vomeronasal organ

Summary

Summary: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.

Top Publications

  1. Halpern M, Martinez Marcos A. Structure and function of the vomeronasal system: an update. Prog Neurobiol. 2003;70:245-318 pubmed
    ..Finally, contrary to prior observations, new anatomical studies indicated that a vomeronasal organ (VNO) was present in human adults and reports were published indicating that this system might be functional...
  2. Gelez H, Fabre Nys C. Neural pathways involved in the endocrine response of anestrous ewes to the male or its odor. Neuroscience. 2006;140:791-800 pubmed
    ..Numerous structures widely distributed seem involved in the processing of the male olfactory cue to reach the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. ..
  3. Kashiwagi A, Kashiwagi K, Saito S, Date Ito A, Ichikawa M, Mori Y, et al. Stable knock-down of vomeronasal receptor genes in transgenic Xenopus tadpoles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;345:140-7 pubmed
    ..a family of G-protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains, is expressed in the Xenopus vomeronasal organ (VNO). There are six subgroups of xV2R, one of which, xV2RE, is predominantly expressed in the VNO...
  4. Wagner S, Gresser A, Torello A, Dulac C. A multireceptor genetic approach uncovers an ordered integration of VNO sensory inputs in the accessory olfactory bulb. Neuron. 2006;50:697-709 pubmed
    Pheromone detection by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) is thought to rely on activation of specific receptors from the V1R and V2R gene families, but the central representation of pheromone receptor activation remains poorly understood...
  5. Ohara H, Nikaido M, Date Ito A, Mogi K, Okamura H, Okada N, et al. Conserved repertoire of orthologous vomeronasal type 1 receptor genes in ruminant species. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:233 pubmed publisher
    ..In rodents, vomeronasal receptor type 1 (V1R), which is specifically expressed in the vomeronasal organ, is thought to detect pheromones...
  6. Tachikawa K, Yoshihara Y, Kuroda K. Behavioral transition from attack to parenting in male mice: a crucial role of the vomeronasal system. J Neurosci. 2013;33:5120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical ablation of the vomeronasal organ in sexually naive males resulted in the abrogation of pup-directed aggression and simultaneous induction of ..
  7. Jia C, Halpern M. Calbindin D28K immunoreactive neurons in vomeronasal organ and their projections to the accessory olfactory bulb in the rat. Brain Res. 2003;977:261-9 pubmed
    ..The chemosensory receptor neurons are located in the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Their axons terminate in the glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)...
  8. Ablimit A, Aoki T, Matsuzaki T, Suzuki T, Hagiwara H, Takami S, et al. Immunolocalization of water channel aquaporins in the vomeronasal organ of the rat: expression of AQP4 in neuronal sensory cells. Chem Senses. 2008;33:481-8 pubmed publisher
    The vomeronasal organ comprises a pair of narrow tubes in the mammalian nasal septum, serving as a chemosensory system for pheromones...
  9. Thompson R, McMillon R, Napier A, Wekesa K. Pregnancy block by MHC class I peptides is mediated via the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the mouse vomeronasal organ. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:1406-12 pubmed
    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) has evolved to link an animal's behavior to its environment in a highly species-specific fashion. In mice, it is thought to be the primary sensory system responsible for the detection of pheromones...

More Information

Publications137 found, 100 shown here

  1. Nozawa M, Nei M. Genomic drift and copy number variation of chemosensory receptor genes in humans and mice. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2008;123:263-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Liberles S, Horowitz L, Kuang D, CONTOS J, Wilson K, Siltberg Liberles J, et al. Formyl peptide receptors are candidate chemosensory receptors in the vomeronasal organ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9842-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO), which detects pheromones and other semiochemicals, has 2 known families of chemoreceptors, V1Rs and ..
  3. Buck L. Olfactory receptors and odor coding in mammals. Nutr Rev. 2004;62:S184-8; discussion S224-41 pubmed
    ..Another olfactory structure in the nasal septum of animals, the vomeronasal organ, has two additional receptor families that detect pheromones and induce hormonal and behavioral responses ..
  4. Alekseyenko O, Baum M, Cherry J. Sex and gonadal steroid modulation of pheromone receptor gene expression in the mouse vomeronasal organ. Neuroscience. 2006;140:1349-57 pubmed
    Non-volatile chemosignals in rodents are detected by unique receptors in the vomeronasal organ of the accessory olfactory system...
  5. Roppolo D, Vollery S, Kan C, Lüscher C, Broillet M, Rodriguez I. Gene cluster lock after pheromone receptor gene choice. EMBO J. 2007;26:3423-30 pubmed
    ..Our observations strongly suggest a monogenic regulatory mechanism acting (a) at a general level, via the expression of the V1r receptor itself, and (b) at a more local level, defined by the V1r gene cluster. ..
  6. Park S, Podlaha O, Grus W, Zhang J. The microevolution of V1r vomeronasal receptor genes in mice. Genome Biol Evol. 2011;3:401-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have broad implications for understanding the driving forces of rapid gene turnovers that are often observed in the evolution of large gene families. ..
  7. Kiyokawa Y, Kikusui T, Takeuchi Y, Mori Y. Removal of the vomeronasal organ blocks the stress-induced hyperthermia response to alarm pheromone in male rats. Chem Senses. 2007;32:57-64 pubmed
    ..question by exposing 3 types of recipients to alarm pheromone in their home cages: intact males (Intact), vomeronasal organ-excised males (VNX), and sham-operated males (Sham)...
  8. Cloutier J, Sahay A, Chang E, Tessier Lavigne M, Dulac C, Kolodkin A, et al. Differential requirements for semaphorin 3F and Slit-1 in axonal targeting, fasciculation, and segregation of olfactory sensory neuron projections. J Neurosci. 2004;24:9087-96 pubmed
    ..These results reveal discrete and complementary roles for secreted semaphorins and slits in axonal targeting, fasciculation, and segregation of olfactory sensory neuron projections. ..
  9. Kimoto H, Haga S, Sato K, Touhara K. Sex-specific peptides from exocrine glands stimulate mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Nature. 2005;437:898-901 pubmed
    ..The vomeronasal organ, located at the base of the nasal septum, is responsible for mediating pheromone information in mice...
  10. Foltán R, Sedy J. Behavioral changes of patients after orthognathic surgery develop on the basis of the loss of vomeronasal organ: a hypothesis. Head Face Med. 2009;5:5 pubmed publisher
    We introduce a hypothesis which presumes that damage to the vomeronasal organ during a Le Fort I osteotomy of the maxilla for the purpose of orthognathic surgical treatment of congenital or acquired jaw deformities affects the patient's ..
  11. Mandiyan V, Coats J, Shah N. Deficits in sexual and aggressive behaviors in Cnga2 mutant mice. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1660-2 pubmed
    Odors detected by the vomeronasal organ or the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) trigger social behaviors in many animals. It is unknown whether MOE neurons detect cues that initiate mating or aggression...
  12. Brann J, Fadool D. Vomeronasal sensory neurons from Sternotherus odoratus (stinkpot/musk turtle) respond to chemosignals via the phospholipase C system. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:1914-27 pubmed
    The mammalian signal transduction apparatus utilized by vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) has been richly explored, while that of reptiles, and in particular, the stinkpot or musk turtle Sternotherus ..
  13. Kim S, Ma L, Yu C. Requirement of calcium-activated chloride channels in the activation of mouse vomeronasal neurons. Nat Commun. 2011;2:365 pubmed publisher
    In terrestrial vertebrates, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects and transduces pheromone signals. VNO activation is thought to be mediated by the transient receptor potential C2 (TRPC2) channel...
  14. Shimazaki R, Boccaccio A, Mazzatenta A, Pinato G, Migliore M, Menini A. Electrophysiological properties and modeling of murine vomeronasal sensory neurons in acute slice preparations. Chem Senses. 2006;31:425-35 pubmed
  15. Yu L, Jin W, Wang J, Zhang X, Chen M, Zhu Z, et al. Characterization of TRPC2, an essential genetic component of VNS chemoreception, provides insights into the evolution of pheromonal olfaction in secondary-adapted marine mammals. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study makes a useful contribution to the current understanding of the evolution of pheromone perception of mammals in response to selective pressures from an aquatic environment. ..
  16. He J, Ma L, Kim S, Schwartz J, Santilli M, Wood C, et al. Distinct signals conveyed by pheromone concentrations to the mouse vomeronasal organ. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7473-83 pubmed publisher
    In mammalian species, detection of pheromone cues by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) at different concentrations can elicit distinct behavioral responses and endocrine changes...
  17. Saito S, Oikawa T, Taniguchi K, Taniguchi K. Fine structure of the vomeronasal organ in the grass lizard, Takydromus tachydromoides. Tissue Cell. 2010;42:322-7 pubmed publisher
    The squamates are composed of many taxa, among which there is morphological variation in the vomeronasal organ (VNO)...
  18. Dulac C, Torello A. Molecular detection of pheromone signals in mammals: from genes to behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003;4:551-62 pubmed
  19. Sbarbati A, Osculati F. A new fate for old cells: brush cells and related elements. J Anat. 2005;206:349-58 pubmed
    ..They seem to comprise a diffuse chemosensory system that covers large areas (probably the whole digestive and respiratory apparatuses) with analogies to chemosensory systems described in aquatic vertebrates. ..
  20. Chamero P, Katsoulidou V, Hendrix P, Bufe B, Roberts R, Matsunami H, et al. G protein G(alpha)o is essential for vomeronasal function and aggressive behavior in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12898-903 pubmed publisher
    The rodent vomeronasal organ (VNO) mediates the regulation of species-specific and interspecies social behaviors. We have used gene targeting to examine the role of the G protein G?o, encoded by the gene Gnao1, in vomeronasal function...
  21. Suárez R, Mpodozis J. Heterogeneities of size and sexual dimorphism between the subdomains of the lateral-innervated accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of Octodon degus (Rodentia: Hystricognathi). Behav Brain Res. 2009;198:306-12 pubmed publisher
    ..All rodents studied so far possess two parallel pathways from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)...
  22. Schneider N, Fletcher T, Shaw G, Renfree M. The vomeronasal organ of the tammar wallaby. J Anat. 2008;213:93-105 pubmed
    The vomeronasal organ is the primary olfactory organ that detects sexual pheromones in mammals. We investigated the anatomy of the vomeronasal organ of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), a small macropodid marsupial...
  23. Keller M, Baum M, Brock O, Brennan P, Bakker J. The main and the accessory olfactory systems interact in the control of mate recognition and sexual behavior. Behav Brain Res. 2009;200:268-76 pubmed
  24. Grus W, Zhang J. Rapid turnover and species-specificity of vomeronasal pheromone receptor genes in mice and rats. Gene. 2004;340:303-12 pubmed
    ..of the same species to elicit behavioral or physiological changes, and they are perceived primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in terrestrial vertebrates...
  25. Flanagan K, Webb W, Stowers L. Analysis of male pheromones that accelerate female reproductive organ development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16660 pubmed publisher
    ..When directly analyzed, we are unable to detect previously known pheromones in urine fractions that generate uterine growth. Our analysis indicates that pheromones emitted by males to advance female puberty remain to be identified. ..
  26. Leinders Zufall T, Brennan P, Widmayer P, S P, Maul Pavicic A, Jäger M, et al. MHC class I peptides as chemosensory signals in the vomeronasal organ. Science. 2004;306:1033-7 pubmed
    The mammalian vomeronasal organ detects social information about gender, status, and individuality. The molecular cues carrying this information remain largely unknown...
  27. Chamero P, Leinders Zufall T, Zufall F. From genes to social communication: molecular sensing by the vomeronasal organ. Trends Neurosci. 2012;35:597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..In rodents, this ability involves the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a distinct chemoreceptive structure that is part of the olfactory system...
  28. Pankevich D, Baum M, Cherry J. Olfactory sex discrimination persists, whereas the preference for urinary odorants from estrous females disappears in male mice after vomeronasal organ removal. J Neurosci. 2004;24:9451-7 pubmed
    ..transient receptor potential 2 ion channel, it was proposed recently that a primary function of the mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO)/accessory olfactory system is sex discrimination...
  29. Labra A, Brann J, Fadool D. Heterogeneity of voltage- and chemosignal-activated response profiles in vomeronasal sensory neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:2535-48 pubmed
    ..ascertain whether they would make an amenable model to study single-cell electrophysiology of neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO)...
  30. Stewart R, Lane R. V1R promoters are well conserved and exhibit common putative regulatory motifs. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:253 pubmed
    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) processes chemosensory information, including pheromone signals that influence reproductive behaviors. The sensory neurons of the VNO express two types of chemosensory receptors, V1R and V2R...
  31. Kelliher K, Spehr M, Li X, Zufall F, Leinders Zufall T. Pheromonal recognition memory induced by TRPC2-independent vomeronasal sensing. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:3385-90 pubmed
    Detection and transduction of pheromonal signals by the mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) is critical for the formation of a persistent memory required for mate recognition in the context of selective pregnancy failure (the Bruce effect)...
  32. Frasnelli J, Lundstrom J, Boyle J, Katsarkas A, Jones Gotman M. The vomeronasal organ is not involved in the perception of endogenous odors. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011;32:450-60 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a widespread belief that the vomeronasal organ (VNO) is responsible for processing social chemosignals in humans...
  33. Emes R, Beatson S, Ponting C, Goodstadt L. Evolution and comparative genomics of odorant- and pheromone-associated genes in rodents. Genome Res. 2004;14:591-602 pubmed
    ..We predict that these contribute to physicochemical and functional diversity within pheromone-receptor interaction sites. ..
  34. Yang H, Shi P. Molecular and evolutionary analyses of formyl peptide receptors suggest the absence of VNO-specific FPRs in primates. J Genet Genomics. 2010;37:771-8 pubmed publisher
    ..vomeronasal chemosensory receptors usually underwent positive selection and evolved concordantly with the vomeronasal organ (VNO) morphology, we surveyed FPRs in primates in which VNO morphology is greatly diverse and thus it would ..
  35. Fieni F, Ghiaroni V, Tirindelli R, Pietra P, Bigiani A. Apical and basal neurones isolated from the mouse vomeronasal organ differ for voltage-dependent currents. J Physiol. 2003;552:425-36 pubmed
    The mammalian vomeronasal organ (VNO) contains specialized neurones that transduce the chemical information related to pheromones into discharge of action potentials to the brain...
  36. Radlanski R, Emmerich S, Renz H. Prenatal morphogenesis of the human incisive canal. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2004;208:265-71 pubmed
    ..In advanced stages of development, the nasopalatine duct only existed as single epithelial remnants and was prone to obliteration. ..
  37. Ishii T, Mombaerts P. Coordinated coexpression of two vomeronasal receptor V2R genes per neuron in the mouse. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;46:397-408 pubmed publisher
    The detection of chemosensory stimuli by the sensory neurons of the mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) is mainly mediated by seven-transmembrane receptors that are encoded by two large gene repertoires, V1R and V2R...
  38. Nakamuta S, Nakamuta N, Taniguchi K, Taniguchi K. Localization of the primordial vomeronasal organ and its relationship to the associated gland in lungfish. J Anat. 2013;222:481-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The former resembles the olfactory epithelium of ordinary teleosts and the latter resembles the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods with respect to the G-protein expressions and the morphological properties of olfactory ..
  39. Liman E. Regulation by voltage and adenine nucleotides of a Ca2+-activated cation channel from hamster vomeronasal sensory neurons. J Physiol. 2003;548:777-87 pubmed
    Bipolar sensory neurons within the vomeronasal organ (VNO) are thought to mediate the detection of pheromones in vertebrates...
  40. Grus W, Zhang J. Origin of the genetic components of the vomeronasal system in the common ancestor of all extant vertebrates. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:407-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are important for understanding the evolution of vertebrate sensory systems and illustrate the utility of the genome sequences of early diverging vertebrates for uncovering the evolution of vertebrate-specific traits...
  41. Zhang J, Huang G, Halpern M. Firing properties of accessory olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cells in response to urine delivered to the vomeronasal organ of gray short-tailed opossums. Chem Senses. 2007;32:355-60 pubmed
  42. Grus W, Shi P, Zhang J. Largest vertebrate vomeronasal type 1 receptor gene repertoire in the semiaquatic platypus. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:2153-7 pubmed
    ..Our results challenge the view that olfaction is unimportant to aquatic mammals and call for further study into the role of vomeronasal reception in platypus physiology and behavior...
  43. Mohedano Moriano A, Pro Sistiaga P, Ubeda Bañon I, de la Rosa Prieto C, Saiz Sanchez D, Martinez Marcos A. V1R and V2R segregated vomeronasal pathways to the hypothalamus. Neuroreport. 2008;19:1623-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These two vomeronasal subsystems mediated by V1R and V2R receptors were partially segregated, not only in amygdala, but also in the hypothalamus. ..
  44. Brykczynska U, Tzika A, Rodriguez I, Milinkovitch M. Contrasted evolution of the vomeronasal receptor repertoires in mammals and squamate reptiles. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:389-401 pubmed publisher
    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an olfactory structure that detects pheromones and environmental cues. It consists of sensory neurons that express evolutionary unrelated groups of transmembrane chemoreceptors...
  45. Shimp K, Bhatnagar K, Bonar C, Smith T. Ontogeny of the nasopalatine duct in primates. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2003;274:862-9 pubmed
    ..been put forward to account for the precocious or delayed development of patency in ducts leading to the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in certain mammals...
  46. Guiraudie G, Pageat P, Cain A, Madec I, Nagnan Le Meillour P. Functional characterization of olfactory binding proteins for appeasing compounds and molecular cloning in the vomeronasal organ of pre-pubertal pigs. Chem Senses. 2003;28:609-19 pubmed
    ..olfactory binding proteins involved in the detection of appeasing compounds in the nasal mucosa (NM) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of pre-pubertal pigs...
  47. Ishii T, Mombaerts P. Expression of nonclassical class I major histocompatibility genes defines a tripartite organization of the mouse vomeronasal system. J Neurosci. 2008;28:2332-41 pubmed publisher
    The epithelium of the mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) consists of apical and basal layers of neuronal cell bodies...
  48. Suárez R, Villalón A, Künzle H, Mpodozis J. Transposition and Intermingling of Galphai2 and Galphao afferences into single vomeronasal glomeruli in the Madagascan lesser Tenrec Echinops telfairi. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8005 pubmed publisher
    The vomeronasal system (VNS) mediates pheromonal communication in mammals. From the vomeronasal organ, two populations of sensory neurons, expressing either Galphai2 or Galphao proteins, send projections that end in glomeruli distributed ..
  49. Huang G, Zhang J, Wang D, Mason R, Halpern M. Female snake sex pheromone induces membrane responses in vomeronasal sensory neurons of male snakes. Chem Senses. 2006;31:521-9 pubmed
    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is important for activating accessory olfactory pathways that are involved in sexually dimorphic mating behavior...
  50. Wakabayashi Y, Ohkura S, Okamura H, Mori Y, Ichikawa M. Expression of a vomeronasal receptor gene (V1r) and G protein alpha subunits in goat, Capra hircus, olfactory receptor neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2007;503:371-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the two types of V1r-expressing ORN in goat OE function using different G protein alpha subunits for chemoreception...
  51. Ukhanov K, Leinders Zufall T, Zufall F. Patch-clamp analysis of gene-targeted vomeronasal neurons expressing a defined V1r or V2r receptor: ionic mechanisms underlying persistent firing. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:2357-69 pubmed
    Sensory neurons in the mouse vomeronasal organ consist of two major groups, apical and basal, that project to different brain regions, express unique sets of receptors, and serve distinct functions...
  52. Taniguchi K, Taniguchi K. Embryonic and postnatal differentiation of olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ in the Syrian hamster. J Vet Med Sci. 2008;70:57-64 pubmed
    The details of the embryonic and postnatal differentiation of the olfactory epithelium (OE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO) were examined by light and electron microscopy in the Syrian hamster...
  53. Dibattista M, Mazzatenta A, Grassi F, Tirindelli R, Menini A. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:576-86 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Ih in neurons of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) is not well characterized...
  54. Kimchi T, Xu J, Dulac C. A functional circuit underlying male sexual behaviour in the female mouse brain. Nature. 2007;448:1009-14 pubmed
    In mice, pheromone detection is mediated by the vomeronasal organ and the main olfactory epithelium...
  55. Silvotti L, Moiani A, Gatti R, Tirindelli R. Combinatorial co-expression of pheromone receptors, V2Rs. J Neurochem. 2007;103:1753-63 pubmed
    Basal neurons of the vomeronasal organ of the mouse express a superfamily of about 120 pheromone receptors, named V2Rs, that are grouped in four families, A, B, C, and D, according to sequence homology...
  56. Taha M, McMillon R, Napier A, Wekesa K. Extracts from salivary glands stimulate aggression and inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP3) production in the vomeronasal organ of mice. Physiol Behav. 2009;98:147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, these stimulations of aggression and IP(3) production are shown to be androgen-dependent. ..
  57. Hohenbrink P, Radespiel U, Mundy N. Pervasive and ongoing positive selection in the vomeronasal-1 receptor (V1R) repertoire of mouse lemurs. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:3807-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, adaptive evolution is the predominant mode of evolution of V1R loci at all levels, and the substantial heterogeneity in the strength of selection may be related to receptor function. ..
  58. Norlin E, Gussing F, Berghard A. Vomeronasal phenotype and behavioral alterations in G alpha i2 mutant mice. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1214-9 pubmed
    ..However, male mice show unaltered sexual-partner preference. This suggests that the two types of VN neurons may have separate functions in mediating behavioral changes in response to chemosensory information. ..
  59. Grus W, Shi P, Zhang Y, Zhang J. Dramatic variation of the vomeronasal pheromone receptor gene repertoire among five orders of placental and marsupial mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5767-72 pubmed
    ..to elicit social and sexual responses and are perceived in terrestrial vertebrates primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Pheromone receptors in the mammalian VNO are encoded by the V1R and V2R gene superfamilies...
  60. Klimmeck D, Daiber P, Bruhl A, Baumann A, Frings S, Möhrlen F. Bestrophin 2: an anion channel associated with neurogenesis in chemosensory systems. J Comp Neurol. 2009;515:585-99 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression pattern of this protein in the mouse main olfactory epithelium, septal organ of Masera, and vomeronasal organ. Comparison with the maturation markers growth-associated protein 43 and olfactory marker protein revealed ..
  61. Kim S, Ma L, Jensen K, Kim M, Bond C, Adelman J, et al. Paradoxical contribution of SK3 and GIRK channels to the activation of mouse vomeronasal organ. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1236-44 pubmed publisher
    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is essential for intraspecies communication in many terrestrial vertebrates. The ionic mechanisms of VNO activation remain unclear...
  62. Levai O, Feistel T, Breer H, Strotmann J. Cells in the vomeronasal organ express odorant receptors but project to the accessory olfactory bulb. J Comp Neurol. 2006;498:476-90 pubmed
    Recent evidence indicates that the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of mice not only responds to pheromones but also to odorants...
  63. Nodari F, Hsu F, Fu X, Holekamp T, Kao L, Turk J, et al. Sulfated steroids as natural ligands of mouse pheromone-sensing neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:6407-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide an unprecedented characterization of the signals available for chemical communication among mice. ..
  64. Enomoto T, Ohmoto M, Iwata T, Uno A, Saitou M, Yamaguchi T, et al. Bcl11b/Ctip2 controls the differentiation of vomeronasal sensory neurons in mice. J Neurosci. 2011;31:10159-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Bcl11b/Ctip2 is an essential regulator of the differentiation and dichotomy of VSNs. ..
  65. Pfister P, Rodriguez I. Olfactory expression of a single and highly variable V1r pheromone receptor-like gene in fish species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5489-94 pubmed
    ..In the mouse, the V1r repertoire contains >150 members, which are expressed by neurons of the vomeronasal organ, a structure present exclusively in some tetrapod species...
  66. Hasen N, Gammie S. Trpc2 gene impacts on maternal aggression, accessory olfactory bulb anatomy and brain activity. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:639-49 pubmed publisher
    The Trpc2 gene codes for an ion channel found in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Studies using the Trpc2(-/-) (KO) mouse have exploited the gene's role in signal transduction to explore the VNO's role in pheromonally mediated behaviors...
  67. Thorne N, Amrein H. Vomeronasal organ: pheromone recognition with a twist. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R220-2 pubmed
    Pheromones are detected by the vomeronasal organ using members of two receptor superfamilies: the V1Rs and V2Rs...
  68. Dean D, Mazzatenta A, Menini A. Voltage-activated current properties of male and female mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons: sexually dichotomous?. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2004;190:491-9 pubmed
    The vomeronasal organ, the chemosensory organ of the vomeronasal system, is vital in determining sexual and gender-specific behavior in mice...
  69. Smith T, Bhatnagar K, Burrows A, Shimp K, Dennis J, Smith M, et al. The vomeronasal organ of greater bushbabies (Otolemur spp.): species, sex, and age differences. J Neurocytol. 2005;34:135-47 pubmed
    ..Bushbabies or other strepsirrhine primates may offer an opportunity for further understanding of behavioral correlates of VNNE postnatal plasticity, which may represent primitive functional characteristics of the order Primates...
  70. Tirindelli R, Dibattista M, Pifferi S, Menini A. From pheromones to behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009;89:921-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The current knowledge on the behavioral, physiological, and molecular aspects of pheromone detection in mammals is discussed in this review...
  71. Papes F, Logan D, Stowers L. The vomeronasal organ mediates interspecies defensive behaviors through detection of protein pheromone homologs. Cell. 2010;141:692-703 pubmed publisher
    ..of fear-evoking odors emitted from cat, rat, and snake require the function of sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ. To investigate the molecular nature of the sensory cues emitted by predators, we isolated the salient ..
  72. Mast T, Brann J, Fadool D. The TRPC2 channel forms protein-protein interactions with Homer and RTP in the rat vomeronasal organ. BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:61 pubmed publisher
    The signal transduction cascade operational in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the olfactory system detects odorants important for prey localization, mating, and social recognition...
  73. Silvotti L, Cavalca E, Gatti R, Percudani R, Tirindelli R. A recent class of chemosensory neurons developed in mouse and rat. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24462 pubmed publisher
    In most animal species, the vomeronasal organ ensures the individual recognition of conspecifics, a prerequisite for a successful reproduction. The vomeronasal organ expresses several receptors for pheromone detection...
  74. Trinh K, Storm D. Vomeronasal organ detects odorants in absence of signaling through main olfactory epithelium. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:519-25 pubmed
    ..that odorants are detected by the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and pheromones are sensed through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)...
  75. Hagino Yamagishi K, Moriya K, Kubo H, Wakabayashi Y, Isobe N, Saito S, et al. Expression of vomeronasal receptor genes in Xenopus laevis. J Comp Neurol. 2004;472:246-56 pubmed
    In the course of evolution, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) first appeared in amphibians...
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    ..TRPM5 is known to be abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells where it participates in sweet, amino acid and bitter perception. A role of TRPM5 in other sensory systems, however, has not been studied so far...
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    ..social chemosignals are predominantly detected by sensory neurons of a specialized olfactory subsystem, the vomeronasal organ (VNO)...
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    The mammalian vomeronasal organ (VNO) expresses two G-protein coupled receptor gene families that mediate pheromone responses, the V1R and V2R receptor genes...
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    The olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ of the Japanese striped snake were examined by lectin histochemistry...
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    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) has a key role in mediating the social and defensive responses of many terrestrial vertebrates to species- and sex-specific chemosignals...
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    Vertebrate pheromones are water-soluble chemicals perceived mainly by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) for intraspecific communications...
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    ..The overall pattern of lectin reactivity in the human and chimpanzee VNO is unlike that seen in mammals with chemosensory VNOs, suggesting that the VNO of these hominoids does not function similarly to that of other primates...
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    ..We will review and discuss the specific contribution of each of the two chemosensory systems that ensure specific behavioral responses to conspecific animals...
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    ..Because IGCs are a well-known source of modulatory inputs to LPCs, both MACs and INBs represent a site of convergence of the MOB with the AOB...
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    ..This new perspective could help to unravel olfactory and vomeronasal interactions in behavioral paradigms...
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    ..We suggest that the peptide presentation system provided by MHC molecules co-evolves with the peptide recognition systems expressed by T cells and VSNs...
  89. Yang C, Delay R. Calcium-activated chloride current amplifies the response to urine in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. J Gen Physiol. 2010;135:3-13 pubmed publisher
    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an odor detection system that mediates many pheromone-sensitive behaviors. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs), located in the VNO, are the initial site of interaction with odors/pheromones...
  90. Haga S, Hattori T, Sato T, Sato K, Matsuda S, Kobayakawa R, et al. The male mouse pheromone ESP1 enhances female sexual receptive behaviour through a specific vomeronasal receptor. Nature. 2010;466:118-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that ESP1 is a crucial male pheromone that regulates female reproductive behaviour through a specific receptor in the mouse vomeronasal system...
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    ..Although the vomeronasal organ is often regarded as only a pheromone detector, evidence is emerging that suggests it might respond to a ..
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