middle cranial fossa


Summary: The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.

Top Publications

  1. Jung T, Jung S, Jin S, Jin Y, Kim I, Kang S, et al. Dumbbell-shaped middle cranial fossa meningioma with interdural cavernous sinus extension: report of two cases with complete removal. Surg Neurol. 2006;66:315-9; discussion 319-20 pubmed
    ..We encountered two cases of dumbbell-shaped middle cranial fossa meningioma with interdural cavernous sinus extension, which were successfully removed by surgical means.
  2. Menon S, Sinha R. Gap arthroplasty for mandibular condyle dislocation and impaction into the middle cranial fossa. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:2390-3 pubmed publisher
  3. Czernicki T, Marchel A, Nowak A, Bojarski P. [Arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa presented as subdural hematomas]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2005;39:328-34 pubmed
    ..study was to present the authors' own experience and discuss the treatment method of arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa disclosed as subdural hematoma...
  4. Morioka T, Kawamura T, Fukui K, Nishio S, Sasaki T. [Temporal lobe epilepsy associated with cystic lesion in the temporal lobe and middle cranial fossa]. No To Shinkei. 2003;55:511-6 pubmed
    ..epilepsy surgery in our hospital since September of 1994, had cystic lesions in the temporal lobe and middle cranial fossa. Case 1 had old hematoma cavity in the inferior temporal gyrus and chronic subdural electrode recording ..
  5. Magge S, Chen H, Heuer G, Carrasco L, Storm P. Dislocation of the mandible into the middle cranial fossa. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:75-8 pubmed
    Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare event due to anatomical and biomechanical factors...
  6. Kassam A, Gardner P, Snyderman C, Mintz A, Carrau R. Expanded endonasal approach: fully endoscopic, completely transnasal approach to the middle third of the clivus, petrous bone, middle cranial fossa, and infratemporal fossa. Neurosurg Focus. 2005;19:E6 pubmed
  7. Chiu E, Kraus D, Bui D, Mehrara B, Disa J, Bilsky M, et al. Anterior and middle cranial fossa skull base reconstruction using microvascular free tissue techniques: surgical complications and functional outcomes. Ann Plast Surg. 2008;60:514-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assesses the functional outcomes of patients who undergo anterior and middle cranial fossa skull base reconstruction using microsurgical free tissue transfer techniques...
  8. Lee H, Kim I, Lee W. New method of identifying the internal auditory canal as seen from the middle cranial fossa approach. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006;115:457-60 pubmed
    The middle cranial fossa approach allows one to remove acoustic tumors and preserve the facial nerve and hearing. However, there are no consistent landmarks on the surface of the temporal bone to identify the internal auditory canal...
  9. Phadke R, Shenoy A, Hosangadi A, Nadkarni T. Mature teratoma arising from the middle cranial fossa. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2004;8:28-31 pubmed
    ..Neuroimaging showed an extra-axial, partly cystic tumor of mixed density, located entirely within the middle cranial fossa scalloping the temporal bone and extending into the right infratemporal fossa and the right middle ear and ..

More Information


  1. Ohura N, Ichioka S, Sudo T, Nakagawa M, Kumaido K, Nakatsuka T. Dislocation of the bilateral mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa: review of the literature and clinical experience. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:1165-72 pubmed
  2. Miller R, Hashisaki G, Kesser B. Image-guided localization of the internal auditory canal via the middle cranial fossa approach. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;134:778-82 pubmed
    ..to determine the accuracy of an electromagnetic image guidance surgical navigation system in localizing the midpoint of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and other structures of the temporal bone through the middle cranial fossa approach.
  3. Kojima H, Tanaka Y, Yaguchi Y, Miyazaki H, Murakami S, Moriyama H. Endoscope-assisted surgery via the middle cranial fossa approach for a petrous cholesteatoma. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2008;35:469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..petrous cholesteatomas are the translabyrinthine-transcochlear approach, partial labyrinthectomy, and the middle cranial fossa approach...
  4. Djalilian H, Thakkar K, Hamidi S, Benson A, Mafee M. A study of middle cranial fossa anatomy and anatomic variations. Ear Nose Throat J. 2007;86:474, 476-81 pubmed
    ..a study to establish standardized measurements of the common anatomic landmarks used during surgery via the middle cranial fossa approach...
  5. Lee H, Lee W. Microsurgical anatomy of the perigeniculate ganglion area as seen from the middle cranial fossa approach. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003;112:531-3 pubmed
    The middle cranial fossa approach is useful for decompressing the perigeniculate ganglion area of the facial nerve in patients with serviceable hearing...
  6. Offiah C, St Clair Forbes W, Thorne J. Non-haemorrhagic subdural collection complicating rupture of a middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst. Br J Radiol. 2006;79:79-82 pubmed
    ..MRI can help distinguish between these two rare occurrences--an important distinction to make as this may assist in directing the treating clinician toward the most appropriate management plan...
  7. Harstall R, Gratz K, Zwahlen R. Mandibular condyle dislocation into the middle cranial fossa: a case report and review of literature. J Trauma. 2005;59:1495-503 pubmed
  8. Kakizawa Y, Abe H, Fukushima Y, Hongo K, El Khouly H, Rhoton A. The course of the lesser petrosal nerve on the middle cranial fossa. Neurosurgery. 2007;61:15-23; discussion 23 pubmed
    ..The objective was to examine the course of the lesser petrosal nerve along the floor of the middle cranial fossa from the region of the geniculate ganglion to its outlet from the skull base...
  9. Isaacson B, Telian S, El Kashlan H. Facial nerve outcomes in middle cranial fossa vs translabyrinthine approaches. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;133:906-10 pubmed
    To compare the final facial nerve outcomes between middle cranial fossa (MCF) vs translabyrinthine (TL) resection of size-matched vestibular schwannomas.
  10. Mori R, Sakai H, Kato M, Hida T, Nakajima M, Fukunaga M, et al. [Huge facial nerve schwannoma extending into the middle cranial fossa without facial palsy: case report]. No Shinkei Geka. 2007;35:591-8 pubmed
    The facial nerve schwannoma is a rare tumor and it seldom extends into the middle cranial fossa. The typical clinical presentations are progressive facial paralysis and hearing disturbance...
  11. Bastir M, Rosas A, Lieberman D, O Higgins P. Middle cranial fossa anatomy and the origin of modern humans. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008;291:130-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The middle cranial fossa (MCF) interacts during growth and development with the temporal lobes, the midface, and the mandible...
  12. van der Linden W. Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa: report of a case with 5 year CT follow-up. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;32:215-8 pubmed
    A 17-year-old patient suffered a dislocation of the right mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa following a motorcycle accident. Reduction was delayed because of serious orthopaedic injuries...
  13. Bigler E. Anterior and middle cranial fossa in traumatic brain injury: relevant neuroanatomy and neuropathology in the study of neuropsychological outcome. Neuropsychology. 2007;21:515-31 pubmed
    ..How neuropsychological deficits result from damage to these areas is reviewed and discussed...
  14. Wigand M. [Re: "Subtemporal approach using the House method compared to that of Wigand's in meatal cerebellopontile angle tumors type A"]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2005;84:68 pubmed
  15. Sekula R, Cohen D, Quigley M, Jannetta P. Primary treatment of a blister-like aneurysm with an encircling clip graft: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:ONSE168; discussion ONSE168 pubmed
    ..Neurosurgeons must familiarize themselves with this distinct entity (the blister-type aneurysm), recognize the possible risks associated with parallel clipping, and consider the use of an encircling clip graft as the primary treatment. ..
  16. Quaranta A, Berardi P, Piscitelli D, Fiore M, Calace A, Resta L. Spindle cell carcinoma of the external auditory meatus with intracranial extension: histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic evaluation. Acta Otolaryngol. 2007;127:105-9 pubmed
    ..The tumour was extended to the inner ear, the temporal bone, the middle cranial fossa and the meningo-cerebral tissue...
  17. Janjua R, Al Mefty O, Densler D, Shields C. Dural relationships of Meckel cave and lateral wall of the cavernous sinus. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;25:E2 pubmed publisher
    ..The MC is an extension of the posterior fossa dura with intricate relationships with the surrounding dural layers. ..
  18. Freudenstein D, Koerbel A, Beschorner R, Tatagiba M. Successful treatment of aspergillus granuloma involving the cavernous sinus and the middle fossa by using surgery and voriconazole. Case illustration. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:511 pubmed
  19. Cevidanes L, Franco A, Scanavini M, Vigorito J, Enlow D, Proffit W. Clinical outcomes of Fränkel appliance therapy assessed with a counterpart analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003;123:379-87 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that studies of skeletal variations with counterpart analysis can show ramus remodeling compensations from treatment that are missed with conventional cephalometrics. ..
  20. Doglietto F, Lauretti L, Frank G, Pasquini E, Fernandez E, Tschabitscher M, et al. Microscopic and endoscopic extracranial approaches to the cavernous sinus: anatomic study. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:413-21; discussion 421-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The paraseptal, binostril endoscopic approach allows a very good exposure of the CS; the transethmoid-pterygoid-sphenoidal endoscopic approach achieves the best maneuverability in the lateral compartment of the CS. ..
  21. Alijani B, Bagheri H, Chabok S, Behzadnia H, Dehghani S. Posttraumatic Temporal Bone Meningocele Presenting as a Cystic Mass in the External Auditory Canal. J Craniofac Surg. 2016;27:e481-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient underwent surgery via a mini middle cranial fossa craniotomy associated with a transmastoid approach...
  22. Reychler H, Olszewski R. Intracerebral penetration of a zygomatic dental implant and consequent therapeutic dilemmas: case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2010;25:416-8 pubmed
    ..Postoperative computed tomography assessment should be performed after zygomatic implant surgery. Finally, any neurologic impairment of the patient after pterygoid implantation should also be treated immediately. ..
  23. Cavalcanti D, Garcia Gonzalez U, Agrawal A, Crawford N, Tavares P, Spetzler R, et al. Quantitative anatomic study of the transciliary supraorbital approach: benefits of additional orbital osteotomy?. Neurosurgery. 2010;66:205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..TCSO combined with orbital osteotomy improves exposure. Removing the orbital rim and roof increases the area for instrument use and improves the vertical angle of attack to common sites in the anterior circulation involving aneurysms. ..
  24. Sun G, Lu M, Hu Q. The Application of Surgical Navigation in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis. J Craniofac Surg. 2015;26:e776-80 pubmed publisher
    ..of surgical navigation technology in the resection of severe ankylosis of the mandibular condyle with the middle cranial fossa. The computed tomography scan data were transferred to a Windows-based computer workstation, and the ..
  25. Naumann I, Miyamoto R. Large asymptomatic pneumocephalus developing years after middle cranial fossa surgery--a case report. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:470-3 pubmed publisher
    ..It presented several years after surgical resection of a meningioma that involved the temporal bone. ..
  26. Todd N. Cochlear implantation via the middle fossa: surgical and electrode array considerations. Cochlear Implants Int. 2007;8:12-28 pubmed
    Cochlear implantation via the middle cranial fossa may access the entire length of the cochlea without opening the middle ear. Concerns include safety and electrode array design...
  27. Tsunoda A, Sumi T, Shirakura S, Kishimoto S, Akita K. Bony eminence on the middle cranial fossa corresponding to the temporomandibular joint. Clin Anat. 2007;20:512-5 pubmed
    ..3 +/- 8.2 years, male:female = 11:10) were used to investigate the surface of the middle cranial fossa (MCF) over the TMJ. The thickness of the bony roof of the glenoid fossa was also measured...
  28. Hope A, Fagan P. Latent superior canal dehiscence syndrome unmasked by stapedotomy for otosclerosis. J Laryngol Otol. 2010;124:428-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This report describes a novel case in which superior canal dehiscence syndrome was unmasked by successful stapes surgery for otosclerosis...
  29. Song W, Choi H, Kim S, Hu K, Kim H, Koh K. Topographic anatomy of the zygomatic arch and temporal fossa: a cadaveric study. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:1375-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the maximum distance from the internal surface of the ZA to the surface of the temporalis muscle is 8mm, and this should be considered when performing reduction malarplasty on the ZA. ..
  30. Goddard J, Schwartz M, Friedman R. Fundal fluid as a predictor of hearing preservation in the middle cranial fossa approach for vestibular schwannoma. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:1128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..scans is predictive of improved hearing preservation after removal of vestibular schwannoma through the middle cranial fossa approach...
  31. Omodaka S, Fujimura M, Endo T, Inoue T, Shimizu H, Tominaga T. De novo formation of orbital cavernous malformation 9 years after surgical management of dural arteriovenous fistula in the anterior middle fossa: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2010;50:324-7 pubmed
    ..The coexistence of recurrent dAVF with newly formed orbital CM is extremely rare, but may indicate the underlying mechanism of the formation of CMs and recurrent dAVF. ..
  32. Muzumdar D, Goel A, Desai K, Chagla A. Cholesterol granuloma in the middle fossa presenting 30 years after surgery for chronic otitis media: a case report. J Clin Neurosci. 2002;9:447-50 pubmed
    ..The lesion communicated with the petrous temporal bone and was diagnosed after it became symptomatic 30 years following surgery for left chronic otitis media. The case is analysed and the literature on the subject is reviewed. ..
  33. Sennaroglu L, Slattery W. Petrous anatomy for middle fossa approach. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:332-42 pubmed
    ..Petrous apex anatomical knowledge is required for the safe middle fossa approach to the IAC and petrous apex. Two safe zones are defined that should prevent damage to the cochlea and the superior semicircular canal. ..
  34. Harman M, Kiroglu F, Kosem M, Unal O. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the paranasal sinus with intracranial extension: imaging features. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2003;32:343-6 pubmed
    ..We present a case of primary Ewing's sarcoma of the paranasal sinus extending into the middle cranial fossa in a 40-year-old female. CT and MRI findings of this unusual case are discussed...
  35. Sanna M, Khrais T, Russo A, Piccirillo E, Augurio A. Hearing preservation surgery in vestibular schwannoma: the hidden truth. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2004;113:156-63 pubmed
    To compare the results of hearing preservation surgeries using different approaches--the enlarged middle cranial fossa approach and the retrosigmoid approach--and different classification systems, stressing the importance of preserving &..
  36. Ozluoglu L, Yilmaz I, Cagici C, Bal N, Erdogan B. Ganglioneuroma of the internal auditory canal: a case report. Audiol Neurootol. 2007;12:160-4 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of a ganglioneuroma of the IAC. We suggest that ganglioneuroma be considered in the differential diagnosis of all tumors of the IAC...
  37. Crovetto de la Torre M, Whyte Orozco J, Cisneros Gimeno A, Basurko Aboitz J, Oleaga Zufiria L, Sarrat Torreguitart R. [Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome. Embryological and surgical consideration]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2005;56:6-11 pubmed
    ..Surgical repair via transmastoid approach is a reasonable alternative treatment to the middle fossa approach. ..
  38. Cillo J, Sinn D, Ellis E. Traumatic dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa treated with immediate reconstruction: a case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63:859-65 pubmed
  39. Han H, Deng X, Fong A, Zhang M. Dural entrance of the bridging vein in the middle cranial fossa: a novel classification of the cerebral veins for preoperative planning. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:ons9-15; discussion ons15 pubmed publisher
    ..identify anatomic features of the dural entrance of the bridging veins (BVs) into the dural sinuses in the middle cranial fossa on the cadaver and to correlate such features with those of digital subtraction venogram, computed ..
  40. Tabaee A, Anand V, Fraser J, Brown S, Singh A, Schwartz T. Three-dimensional endoscopic pituitary surgery. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:288-93; discussion 294-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Three-dimensional endoscopes may become the standard tool for minimal access neurosurgery. ..
  41. Knappe U, Fink T, Fisseler Eckhoff A, Schoenmayr R. Expression of extracellular matrix-proteins in perisellar connective tissue and dura mater. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:345-53; discussion 353 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the pattern of expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in perisellar connective tissue...
  42. Parhizkar N, Hiltzik D, Selesnick S. Facial nerve rerouting in skull base surgery. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2005;38:685-710, ix pubmed
  43. Knappe U, Konerding M, Schoenmayr R. Medial wall of the cavernous sinus: microanatomical diaphanoscopic and episcopic investigation. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151:961-7; discussion 967 pubmed publisher
    ..Expansion into the CS may be facilitated by low anatomical resistance against chronic tumor growth. ..
  44. Laghari A, Javed G, Khan M, Ahmed S, Nathani K, Ahmed R. Spontaneous Intraventricular Hemorrhage: A Rare Presentation of a Skull Base Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma. World Neurosurg. 2017;99:811.e1-811.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..A lesion at the cerebellopontine angle with extension into the middle cranial fossa was demonstrated on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging...
  45. Russo N, Domenicucci M, Beccaglia M, Santoro A. Spontaneous reduction of intracranial arachnoid cysts: a complete review. Br J Neurosurg. 2008;22:626-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A 2 months, MRI control documented marked reduction of the cyst without any evident brain compression. The feasibility of a wait and see policy in such cases is discussed. ..
  46. Knopp U, Sepehrnia A. [Preservation of olfaction in bifrontal craniotomies for lesions of the anterior and middle cranial fossa]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2005;84:319-22 pubmed
    ..The bifrontal approach allowed a bilateral, wide operative field with excellent orientation and views of important structures. The shortcoming of this method, damage of the olfactory tracts and postoperative anosmia can be overcome. ..
  47. Stranjalis G, Stavrinou L, Kouyialis A, Sakas D. A modified speculum for transsphenoidal surgery: technical note. Neurosurg Rev. 2009;32:491-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The modification resulted in marked reduction of the overall operation duration. In conclusion, the more open translabial-transnasal speculum described here definitely facilitates the transsphenoidal approach to the pituitary. ..
  48. Bruner E, Ripani M. A quantitative and descriptive approach to morphological variation of the endocranial base in modern humans. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008;137:30-40 pubmed publisher
  49. Liang W, Xiaofeng Y, Weiguo L, Wusi Q, Gang S, Xuesheng Z. Traumatic carotid cavernous fistula accompanying basilar skull fracture: a study on the incidence of traumatic carotid cavernous fistula in the patients with basilar skull fracture and the prognostic analysis about traumatic carotid cavernous fistula. J Trauma. 2007;63:1014-20; discussion 1020 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of this disorder in different types of basilar skull fracture, determine whether particular clinical factors impacted outcomes, and discuss ways of improving prognosis...
  50. Lloyd T, Sivarajasingam V. An unusual cranial dislocation of the mandibular condyle. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48:176-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Management included open reduction of the condyle, rigid intermaxillary fixation (IMF), and intensive jaw physiotherapy. One year after operation he had good functional outcome with an interincisal opening of 30mm...
  51. Cappabianca P, Cavallo L, Esposito I, Barakat M, Esposito F. Bone removal with a new ultrasonic bone curette during endoscopic endonasal approach to the sellar-suprasellar area: technical note. Neurosurgery. 2010;66:ons-E118 pubmed publisher
    ..No cases of injury to the major neurovascular structures occurred. The Sonopet ultrasonic bone curette is a useful tool during endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery. ..
  52. Kim S, Jang Y, Jeon S. Anomalous vein in the middle cranial fossa associated with the tegmen tympani defect. Otol Neurotol. 2003;24:935-8 pubmed
  53. Gwak H, Hwang S, Paek S, Kim D, Jung H. Long-term outcome of trigeminal neurinomas with modified classification focusing on petrous erosion. Surg Neurol. 2003;60:39-48; discussion 48 pubmed
    ..Modified classification based on the tumor distribution over petrous ridge is suggested to select the optimal surgical approach and to predict the outcome...
  54. Osawa S, Rhoton A, Seker A, Shimizu S, Fujii K, Kassam A. Microsurgical and endoscopic anatomy of the vidian canal. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:385-411; discussion 411-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the anatomic features of the vidian canal, nerve, and artery, as well as the clinical implications of our findings...
  55. Dorner L, Buhl R, Hugo H, Jansen O, Barth H, Mehdorn H. Unusual locations for cavernous hemangiomas: report of two cases and review of the literature. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2005;147:1091-6; discussion 1096 pubmed
    ..We discuss these and other cases in the literature with respect to the more common differential diagnoses and the appropriate therapy regimen for cavernous hemangiomas in these locations...
  56. de Oliveira J, Giudicissi Filho M, Rassi Neto A, Borba L, Rassi M, Sanchez S, et al. Intracranial aneurysm and arachnoid cyst: a rare association between two cerebral malformations. Br J Neurosurg. 2007;21:406-10 pubmed
    ..A new case of a 55-year-old man with a large posterior communicating artery aneurysm and a middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst presenting with headache and seizure was added to review of the literature and presented as ..
  57. Kafadar A, Tanriverdi T, Canbaz B, Kuday C. Trigeminal neuroma with extracranial extension: the 31st case. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2006;49:230-3 pubmed
    ..Here, we present the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of 28-year-old woman with trigeminal neuroma with extension to the infratemporal fossa...
  58. Jacob M, Gujar S, Trobe J, Gandhi D. Spontaneous resolution of a Meckel's cave arachnoid cyst causing sixth cranial nerve palsy. J Neuroophthalmol. 2008;28:186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..All previously reported symptomatic patients were treated surgically. This is the first report of an arachnoid cyst arising from Meckel's cave in pregnancy and having spontaneous resolution...
  59. Nishikawa T, Ishida H, Nibu K. A rare spontaneous temporal meningoencephalocele with dehiscence into the pterygoid fossa. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2004;31:429-31 pubmed
    ..an extremely rare case of basal meningoencephalocele that protruded into the left pterygoid fossa from the middle cranial fossa. After a 30-year-old woman experienced a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, computed tomography (CT) ..
  60. Akdemir G, Daglioglu E, Ergüngör M. Dermoid lesion of the cavernous sinus: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurg Rev. 2004;27:294-8 pubmed
    ..Although total excision of these cavernous lesions has been reported previously, we believe that total excision can sometimes be hazardous and not feasible...
  61. Pichierri A, D Avella E, Ruggeri A, Tschabitscher M, Delfini R. Endoscopic assistance in the epidural subtemporal approach and Kawase approach: anatomic study. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:ons29-37; discussion ons37 pubmed publisher
    ..Few reports exist in the literature about the use of endoscope assistance in the identification of structures in the posterior fossa...
  62. Ammirati M, Delgado M, Slone H, Ray Chaudhury A. Extradural dermoid tumor of the petrous apex. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:426-9 pubmed
    ..The authors report on a case of an extradural dermoid tumor of the middle cranial fossa with osseous invasion, successfully removed using a left subtemporal extradural approach...
  63. Lee M, Lee E. Giant cell tumor of the petrous temporal bone with direct invasion into the middle ear. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:797-800 pubmed
    ..of vertigo due to a large lobulated GCT of the right petrous temporal bone extending into the contiguous middle cranial fossa, infratemporal space, middle ear and external ear canal...
  64. Danner C, Cueva R. Extended middle fossa approach to the petroclival junction and anterior cerebellopontine angle. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:762-8 pubmed
    This article seeks to demonstrate the use of the extended middle cranial fossa approach in the treatment of tumors arising in the anterior cerebellopontine angle and petroclival region.
  65. Kobayashi M, Yoshida K, Kawase T. Inter-dural approach to parasellar tumors. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:279-84; discussion 284-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to understand the anatomical structures of the lateral parasellar region and describe the inter-dural approach for parasellar tumors...
  66. Oujilal A, Boulaich M, Lahlou A, Lazrak A, Sefiani A, Kzadri M. [Synovialosarcoma of the infraemporal fossa]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2006;107:397-9 pubmed
  67. Dragan L, Aghaian E, Vora R, Kim G, Seiff S. Orbital, middle cranial fossa, and pterygopalatine fossa yolk sac tumor in an infant. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20:469-71 pubmed
    ..Imaging of the orbits and brain revealed a mass in the right orbit, middle cranial fossa, and pterygopalatine fossa...
  68. Alfieri A, Jho H, Schettino R, Tschabitscher M. Endoscopic endonasal approach to the pterygopalatine fossa: anatomic study. Neurosurgery. 2003;52:374-78; discussion 378-80 pubmed
    ..We performed a cadaveric study through a minimally invasive endoscopic endonasal approach to the pterygopalatine fossa...
  69. Li Y, Zhang T, An Y, Shi J, Fu J, Qiu E. [Clinical study of lacrimal gland tumor involving anterior and middle cranial fossae]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006;86:1597-9 pubmed
    ..To investigate the clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland tumor involving the anterior and middle cranial fossae and the effect of transcranial-orbital approach in treatment of such tumor...
  70. Sharma B, Ahmad F, Chandra P, Mahapatra A. Trigeminal schwannomas: experience with 68 cases. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:738-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that trigeminal neuromas are best treated by total surgical resection, which yields acceptable results with low rates of mortality and permanent morbidity...
  71. Vincent C. [The middle fossa approaches]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 2008;125:289-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Describe the surgical systematization of the different variants of the middle fossa approach...
  72. Zhong J, Li S, Xu S, Wan L, Wang X. Management of petrosal veins during microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurol Res. 2008;30:697-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Although it can be killed in most cases, cutting the vein sometimes has the potential risk arising from venous congestion. To maneuver the vein safely, we introduced a temporary occlusion test of the vein...
  73. Kabil M, Shahinian H. Fully endoscopic supraorbital resection of congenital middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts: report of 2 cases. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2007;43:316-22 pubmed
    ..The most frequent localization of congenital intracranial arachnoid cysts is in the middle cranial fossa, constituting more than half of the cases reported in the literature...
  74. Levy M, Meltzer H, Hughes S, Aryan H, Yoo K, Amar A. Hydrocephalus in children with middle fossa arachnoid cysts. J Neurosurg. 2004;101:25-31 pubmed
  75. Goizueta Adame C, Gonzalez Garcia R. Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint: report of 2 patients whose joints were reconstructed with costochondral graft and alloplastic prosthesis. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48:374-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We report what is to our knowledge the youngest reported case of synovial chondromatosis of the TMJ, which is also the tenth reported case with extension into the middle cranial fossa.
  76. Derkowski W, Kedzia A, Glonek M. Clinical anatomy of the human anterior cranial fossa during the prenatal period. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2003;62:271-3 pubmed
    ..evaluation of anterior cranial fossa geometry, its measurements and connections with the nasal cavity and middle cranial fossa. The study was performed on 29 foetuses from the first and second trimester of pregnancy...
  77. Zhao J, Liu J. Transzygomatic extended middle fossa approach for upper petroclival skull base lesions. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;25:E5; discussion E5 pubmed publisher
    ..This exposure provides a wider surgical corridor for direct view of the clivus and ventral brainstem...
  78. Jimbo H, Kamata S, Miura K, Asamoto S, Tada S, Endo T, et al. Operative management of skull base malignant tumors arising from the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus: recent strategies used in 25 cases. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2010;50:20-6; discussion 26 pubmed
    ..We believe that the optimal management of such malignant tumors involves a multimodal and multidisciplinary team approach. Here we present our recent institutional experience and treatment policy employed during the past 3 years...
  79. Cappabianca P, Cavallo L, Esposito F, de Divitiis O, Messina A, de Divitiis E. Extended endoscopic endonasal approach to the midline skull base: the evolving role of transsphenoidal surgery. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg. 2008;33:151-99 pubmed
    ..Such extended endoscopic approaches, although at a first glance might be considered something that everyone can do, require an advanced and specialized training...
  80. Hashemi M, Schick U, Hassler W, Hefti M. Tentorial meningiomas with special aspect to the tentorial fold: management, surgical technique, and outcome. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:827-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Complete resection is challenging and can be hazardous. We present our experience with this rare tumor entity and demonstrate the surgical outcome related to a topographical classification...
  81. House W, Shelton C. Middle fossa approach for acoustic tumor removal. 1992. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2008;19:279-88, vi pubmed publisher
    ..With the introduction of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, very small acoustic tumors are diagonosed more frequently, and the middle fossa approach is well-suited for the removal of these tumors...
  82. Tubbs R, Loukas M, Shoja M, Cohen Gadol A. Refined and simplified surgical landmarks for the MacCarty keyhole and orbitozygomatic craniotomy. Neurosurgery. 2010;66:230-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To locate the optimal keyhole site, previous studies have used superficial landmarks that, in our experience, are not always visible or consistent on older crania...
  83. Ichimura S, Kawase T, Onozuka S, Yoshida K, Ohira T. Four subtypes of petroclival meningiomas: differences in symptoms and operative findings using the anterior transpetrosal approach. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2008;150:637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This report subclassifies petroclival meningiomas based on their origin determined by using radiological and intra-operative findings...
  84. Sharma A, Garg A, Mishra N, Gaikwad S, Sharma M, Gupta V, et al. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the sphenoid bone with unusual imaging features: a case report. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2005;107:528-31 pubmed
    ..Spiculated new bone formation and fluid-fluid levels had not been reported previously in skull Ewing's sarcomas and may be helpful features for preoperative diagnosis...
  85. Melamed I, Tubbs R, Payner T, Cohen Gadol A. Trans-zygomatic middle cranial fossa approach to access lesions around the cavernous sinus and anterior parahippocampus: a minimally invasive skull base approach. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151:977-82; discussion 982 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors present a cadaveric study to illustrate the feasibility, advantages and landmarks necessary to perform a trans-zygomatic middle fossa approach to lesions around the cavernous sinus and anterior parahippocampus...
  86. Shi X, Han H, Zhao J, Zhou C. Microsurgical anatomy of the superior orbital fissure. Clin Anat. 2007;20:362-6 pubmed
    ..Through this fissure, many important structures enter the orbit from the middle cranial fossa including the third, fourth, sixth cranial nerves, and the ophthalmic branch of the fifth nerve...
  87. Almeida D, Hunhevicz S, Bordignon K, Barros E, Mehl A, Burak Mehl A, et al. A model for foramen ovale puncture training: Technical note. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:881-3; discussion 883 pubmed
    ..For that, a partnership between neurosurgeons and bio-engineers has developed a model for foramen ovale puncture, allowing practice for residents and young neurosurgeons...
  88. Fournier H, Hue A, Laccourreye L. [Extensive lower clivus chordomas. Removal using the unilateral transmandibular approach]. Neurochirurgie. 2008;54:63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Its anterior extension in the retropharyngeal space offers a logical opportunity and many advantages to use an anterior approach...