quadratic or exponential - best described the fatigue-related electromyographic (EMG) changes of back and hip muscles. Twenty healthy volunteers performed a modified Biering-Sorensen test...
  79. Farasyn A, Meeusen R. The influence of non-specific low back pain on pressure pain thresholds and disability. Eur J Pain. 2005;9:375-81 pubmed
    ..PPTs) with respect to the Erector spinae and the hip muscles in 87 patients with subacute non-specific low back pain (LBP) and to evaluate the relationship between the PPTs and disability...
  80. Schenk P, Klipstein A, Spillmann S, Strøyer J, Laubli T. The role of back muscle endurance, maximum force, balance and trunk rotation control regarding lifting capacity. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;96:146-56 pubmed
    ..Seventy-four female subjects without acute low back pain underwent an examination of their lifting capacities and the following basic functions: (1) strength and ..
  81. Geldhof E, Cardon G, De Bourdeaudhuij I, De Clercq D. Back posture education in elementary schoolchildren: a 2-year follow-up study. Eur Spine J. 2007;16:841-50 pubmed
    Within the scope of primary prevention regarding back functioning in children, research on the stability of intervention effects is indispensable...
  82. Cushman W, Cooper K, Horne R, Meydrech E. Effect of back support and stethoscope head on seated blood pressure determinations. Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:240-1 pubmed
    Seated BP measurements were taken in 48 men with a history of essential hypertension: in a chair with back support v on an examining table with no back support, and with bell v diaphragm stethoscope head in each condition...
  83. LaRiviere C, Arsenault A, Gravel D, Gagnon D, Loisel P. Evaluation of measurement strategies to increase the reliability of EMG indices to assess back muscle fatigue and recovery. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2002;12:91-102 pubmed
    ..strategies to increase the reliability of different electromyographic (EMG) indices developed for the assessment of back muscle impairments...
  84. Fulton R, Strutton P, McGregor A, Davey N. Fatigue-induced change in corticospinal drive to back muscles in elite rowers. Exp Physiol. 2002;87:593-600 pubmed
    ..This notion is supported by the lack of any difference between groups following intense exercise when both groups were working at their own maximum...
  85. Daggfeldt K, Thorstensson A. The mechanics of back-extensor torque production about the lumbar spine. J Biomech. 2003;36:815-25 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a biomechanical model of lumbar back extension over a wide range of positions for the lumbar spine, incorporating the latest information on muscle geometry and intra-abdominal pressure ..
  86. Kawano F, Wang X, Lan Y, Yoneshima H, Ishihara A, Igarashi M, et al. Hindlimb suspension inhibits air-righting due to altered recruitment of neck and back muscles in rats. Jpn J Physiol. 2004;54:229-42 pubmed
    ..time was accompanied by lowered activities of electromyogram (EMG) and altered recruitment of both neck and back muscles at a specific stage of drop...
  87. Mork P, Westgaard R. Long-term electromyographic activity in upper trapezius and low back muscles of women with moderate physical activity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;99:570-8 pubmed
    The habitual activity patterns of trapezius and postural back muscles (multifidus, iliocostalis, longissimus) of 23 female subjects with moderate physical activity were studied...
  88. da Silva R, Arsenault A, Gravel D, Lariviere C, de Oliveira E. Back muscle strength and fatigue in healthy and chronic low back pain subjects: a comparative study of 3 assessment protocols. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:722-9 pubmed
    To compare the sensitivity of 3 different back test protocols in measuring differences in strength and fatigue between subjects with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP).
  89. Takahashi I, Kikuchi S, Sato K, Iwabuchi M. Effects of the mechanical load on forward bending motion of the trunk: comparison between patients with motion-induced intermittent low back pain and healthy subjects. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:E73-8 pubmed
    Postural changes and trunk muscle activities were examined in patients with motion-induced intermittent low back pain (MILBP) and healthy controls.
  90. Wing P, Tsang I, Gagnon F, Susak L, Gagnon R. Diurnal changes in the profile shape and range of motion of the back. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1992;17:761-6 pubmed
    ..was investigated to characterize changes in the lumbar range of motion, spinal profile, and range of motion of the back. Twelve subjects aged 18-22 years were measured using stereophotography and standard clinical examinations in the ..
  91. Elfving B, Nemeth G, Arvidsson I, Lamontagne M. Reliability of EMG spectral parameters in repeated measurements of back muscle fatigue. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 1999;9:235-43 pubmed
    ..The reliability of subjective fatigue ratings of the back muscles (Borg CR-10 scale) and of maximal trunk extension torque (MVC) was also investigated...
  92. Bayramoglu M, Akman M, Kilinc S, Cetin N, Yavuz N, Ozker R. Isokinetic measurement of trunk muscle strength in women with chronic low-back pain. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;80:650-5 pubmed
    To investigate the relationships among chronic low-back pain and obesity, total spinal range of motion, and trunk muscle strength. The short-term impact of trunk muscle strengthening exercises on this condition was also examined.