inguinal canal


Summary: The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.

Top Publications

  1. Sharifiaghdas F, Beigi F. Impalpable testis: laparoscopy or inguinal canal exploration?. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2008;42:154-7 pubmed
    ..In this retrospective study we evaluated the accuracy of intraperitoneal laparoscopy, inguinal canal exploration and ultrasound in the diagnosis of impalpable testis.
  2. Mistrangelo M, Pelosi E, Bellò M, Castellano I, Cassoni P, Ricardi U, et al. Comparison of positron emission tomography scanning and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of inguinal node metastases in patients with anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared this technique vs. dedicated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) to determine which was the better tool for staging inguinal lymph nodes...
  3. Vagnoni V, Brunocilla E, Schiavina R, Borghesi M, Passaretti G, Gentile G, et al. Inguinal canal tumors of adulthood. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:2361-8 pubmed
    ..To review benign and malignant paratesticular lesions...
  4. Zomorrodi A, Buhluli A. Viable testis after retroperitoneal mass cord ligation in internal ring of inguinal canal in 15 kidney recipients: five years of experience. Transplant Proc. 2008;40:208-9 pubmed publisher
    ..preparation of the Iliac fossa for allografting, we performed this maneuver next to the internal ring of the inguinal canal. After performing a J incision in the right iliac fossa, separating fascia, and pushing the peritoneum ..
  5. Mistrangelo M, Bello M, Mobiglia A, Beltramo G, Cassoni P, Milanesi E, et al. Feasibility of the sentinel node biopsy in anal cancer. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;53:3-8 pubmed
  6. Bhosale P, Patnana M, Viswanathan C, Szklaruk J. The inguinal canal: anatomy and imaging features of common and uncommon masses. Radiographics. 2008;28:819-35; quiz 913 pubmed publisher
    A variety of benign and malignant masses can be found in the inguinal canal (IC)...
  7. Bardia A, Greeno E, Miller R, Alberts S, Dozois E, Haddock M, et al. Is a solitary inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the rectum really a metastasis?. Colorectal Dis. 2010;12:312-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, anecdotal reports suggest that such patients are a distinct entity and should be managed differently. The aim of this study was to gain further insight regarding this seemingly distinct patient subset...
  8. Biasutto S, Repetto E, Aliendo M, Borghino V. Inguinal canal development: the muscular wall and the role of the gubernaculum. Clin Anat. 2009;22:614-8 pubmed publisher
    The inguinal canal is an anatomically complex region. Although much has been written about the gubernaculum and the descent of the testis, little is known about the development of the abdominal wall itself...
  9. Naito N, Ozaki T, Kunisada T, Kawai A, Dan ura T, Morimoto Y, et al. Synovial sarcoma with a large hematoma in the inguinal region. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2000;120:533-4 pubmed
    ..The patient underwent tumor resection of the lower 2/3 of the acetabulum after preoperative chemotherapy. Twenty-four months after surgery, she is alive without any relapse and can walk without support...

More Information

Publications164 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gerard J, Chapet O, Samiei F, Morignat E, Isaac S, Paulin C, et al. Management of inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal: experience in a series of 270 patients treated in Lyon and review of the literature. Cancer. 2001;92:77-84 pubmed
    ..The authors performed a specific analysis of the clinical significance of inguinal lymph nodes metastases in patients with anal canal carcinoma (ACC)...
  2. Heller C, Marucci D, Dunn T, Barr E, Houang M, dos Remedios C. Inguinal canal "lipoma". Clin Anat. 2002;15:280-5 pubmed
    Groin dissection was performed in adult male post-mortem subjects to establish the prevalence of inguinal canal "lipoma." Thirty-six body halves (age range 24-92 years) were studied...
  3. Elder J. Ultrasonography is unnecessary in evaluating boys with a nonpalpable testis. Pediatrics. 2002;110:748-51 pubmed
    ..An inguinal sonogram often is obtained in boys with a nonpalpable testis to "localize" the testis, ie, determine whether the testis is present. The results of ultrasonography in boys with a nonpalpable testis were analyzed...
  4. Moore R, DePasquale S, Steinhoff M, Gajewski W, Steller M, Noto R, et al. Sentinel node identification and the ability to detect metastatic tumor to inguinal lymph nodes in squamous cell cancer of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;89:475-9 pubmed
  5. Gaarenstroom K, Kenter G, Trimbos J, Agous I, Amant F, Peters A, et al. Postoperative complications after vulvectomy and inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy using separate groin incisions. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2003;13:522-7 pubmed
    ..The occurrence of early complications was related to lymphedema. No other risk factors could be identified...
  6. Ninos A, Douridas G, Liapi G, Ajazi E, Iordanou C, Pierrakakis S, et al. Schwannoma in the inguinal canal masquerading an inguinal hernia. Hernia. 2004;8:73-5 pubmed
    ..We herein present a case of a 65-year-old man with a schwannoma located in the inguinal canal, which presented as an irreducible hernia...
  7. Damin D, Rosito M, Schwartsmann G. Sentinel lymph node in carcinoma of the anal canal: a review. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2006;32:247-52 pubmed
    ..To review the studies investigating the efficacy of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in anal canal carcinoma and to evaluate its potential role in guiding a more selective approach for patients with the malignancy...
  8. Gould N, Kamelle S, Tillmanns T, Scribner D, Gold M, Walker J, et al. Predictors of complications after inguinal lymphadenectomy. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;82:329-32 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to identify predictors of complications in patients undergoing inguinal lymphadenectomy (LND) in the treatment of vulvar carcinoma...
  9. Candocia F, Sack Solomon K. An infant with testicular torsion in the inguinal canal. Pediatr Radiol. 2003;33:722-4 pubmed
    We report a case of testicular torsion in the left inguinal canal of a 7 month old with a history of cryptorchism and no evidence of neuromuscular disease...
  10. Bobin J, Gerard J, Chapet O, Romestaing P, Isaac S. [Lymphatic mapping and inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy in anal canal cancers to avoid prophylactic inguinal irradiation]. Cancer Radiother. 2003;7 Suppl 1:85s-90s pubmed
    ..In conclusion, ISN biopsy is a reliable procedure to stage anal canal cancers. It should prevent unnecessary prophylactic inguinal irradiation for pN0 ISN. Inguinal irradiation is only indicated in pN1 ISN...
  11. Selman T, Luesley D, Acheson N, Khan K, Mann C. A systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests for inguinal lymph node status in vulvar cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;99:206-14 pubmed
    ..To determine the accuracy of minimally and non-invasive tests to assess the groin node status in squamous cell vulvar cancer...
  12. Akay F, Atug F, Turkeri L. Partial duplication of the vas deferens at the level of inguinal canal. Int J Urol. 2005;12:773-5 pubmed
    ..A case of partial duplication of vas deferens is reported. The reports relevant to this malformation are reviewed and the embryologic etiology is discussed...
  13. Ravindran R, Bruce J, Debnath D, Poobalan A, King P. A United Kingdom survey of surgical technique and handling practice of inguinal canal structures during hernia surgery. Surgery. 2006;139:523-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to establish UK surgical practice of handling of structures in the inguinal canal during herniorrhaphy.
  14. Leijte J, Kroon B, Valdes Olmos R, Nieweg O, Horenblas S. Reliability and safety of current dynamic sentinel node biopsy for penile carcinoma. Eur Urol. 2007;52:170-7 pubmed
    ..We compared the false-negative and complication rates of the current procedure, as performed at our institute since 2001, with the prior procedures...
  15. Wolloscheck T, Konerding M. Dimensions of the myopectineal orifice: a human cadaver study. Hernia. 2009;13:639-42 pubmed publisher
    ..7653). A mesh measuring 10 x 8 cm is suitable for both genders: in females, it will cover the whole MPO, including the infraligamental part, whereas in males, the weak inguinal area is preferentially covered. ..
  16. Wan W, Tan E. Defining the position of the deep inguinal ring using findings at laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Surg Radiol Anat. 2011;33:59-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This should be taught to future generations of medical students as the point to apply occluding pressure to differentiate clinically between direct and indirect inguinal hernias. ..
  17. Smith O, Rimouche S, Oudit D, Mowatt D, Ross G. Is superficial inguinal node dissection adequate for regional control of malignant melanoma in patients with N1 disease?. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2013;66:472-7 pubmed publisher
    ..08). SGD appears adequate for local disease control in patients with N1 sentinel node positive disease. Longer term followup for N1 palpable disease is required to determine the suitability of SGD for this group of patients. ..
  18. Nickalls O, Tan C, Thian Y. A Torted Ruptured Intra-abdominal Testicular Seminoma Presenting As An Acute Abdomen. J Radiol Case Rep. 2015;9:21-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common location of the undescended testis is within the inguinal canal, with only a minority located within the abdominal cavity...
  19. Zhu Y, Zhang S, Ye D, Yao X, Jiang Z, Zhou X. Predicting pelvic lymph node metastases in penile cancer patients: a comparison of computed tomography, Cloquet's node, and disease burden of inguinal lymph nodes. Onkologie. 2008;31:37-41 pubmed publisher
    ..001 and 0.003, respectively). Pelvic CT imaging and tumor status of Cloquet's node is of limited use in predicting microscopic pelvic LNM. Pathological characteristics of the inguinal LNs remain the essential indicators of pelvic LNM. ..
  20. Park S, Kim T, Lee W, Park H, Lee S, Park N. Umbilical laparoendoscopic single site surgery versus inguinal varicocelectomy for bilateral varicocele: a comparative study. Int J Urol. 2011;18:250-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the LESS procedure showed less postoperative pain and cosmetic benefits with similar seminal outcomes. Thus, LESS for patients undergoing bilateral varicocelectomy represents a promising surgical approach...
  21. Reino Pires P, Pêgo J, Miranda A, Barroso C, España M, Correia Pinto J. Ultrasound-guided dissection and ligation of the internal inguinal ring for hernia repair in pediatrics: an experimental animal study. J Pediatr Surg. 2017;52:1848-1852 pubmed publisher
    ..5%. No acute complications were logged. Percutaneous dissection and ligation of internal inguinal ring through exclusive ultrasound guidance was feasible and likely reliable, namely for female inguinal hernia repair. ..
  22. Kokki H, Kumpulainen E, Lehtonen M, Laisalmi M, Heikkinen M, Savolainen J, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid distribution of ibuprofen after intravenous administration in children. Pediatrics. 2007;120:e1002-8 pubmed
    ..The plasma analgesic concentration after inguinal surgery with spinal anesthesia is 10 to 25 mg/L. ..
  23. Hager E, Larson R, Dimuzio P, Lombardi J. New techniques and developments of stenting for infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease: are the results any better than balloon angioplasty alone?. Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther. 2007;19:300-6 pubmed
    ..In this article, we examine the literature on these new technologies and treatment options and make recommendations based on the best data available. ..
  24. Lange J, Wijsmuller A, van Geldere D, Simons M, Swart R, Oomen J, et al. Feasibility study of three-nerve-recognizing Lichtenstein procedure for inguinal hernia. Br J Surg. 2009;96:1210-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a nerve-recognizing Lichtenstein hernia repair and to measure the extra time required for surgery..
  25. de Vrieze N, van Rooijen M, Schim van der Loeff M, de Vries H. Anorectal and inguinal lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam, The Netherlands: trends over time, symptomatology and concurrent infections. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:548-52 pubmed publisher
  26. Yong P, Williams C, Allaire C. Laparoscopic inguinal exploration and mesh placement for chronic pelvic pain. JSLS. 2013;17:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..A positive Carnett's test in the ipsilateral abdominal lower quadrant is a predictor of better outcome. ..
  27. Mistrangelo M, Pelosi E, Bellò M, Ricardi U, Milanesi E, Cassoni P, et al. Role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography in the management of anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Median follow-up was 20.3 months. In this series, PET-CT detected the primary tumor more often than CT. Staging of perirectal/pelvic or inguinal lymph nodes was better with PET-CT. SNB was more accurate in staging inguinal lymph nodes. ..
  28. Zubaidah N, Jasmi A, Hanafiah H, Shaker A, Asri C, Emad A, et al. Iatrogenic inguinal chyle fistula: a rare case report. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2012;53:431-2 pubmed
    ..We hereby report a case of iatrogenic inguinal chyle fistula complicating a femoral vein cannulation. ..
  29. Casey D, Wexler L, Laquaglia M, Meyers P, Wolden S. Patterns of failure for rhabdomyosarcoma of the perineal and perianal region. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;89:82-7 pubmed publisher
    ..For children aged <10 years, nodal evaluation is essential to determine the role for lymph node irradiation. ..
  30. Abd Alrazek M, Alsherbiny H, Mahfouz M, Alsamahy O, Shalaby R, Shams A, et al. Laparoscopic pediatric inguinal hernia repair: a controlled randomized study. J Pediatr Surg. 2017;52:1539-1544 pubmed publisher
    ..Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair by disconnection of the hernia sac at the IIR with peritoneal closure is safe and feasible method. It has a lower recurrence rate than the purse string suturing leaving the sac intact. ..
  31. Kandemirli S, Dikici A, Nurili F, Tutar O, Mujgan Y, Mihmanli I, et al. Bladder cancer in an inguinal vesical hernia. J Med Ultrason (2001). 2018;45:535-537 pubmed publisher
    ..On ultrasonography, a fluid-filled cavity extending through the right inguinal canal into the scrotum was noted with inferior displacement of the right testis...
  32. Bhagat S, Gopalakrishnan G, Kekre N, Chacko N, Kumar S, Manipadam M, et al. Factors predicting inguinal node metastasis in squamous cell cancer of penis. World J Urol. 2010;28:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..High grade and LVI in the tumor along with clinical stage of the inguinal nodes were the strongest predictors of metastasis. These features helped us to develop a nomogram to predict and to identify patients at risk of nodal metastasis. ..
  33. Stabile Ianora A, Lorusso F, Niccoli Asabella A, Di Maggio P, Fonio P, Losco M, et al. [Multidetector CT for the assessment of the groin region]. Recenti Prog Med. 2012;103:483-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Multidetector CT scanning and reconstruction can provide useful information on inguinal canal anatomy and its related diseases, contributing to timely therapeutic interventions.
  34. Quevedo H, Arain S, Ali G, Abi Rafeh N. A critical view of the peripheral atherectomy data in the treatment of infrainguinal arterial disease. J Invasive Cardiol. 2014;26:22-9 pubmed
    ..Larger randomized controlled studies are warranted to define its role in contemporary endovascular practice. ..
  35. Muensterer O, Woller T, Metzger R, Till H. [The economics of contralateral laparoscopic inguinal hernia exploration. Cost calculation of herniotomy in infants]. Chirurg. 2008;79:1065-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Laparoscopic evaluation of the contralateral side in IH-OP is a rational approach for the patient and makes economic sense in the German health care system. ..
  36. Neto A, Tobias Machado M, Ficarra V, Wroclawski M, Amarante R, Pompeo A, et al. Dynamic sentinel node biopsy for inguinal lymph node staging in patients with penile cancer: a systematic review and cumulative analysis of the literature. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18:2026-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Addiction of other techniques to DSNB to reduce false-negative results is awaited and must be confirmed by future studies. ..
  37. Chowdhury M, Anwar R, Saha A. Ambiguous genitalia-A social dilemma in Bangladesh: A case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2018;42:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Right testis was found in the middle of right inguinal canal and left testis was found near the deep inguinal ring...
  38. Bian T, Zhang J, Ge W, Feng J, Liu Y. Ectopic immature renal tissue in gubernaculum associated with undescended testis of a 1-year-old child: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e9174 pubmed publisher and pathological examination, we concluded a case of abnormally located and EIRT in the inguinal canal. After pathological diagnosis, the patient was not treated with drugs...
  39. Sveistrup J, Loft A, Berthelsen A, Henriksen B, Nielsen M, Engelholm S. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the staging and treatment of anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83:134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..TAUS is important in the staging of the primary tumor and N1-stage, whereas PET/CT seems necessary for the N2/3-stage, the M-stage and synchronous cancers. ..
  40. Hutson J, Kearsey I. Is the ovary in an inguinal hernia 'descended' like a testis or not?. J Pediatr Surg. 2016;51:1197-200 pubmed publisher
    How testes descend through the inguinal canal is well described, but how the ovaries appear inside an inguinal hernia remains controversial. We reviewed the literature to determine whether ovarian 'descent' has been described...
  41. Arena S, Impellizzeri P, Perrone P, Scalfari G, Centorrino A, Turiaco N, et al. Is inguinal orchidopexy still a current procedure in the treatment of intraabdominal testis in the era of laparoscopic surgery?. J Pediatr Surg. 2017;52:650-652 pubmed publisher
    ..It should be preferred to a technique requiring vascular division, burdened with a higher incidence of atrophy. Treatment study. Case series with no comparison group. ..
  42. Vucetich N, Andresen M, Hasbun P, Regueira T, Ibanez L, Gonzalez A. Intestinal perforation secondary to blunt inguinal trauma in a soccer player: a case report. J Emerg Med. 2012;42:529-31 pubmed publisher
    ..He recovered without sequelae and was discharged 3 weeks later. This case emphasizes the potential clinical complications associated with this condition. ..
  43. Khairi A, Shehata S, El Kholi N. Is it necessary to close the peritoneum over the deep inguinal ring during laparoscopic orchidopexy?. J Pediatr Urol. 2013;9:157-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Closing the peritoneum over the area of the DIR may not be necessary, even in cases where the testis has to be passed through a medially created new deep ring, because of a short cord. ..
  44. Pouwer A, Hinten F, van der Velden J, Smolders R, Slangen B, Zijlmans H, et al. Volume-controlled versus short drainage after inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy in vulvar cancer patients: A Dutch nationwide prospective study. Gynecol Oncol. 2017;146:580-587 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore recommend volume-controlled drainage after inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy in patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. ..
  45. Noroozian J, Farishta D, Ballow D, Sonstein J, Orihuela E, Eyzaguirre E. Primary Malignancy in a Supernumerary Testicle Presenting as a Large Pelvic Mass. Case Rep Urol. 2017;2017:4529853 pubmed publisher
    ..On physical exam, he had a palpable undescended left testicle in the left inguinal canal, which was determined to be seminoma. The mass was surgically removed, and the patient underwent chemotherapy...
  46. Beriwal S, Shukla G, Shinde A, Heron D, Kelley J, Edwards R, et al. Preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced vulvar carcinoma: analysis of pattern of relapse. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;85:1269-74 pubmed publisher
  47. Sharma S. Inguinoscrotal herniation of a caecal adenocarcinoma. BMJ Case Rep. 2017;2017: pubmed publisher
    ..A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a large caecal tumour, herniating through the right inguinal canal into the scrotum...
  48. Safak A, Erdogmus B, Yazici B, Gokgoz A. Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck: sonographic and MRI appearances. J Clin Ultrasound. 2007;35:531-2 pubmed
    ..Sonographic examination revealed a proximal dilatation at the inguinal canal with a 3-cm ovoid, septated cystic lesion at the distal end. The mass appeared as a simple cyst on MRI...
  49. Amid P, Hiatt J. New understanding of the causes and surgical treatment of postherniorrhaphy inguinodynia and orchalgia. J Am Coll Surg. 2007;205:381-5 pubmed
  50. Cherian P, Parnell A. Radiologic anatomy of the inguinofemoral region: insights from MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:W177-83 pubmed
    ..In our small series, 100% identification of key anatomic structures was achieved when information from all three views was combined. We found subtle differences between imaging findings and standard anatomic teaching. ..
  51. Pagni R, Mariani C, Minervini A, Morelli A, Giannarini G, Morelli G, et al. Treatment with intraoperative Patent Blue V dye of refractory lymphocele after inguinal lymphadenectomy for squamous cell penile carcinoma. Urology. 2009;74:688-90 pubmed publisher
    ..No complications were observed with this technique. The presented technique is able to cure persistent lymphoceles refractory to conventional treatment after inguinal lymph node dissection. ..
  52. Schanzer A, Goodney P, Li Y, Eslami M, Cronenwett J, Messina L, et al. Validation of the PIII CLI risk score for the prediction of amputation-free survival in patients undergoing infrainguinal autogenous vein bypass for critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2009;50:769-75; discussion 775 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study sought to validate this risk stratification model using data from the prospectively collected Vascular Study Group of Northern New England (VSGNNE)...
  53. Cavazzola L, Lieberknecht M, Machado A, Farias F. Giant lipoma of the spermatic cord. Am J Surg. 2009;198:e54-5 pubmed publisher
    ..At surgery, it was confirmed to be a giant lipoma of the spermatic cord. A description of the case, pictures of clinical appearance and operative specimen, and a short literature review are presented. ..
  54. Margi M, Boumart K, Nkhili H, Oulahyane R, Cherkaoui A, Abdelhak M, et al. [Splenogonadal fusion: a case report]. Arch Pediatr. 2010;17:42-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the case of a 4-year-old child in whom an inguinal mass indicated surgical exploration, which documented the histological diagnosis of splenogonadal fusion. ..
  55. Gulino G, D Onofrio A, Palermo G, Antonucci M, Presicce F, Racioppi M, et al. Is microsurgical technique really necessary in inguinal or sub-inguinal surgical treatment of varicocele?. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2011;83:69-74 pubmed
  56. Kim J, Lee Y, Kang H, Lee C. Primary mucinous cystadenoma of the spermatic cord within the inguinal canal. Diagn Pathol. 2012;7:139 pubmed publisher
    ..a hitherto not documented case of primary mucinous cystadenoma arising in the spermatic cord within the right inguinal canal of a78-year-old man. The tumor was painless, hard and mobile...
  57. Calligaro K. Commentary on "Duplex-guided balloon angioplasty and stenting for occlusive and stenotic lesions of the infrainguinal arteries". Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther. 2007;19:32-3 pubmed
  58. Allan C, Hayes A, Thomas J. Ilioinguinal lymph node dissection for palpable metastatic melanoma to the groin. ANZ J Surg. 2008;78:982-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We have routinely performed combined inguinal and pelvic (ilioinguinal) lymph node block dissection to avoid this morbid outcome...
  59. Caviezel A, Montet X, Schwartz J, Egger J, Iselin C. Female hydrocele: the cyst of Nuck. Urol Int. 2009;82:242-5 pubmed publisher
    The canal of Nuck is the portion of the processus vaginalis within the inguinal canal in women. A hydrocele of the canal of Nuck is equivalent to an encysted hydrocele of the cord in men...
  60. Liu N, Lu Q, Liu P, Wu X, Wang B. Comparison of radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy and dynamic magnetic resonance lymphangiography for investigating extremity lymphoedema. Br J Surg. 2010;97:359-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Dynamic MRL was more sensitive and accurate than lymphoscintigraphy in the detection of anatomical and functional abnormalities in the lymphatic system in patients with extremity lymphoedema. ..
  61. Yuri T, Kanematsu S, Lei Y, Kuwata M, Oishi M, Tsubura A. Solitary fibrous tumor of soft tissue: a case report and immunohistochemical study. Med Mol Morphol. 2010;43:60-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, immunoreactive IGF-II was detected in SFT that was not associated with hypoglycemia. ..
  62. Khoudri I, Fremont G, Flageul B, Briere J, Dubertret L, Viguier M. [Bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy and erythema nodosum: an uncommon presentation of cat scratch disease]. Rev Med Interne. 2011;32:e34-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report illustrates an original presentation of cat scratch disease and reminds us the lack of sensitivity of laboratory investigations. ..
  63. Lannon D, Ross G, Addison P, Novak C, Lipa J, Neligan P. Versatility of the proximally pedicled anterolateral thigh flap and its use in complex abdominal and pelvic reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;127:677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This versatile flap has a wide arc of rotation. Multiple surgical modifications can be employed to tailor the flap to individual patient needs. ..
  64. Grootendorst D, Jose J, Wouters M, Van Boven H, van der Hage J, van Leeuwen T, et al. First experiences of photoacoustic imaging for detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes. Lasers Surg Med. 2012;44:541-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We expect to improve the specificity of the technique with a future implementation of an adjusted illumination scheme and depth correction for photon fluence. ..
  65. La Touche S, Ayres B, Lam W, Alnajjar H, Perry M, Watkin N. Trial of ligation versus coagulation of lymphatics in dynamic inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy for staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2012;94:344-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Lymphocoeles are the principal complication and can result in delayed wound infection and breakdown. A small but statistical increase in operative time and wound length is likely to be related to registrar training. ..
  66. Shiraishi K, Oka S, Matsuyama H. Surgical comparison of subinguinal and high inguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy for adolescent varicocele. Int J Urol. 2016;23:338-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the high inguinal approach is easier to carry out, as it requires fewer divisions of veins and is associated with a larger diameter of the spermatic artery. ..
  67. Gandara E, Hammond D, Nagpal S. Role of Vitamin K Antagonists in the Prevention of Thrombotic Bypass Occlusion After Infrainguinal Venous Bypass. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016;52:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..69, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.88). Current evidence suggests that VKAs are superior to ASA for the prevention of infrainguinal autologous venous graft thrombosis. ..
  68. Zieren J, Tsigris C, Menenakos C. Open tension-free hernia repair in soccer players: preservation or primary neurectomy of the ilioinguinal nerve?. Clin J Sport Med. 2007;17:398-400 pubmed
  69. Jedrzejewski G, Stankiewicz A, Wieczorek A. Uterus and ovary hernia of the canal of Nuck. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38:1257-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The canal of Nuck is a portion of the processus vaginalis of the peritoneum within the inguinal canal. The processus vaginalis is an evagination of parietal peritoneum of the embryonic lower anterior abdominal ..
  70. Novellas S, Chassang M, Bouaziz J, Delotte J, Toullalan O, Chevallier E. Anterior pelvic endometriosis: MRI features. Abdom Imaging. 2010;35:742-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A necessary adaptation to the MRI protocol in order to accurately diagnosis deep anterior endometriosis as well as specific diagnostic criteria for each type of lesion is reviewed. ..
  71. Ortholan C, Resbeut M, Hannoun Levi J, Teissier E, Gerard J, Ronchin P, et al. Anal canal cancer: management of inguinal nodes and benefit of prophylactic inguinal irradiation (CORS-03 Study). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:1988-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the benefit of prophylactic inguinal irradiation (PII) in anal canal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC)...
  72. Acién P, Sánchez Del Campo F, Mayol M, Acien M. The female gubernaculum: role in the embryology and development of the genital tract and in the possible genesis of malformations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;159:426-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, certain uterine malformations (e.g., didelphys uterus, Rokitansky syndrome) and accessory and cavitated uterine masses might be related to gubernaculum dysfunction. ..
  73. Jiménez J, Barbero P, Tejerizo A, Guillen C, Strate C. A laparoscopic approach to Nuck's duct endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:e103-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Once identified, the treatment involves removal of the endometrioma and repair of the internal inguinal ring. A laparoscopic approach should be considered when possible. ..
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    ..Whether or not patients with an inguinal hernia are more at risk for an AAA remains unclear...
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    ..After 12 patients had been recruited the trial was stopped as 5 of the 8 patients who received an ilio-inguinal nerve block suffered a neurological complication. Ilio-inguinal nerve block with ropivicaine should be avoided. ..
  76. Durai R. Chronic swelling near a synthetic arterial bypass graft. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2008;69:481 pubmed
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    ..Education of LTCF employees and better infection control are proposed to minimize the spread of resistant bacteria in the facility. ..
  78. Braun M, Wardelmann E, Debald M, Walgenbach Bruenagel G, Höller T, Wolfgarten M, et al. Detection of lymphovascular invasion in vulvar cancer by D2-40 (podoplanin) as a predictor for inguinal lymph node metastases. Onkologie. 2009;32:732-8 pubmed publisher
    ..D2-40+ LVI is a strong predictor for inguinal lymph node metastases. ..
  79. Elder J. Surgical Management of the Undescended Testis: Recent Advances and Controversies. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2016;26:418-426 pubmed
    ..In boys with a nonpalpable testis, approximately 50% are abdominal or high in the inguinal canal and 50% are atrophic, typically in the scrotum...
  80. Kapisiz A, Karabulut R, Turkyilmaz Z, Sonmez K, Basaklar A. Omental incarceration may cause hydrocele and this hydrocele confused simple or scrotal hydrocele. Hernia. 2011;15:43-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Omental incarceration may cause hydrocele, and this hydrocele can be confused with normal hydrocele. Therefore, we would continue to recommend an inguinal approach for childhood hydroceles. ..
  81. Moreno Egea A, Girela E, Aguayo J. [Extragenital endometriosis as a cause of acute inguinal pain in a woman of reproductive age]. Cir Esp. 2007;81:289-90 pubmed
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    ..97% of the cohort thought the operation had improved their symptoms. This study shows that the laparoscopic inguinal release procedure may be effective in the treatment of a subgroup of athletes with groin pain. ..
  84. Hegarty P, Dinney C, Pettaway C. Controversies in ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy. Urol Clin North Am. 2010;37:421-34 pubmed publisher
  85. Lo A, Mori H, Mott J, Bissell M. Constructing three-dimensional models to study mammary gland branching morphogenesis and functional differentiation. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2012;17:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These designer microenvironments are useful for both understanding branching morphogenesis and signaling integrations, but also for analysis of individual susceptibilities and drug testing. ..
  86. Ul Mulk J, Hölmich L. Lymph node dissection in patients with malignant melanoma is associated with high risk of morbidity. Dan Med J. 2012;59:A4441 pubmed
    ..Long-term complications are severe and can profoundly impact the patient's quality of life. ..
  87. Sajid M, Ladwa N, Colucci G, Miles W, Baig M, Sains P. Diagnostic laparoscopy through deep inguinal ring: a literature-based review on the forgotten approach to visualize the abdominal cavity during emergency and elective groin hernia repair. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2013;23:251-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To systematically review the published literature on the role of diagnostic laparoscopy through deep inguinal ring (DL-DR) during groin hernia repair...
  88. Galván Montaño A, Ouddane Robles P, García Moreno S. Sutureless inguinal hernia repair with creation of a peritoneal lesion in children: a novel laparoscopic technique with a low recurrence rate. Surg Endosc. 2018;32:638-642 pubmed publisher
    ..The peritoneum around the internal inguinal ring was severed and folded into the inguinal canal. Regeneration of the peritoneum around the inguinal ring creates a scar that effectively closes the internal ..
  89. Cho C, Ho K, Chan W, Chu R, Law I. Use of indocyanine green angiography in microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy - lessons learned from our initial experience. Int Braz J Urol. 2017;43:974-979 pubmed publisher
    ..We present our initial experience in the application of the technique in nine patients and explore the potential of the new adjunct. ..
  90. Sanchez de Badajoz E, Jimenez Garrido A. [Subcutaneous endoscopic surgery in urology]. Arch Esp Urol. 2007;60:671-4 pubmed
    ..and breast, from the literature it appears that it has not yet been adopted for surgery in the region of the inguinal canal or in the scrotum. We describe these approaches...
  91. Mohanna B S, Sanchez L J, Ferrufino Ll J, Bravo P F, Gotuzzo H E. [Lymph node involvement in classic Kaposi sarcoma: report of three cases]. Rev Med Chil. 2007;135:1166-70 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it must be emphasized that KS in lymph nodes can affect HIV-negative patients or patients without any associated immune deficiency...
  92. Vuilleumier H, Hubner M, Demartines N. Neuropathy after herniorrhaphy: indication for surgical treatment and outcome. World J Surg. 2009;33:841-5 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). The results of this cohort study suggest that surgical mesh removal with ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric neurectomy is a successful treatment in patients with neuropathic pain after hernia repair. ..