frontal sinus

Summary

Summary: One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the FRONTAL BONE in the forehead.

Top Publications

  1. Tatlisumak E, Ovali G, Asirdizer M, Aslan A, Ozyurt B, Bayindir P, et al. CT study on morphometry of frontal sinus. Clin Anat. 2008;21:287-93 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and morphological characteristics of the frontal sinus in an adult population...
  2. Lauder A, Jalisi S, Spiegel J, Stram J, Devaiah A. Antibiotic prophylaxis in the management of complex midface and frontal sinus trauma. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:1940-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although mandible trauma has been studied extensively, there is no standard for use of pre- and postoperative antibiotics in other facial trauma. We sought to determine whether antibiotic strategies have an effect on infection rates...
  3. Rodriguez E, Stanwix M, Nam A, St Hilaire H, Simmons O, Christy M, et al. Twenty-six-year experience treating frontal sinus fractures: a novel algorithm based on anatomical fracture pattern and failure of conventional techniques. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;122:1850-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Frontal sinus fracture treatment strategies lack statistical power. The authors propose statistically valid treatment protocols for frontal sinus fracture based on injury pattern, nasofrontal outflow tract injury, and complication(s).
  4. Eloy J, Friedel M, Murray K, Liu J. Modified hemi-Lothrop procedure for supraorbital frontal sinus access: a cadaveric feasibility study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;145:489-93 pubmed publisher
    ..modified Lothrop procedure (EMLP) is a relatively safe and efficacious advanced approach to access the frontal sinus for recalcitrant disease...
  5. Chandra A, Lim M, Scott E, Morsman D. Frontoethmoidal mucocele associated with bilateral increased intraocular pressure and proptosis. Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42:143-4 pubmed
    ..We describe the case of a 53-year-old man presenting with bilateral proptosis and raised intraocular pressure. Computed tomography imaging revealed these signs to be secondary to a frontoethmoidal mucocele with bilateral orbital invasion...
  6. Bell R, Dierks E, Brar P, Potter J, Potter B. A protocol for the management of frontal sinus fractures emphasizing sinus preservation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:825-39 pubmed
    The purpose of this retrospective study is to review the incidence and etiology of frontal sinus fractures at an urban trauma center and validate a treatment protocol by assessing the outcome of a consecutive series of patients treated ..
  7. Weber R. [Endonasal frontal sinus surgery. Part 1: Frontal sinus drainage, types I and II]. HNO. 2009;57:739-50 pubmed publisher
    Endonasal frontal sinus surgery aims to create adequate access to the frontal sinus, remove specific pathologic processes, and establish a permanent and sufficient drainage and ventilation...
  8. Tang J, Hu D, Jiang F, Yu X. Assessing forensic applications of the frontal sinus in a Chinese Han population. Forensic Sci Int. 2009;183:104.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    The frontal sinus is an important tool of personal identification. To assess the forensic applications of the frontal sinus patterns in a Chinese Han population, 198 individuals were analyzed...
  9. Castelnuovo P, Giovannetti F, Bignami M, Ungari C, Iannetti G. Open surgery versus endoscopic surgery in benign neoplasm involving the frontal sinus. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:180-3 pubmed publisher
    The frontal sinus, because of its proper anatomic features, has a particular relation with nasal cavities...

More Information

Publications94

  1. Okada E, Yamamoto D, Kiryu N, Katagiri A, Yokose N, Awano T, et al. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the influence of frontal sinus on the sensitivity of the NIRS signal in the adult head. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;662:231-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of the frontal sinus, which is void region in the skull, on the sensitivity to the brain activation is investigated by the time-..
  2. Ozgursoy O, Comert A, Yorulmaz I, Tekdemir I, Elhan A, Kucuk B. Hidden unilateral agenesis of the frontal sinus: human cadaver study of a potential surgical pitfall. Am J Otolaryngol. 2010;31:231-4 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to attract attention to the surgical significance of unilateral agenesis of the frontal sinus hidden by the overlapping expansion of the contralateral sinus toward the agenetic side.
  3. Nasser M. Psammomatoid ossifying fibroma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst of frontal sinus. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:1513-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Psammomatoid ossifying fibroma (POF) is a rare, slowly progressive tumor of the extragnathic craniofacial bones, with a tendency toward locally aggressive behavior...
  4. Gutenberg A, Larsen J, Rohde V. Frontal sinus osteoma complicated by extended intracranial mucocele and cerebral abscess: neurosurgical strategy of a rare clinical entity. Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2009;70:95-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here on a second patient with combined frontal sinus osteoma, intracerebral mucocele as well as cerebral abscess...
  5. Weber R. [Endonasal frontal sinus surgery. Part 2: Frontal sinus drainage type III (median drainage), tips and tricks, postoperative care]. HNO. 2009;57:751-62 pubmed publisher
    In Part 2 of our concept of frontal sinus surgery, we explain type III drainage (median drainage or modified Lothrop procedure) and technical details including the application of nasal packing, mitomycin C, mucosal transplants, and ..
  6. Seiberling K, Floreani S, Robinson S, Wormald P. Endoscopic management of frontal sinus osteomas revisited. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2009;23:331-6 pubmed publisher
    Recent articles have published guidelines regarding the role of endoscopic surgery in the removal of frontal sinus osteomas...
  7. Kumar Behera S, Patro M, Mishra D, Bal A, Behera B, Sahoo S. Fine needle aspiration in aspergilloma of frontal sinus: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2008;52:500-4 pubmed
    ..Although Aspergillus species are ubiquitous and normally nonpathogenic, they can be opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised individuals...
  8. Bignami M, Dallan I, Terranova P, Battaglia P, Miceli S, Castelnuovo P. Frontal sinus osteomas: the window of endonasal endoscopic approach. Rhinology. 2007;45:315-20 pubmed
    Management of symptomatic osteomas involving the frontal sinus is challenging. Traditional external approaches have been used in the surgical management of these lesions...
  9. Aitasalo K, Peltola M. Bioactive glass hydroxyapatite in fronto-orbital defect reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:1963-72; discussion 1973-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, special bioactive glasses do not favor microbial growth. In this study, the clinical outcome of bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite in head and neck surgery was evaluated...
  10. Luong A, Batra P, Fakhri S, Citardi M. Balloon catheter dilatation for frontal sinus ostium stenosis in the office setting. Am J Rhinol. 2008;22:621-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Frontal sinus ostium stenosis (FSOS) is problematic even for expert surgeons. Balloon catheter (BC) technology has been recently introduced to rhinology...
  11. Savastano M, Guarda Nardini L, Marioni G, Staffieri A. The bicoronal approach for the treatment of a large frontal sinus osteoma. A technical note. Am J Otolaryngol. 2007;28:427-9 pubmed
  12. Javer A, Alandejani T. Prevention and management of complications in frontal sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2010;43:827-38 pubmed publisher
    b>Frontal sinus surgery continues to remain one of the most challenging areas for sinus surgeons. Many different techniques have been introduced for dealing with the frontal sinus...
  13. Jurlina M, Janjanin S, Melada A, Prstacić R, Veselić A. Large intracranial intradural mucocele as a complication of frontal sinus osteoma. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:1126-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a mucocele can destroy the bone and extend into the adjacent structures. We report on an unusual case of frontal sinus osteoma in a 27-year-old patient, complicated by large secondary mucocele that eroded the bone and extended ..
  14. Sivori L, de Leeuw R, Morgan I, Cunningham L. Complications of frontal sinus fractures with emphasis on chronic craniofacial pain and its treatment: a review of 43 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:2041-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Frontal sinus fractures constitute 5% to 12% of all facial fractures. The optimal management of frontal sinus fractures is controversial but involves preserving the function of the nasofrontal ducts when feasible...
  15. Plikaitis C, Purzycki A, Couture D, David L. Pediatric frontal mucocele secondary to a bifid frontal sinus septum. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:1525-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The frontal sinus is the most common location, with frontal mucocele development occurring when the nasofrontal duct becomes ..
  16. Manzon S, Nguyen T, Philbert R. Bilateral pseudoaneurysms of the superficial temporal artery following reconstruction of the frontal sinus: a case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1375-7 pubmed
  17. Hansen S, Sørensen C, Stage J, Mouritzen A, Caye Thomasen P. Massive cholesteatoma of the frontal sinus: case report and review of the literature. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2007;34:387-92 pubmed
    A case of a massive cholesteatoma of the frontal sinus in an 80-year-old female is reported. This lesion is very uncommon and a review of the English literature revealed only 12 reported cases...
  18. Chain J, Kingdom T. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the frontal sinus presenting as osteomyelitis. Am J Otolaryngol. 2007;28:42-5 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to present a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) originating in the frontal sinus that presented as osteomyelitis of the frontal bone.
  19. Gerlinger I, Gobel G, Tóth E, Szanyi I, Weninger C. Primary carcinoma of the frontal sinus: a case report and a review of literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;265:593-7 pubmed
    Paranasal sinus cancer is rather rare, with an incidence of less than 1 per 100,000 per year, the frontal sinus being the primary site in only 0.3%...
  20. Rodriguez I, Uceda M, Lobato R, Aniceto G. Postraumatic frontal sinus obliteration with calvarial bone dust and demineralized bone matrix: a long term prospective study and literature review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;42:71-6 pubmed publisher
    Defining the ideal material for frontal sinus obliteration remains controversial...
  21. Mourouzis C, Evans B, Shenouda E. Late presentation of a mucocele of the frontal sinus: 50 years postinjury. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:1510-3 pubmed publisher
  22. Fattahi T, DiPasquale J. Utility of the pericranial flap in frontal sinus and anterior cranial fossa trauma. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;38:1263-7 pubmed publisher
    ..available, does not require an extra harvest site, and can be fashioned appropriately to obliterate the frontal sinus and/or line the anterior cranial base to decrease the possibility of cerebrospinal fluid leaks...
  23. Reh D, Melvin T, Bolger W, Lane A. The frontal intersinus septum takedown procedure: revisiting a technique for surgically refractory unilateral frontal sinus disease. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:1805-9 pubmed publisher
    Unilateral frontal sinus obstruction presents a surgical challenge when outflow tract osteoneogenesis or dense scarring is present...
  24. van Dijk J, Wagemakers M, Korsten Meijer A, Kees Buiter C, van der Laan B, Mooij J. Cranialization of the frontal sinus--the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis. J Neurosurg. 2012;116:531-5 pubmed publisher
    ..failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed to improve the drainage of the frontal sinus. The cranialization of the frontal sinus is the final surgical measure, in which the affected frontal sinus is ..
  25. Naidoo Y, Wen D, Bassiouni A, Keen M, Wormald P. Long-term results after primary frontal sinus surgery. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2012;2:185-90 pubmed publisher
  26. Sieskiewicz A, Lyson T, Rogowski M, Rutkowski R, Mariak Z. Endoscopic repair of CSF leaks in the postero-superior wall of the frontal sinus - report of 2 cases. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2011;54:260-3 pubmed publisher
    Bony defects extending laterally or superiorly within the posterior wall of the frontal sinus are generally deemed too difficult for endoscopic repair in spite of significant progress in surgical endoscopic techniques.
  27. Eloy J, Friedel M, Kuperan A, Govindaraj S, Folbe A, Liu J. Modified mini-Lothrop/extended Draf IIB procedure for contralateral frontal sinus disease: a case series. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2012;2:321-4 pubmed publisher
    Management of frontal sinus disease represents one of the most challenging aspects of endoscopic sinus surgery...
  28. Moshaver A, Harris J, Seikaly H. Use of anteriorly based pericranial flap in frontal sinus obliteration. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;135:413-6 pubmed
    In an era of endoscopic sinus surgery, frontal sinus obliteration continues to remain an important treatment option in chronic frontal sinus disease...
  29. Tatlisumak E, Yilmaz Ovali G, Aslan A, Asirdizer M, Zeyfeoglu Y, Tarhan S. Identification of unknown bodies by using CT images of frontal sinus. Forensic Sci Int. 2007;166:42-8 pubmed
    ..aim of the study was to define a simple system for the identification of unknown bodies by using CT images of frontal sinus and to discuss whether it was worth to add measurements to the system or not...
  30. Ochiai H, Yamakawa Y, Fukushima T, Nakano S, Wakisaka S. Large cholesterol granuloma arising from the frontal sinus--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2001;41:283-7 pubmed
    A 59-year-old male presented with a large cholesterol granuloma arising from the frontal sinus manifesting as a large, fluctuated, soft mass in his brow, compressing left eye. Skull radiography showed dilation of the frontal sinus...
  31. Snyderman C, Scioscia K, Carrau R, Weissman J. Hydroxyapatite: an alternative method of frontal sinus obliteration. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2001;34:179-91 pubmed
    Obliteration of the frontal sinus may be necessary for the treatment of chronic sinusitis, infectious complications, trauma, and benign and malignant neoplasms...
  32. Dubin M, Kuhn F. Unilateral multifocal inverted papilloma of the maxillary and frontal sinus. Am J Otolaryngol. 2006;27:263-5 pubmed
  33. Chiu A, Schipor I, Cohen N, Kennedy D, Palmer J. Surgical decisions in the management of frontal sinus osteomas. Am J Rhinol. 2005;19:191-7 pubmed
    ..of chronic rhinosinusitis, a mucocele, or persistent headaches is a common indication for the removal of a frontal sinus osteoma. The best surgical approach to ensure complete and safe removal of the lesion is less clearcut...
  34. Lin C, Kao C, Kang B, Wang H. Frontal sinus mucocele presenting as oculomotor nerve palsy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;126:588-90 pubmed
  35. Rojas R, Palacios E, Kaplan J, Wong L. Fibrous dysplasia of the frontal sinus. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004;83:14-5 pubmed
  36. Gallia G, Sciubba D, Hann C, Raman S, Westra W, Tufaro A, et al. Synovial sarcoma of the frontal sinus. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2005;103:1077-80 pubmed
    ..The authors present a case of synovial sarcoma arising from the frontal sinus and review the literature of synovial sarcomas arising from the paranasal sinuses.
  37. McLaughlin R, Rehl R, Lanza D. Clinically relevant frontal sinus anatomy and physiology. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2001;34:1-22 pubmed
    Management of frontal sinus disease has evolved considerably with the advent of endoscopic paranasal sinus instrumentation. With this evolution has come the increased demand for anatomic competence among otolaryngologists...
  38. Wormald P. Salvage frontal sinus surgery: the endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:276-83 pubmed
    Until recent years, the osteoplastic flap with frontal sinus obliteration has been the gold standard for recalcitrant frontal sinusitis...
  39. Bourgeois P, Fichten A, Louis E, Vincent C, Pertuzon B, Assaker R. [Frontal sinus osteomas: neuro-ophthalmological complications]. Neurochirurgie. 2002;48:104-8 pubmed
    Osteomas are the most frequent benign tumors of the paranasal sinuses. They often grow in the frontal sinus near the nasofrontal duct. They remain frequently asymptomatic and they tend to be an incidental finding on radiographic studies...
  40. Dubin M, Sonnenburg R, Melroy C, Ebert C, Coffey C, Senior B. Staged endoscopic and combined open/endoscopic approach in the management of inverted papilloma of the frontal sinus. Am J Rhinol. 2005;19:442-5 pubmed
    ..an increased risk of recurrence seem to have been allayed, the appropriate management of lesions involving the frontal sinus and frontal recess still has to be determined...
  41. Strong E, Kellman R. Endoscopic repair of anterior table--frontal sinus fractures. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2006;14:25-9 pubmed
    b>Frontal sinus fractures account for 5% to 15% of all maxillofacial injuries. Historically, a large percentage of these injuries were treated aggressively because of the long term risk of mucocele formation...
  42. Kuhn F, Javer A. Primary endoscopic management of the frontal sinus. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2001;34:59-75 pubmed
    Surgical treatment of the frontal sinus continues to be an area of much interest and controversy...
  43. Tan C, Yong V, Yip L, Amrith S. An unusual presentation of a giant frontal sinus mucocele manifesting with a subcutaneous forehead mass. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005;34:397-8 pubmed
    To describe the unusual manifestation of a giant frontal sinus mucocele.
  44. Rice D. Management of frontal sinus fractures. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;12:46-8 pubmed
    This review summarizes the contemporary management of frontal sinus fractures...
  45. Rao V, Sharma D, Madan A. Imaging of frontal sinus disease: concepts, interpretation, and technology. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2001;34:23-39 pubmed
    Imaging of the frontal sinus is an integral part of patient evaluation. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) imaging is the preferred modality for evaluation of sinus inflammatory disease...
  46. Friedman C, Costantino P, Synderman C, Chow L, Takagi S. Reconstruction of the frontal sinus and frontofacial skeleton with hydroxyapatite cement. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2000;2:124-9 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of a newly developed biomaterial, hydroxyapatite cement, for use in frontal sinus and anterior craniofacial skeletal reconstruction...
  47. Nemet A, Deckel Y, Kourt G. Orbital invasion of frontal sinus lymphoma. Orbit. 2006;25:149-51 pubmed
    ..Common presenting features include eye pain, proptosis, visual loss and diplopia. We report a case of frontal sinus lymphoma that presented as a superior-nasal orbital mass in an 84 year old man...
  48. Hwang P, Han J, Bilstrom E, Kingdom T, Fong K. Surgical revision of the failed obliterated frontal sinus. Am J Rhinol. 2005;19:425-9 pubmed
    Surgical revision of failed frontal sinus obliteration, traditionally, has been limited to repeat obliteration. However, endoscopic techniques may be successful in selected cases...
  49. Osguthorpe J, Richardson M. Frontal sinus malignancies. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2001;34:269-81 pubmed
    b>Frontal sinus malignancies comprise 2% to 3% of those occurring in the paranasal region. Patients commonly present with forehead pain and swelling, orbital disturbances, epistaxis, and nasal purulence...
  50. Gossman D, Archer S, Arosarena O. Management of frontal sinus fractures: a review of 96 cases. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1357-62 pubmed
    The optimal treatment algorithm for frontal sinus fracture management remains ill-defined...
  51. Kon T, Hondo H, Kohno M, Kasahara K. Severe tension pneumocephalus caused by opening of the frontal sinus by head injury 7 years after initial craniotomy--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2003;43:242-5 pubmed
    ..Radiography and computed tomography (CT) revealed a large amount of intracranial air and a widely opened frontal sinus. On the day of admission, the shunt tube was ligated...
  52. Petruzzelli G, Stankiewicz J. Frontal sinus obliteration with hydroxyapatite cement. Laryngoscope. 2002;112:32-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy hydroxyapatite cement as an alternative to autologous fat in the obliteration of the frontal sinus after trauma or chronic suppuration.
  53. Acar M, Yucel A, Degirmenci B, Yilmaz M, Albayrak R. Pneumocele vs. pneumosinus dilatans: review of the literature with a case of frontal sinus pneumocele. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2004;202:295-7 pubmed
    Pneumoceles of the frontal sinus are very rare conditions, characterized by abnormal expansion of the frontal sinus. The patient usually complains of slowly changing facial contours...
  54. Mineck C, Chandra R, Cohen N. Orbital mucopyocele after the use of alloplastic materials in the management of frontal sinus fractures. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;135:974-6 pubmed
  55. Firat Y, Firat A, Karakas H, Onal C. A case of frontal lobe abscess as a complication of frontal sinus ossifying fibroma. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2006;35:447-50 pubmed
    ..most frequent fibro-osseous tumour of paranasal sinus, to the best of our knowledge, ossifying fibroma of frontal sinus causing brain abscess has not been presented yet in the relevant literature...
  56. Segev Y, Landsberg R, Fliss D. MR imaging appearance of frontal sinus barotrauma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:346-7 pubmed
    ..A mass lesion in the frontal sinus, consistent with submucosal hematoma secondary to barotrauma, was thought to be the cause of the headache...
  57. Fobe L, Melo E, Cannone L, Fobe J. [Surgery of frontal sinus osteoma]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2002;60:101-5 pubmed
    b>Frontal sinus osteomas are 57% of all paranasal sinus osteomas, with an incidence of 00.1 to 3%. Surgical removal of the frontal sinus osteomas is done in symptomatic patients...
  58. Khong J, Malhotra R, Selva D, Wormald P. Efficacy of endoscopic sinus surgery for paranasal sinus mucocele including modified endoscopic Lothrop procedure for frontal sinus mucocele. J Laryngol Otol. 2004;118:352-6 pubmed
    ..It is also indicated when the mucocele is associated with loss of lateral support in the sinus with risk of medial-wall collapse of the orbital contents obstructing drainage...
  59. Neves M, Lessa M, Voegels R, Butugan O. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the frontal sinus: case report and review of the literature. Ear Nose Throat J. 2005;84:47-51 pubmed
    ..of the sinonasal tract occur in the maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus, and nasal cavity; its occurrence in the frontal sinus is extremely rare...
  60. Johnson D, Tan L. Intraparenchymal tension pneumatocele complicating frontal sinus osteoma: case report. Neurosurgery. 2002;50:878-9; discussion 880 pubmed
    A relatively rare condition of intraparenchymal tension pneumatocele secondary to a frontal sinus osteoma eroding posteriorly and breaching dura mater is described...
  61. Dispenza C, Martines F, Dispenza F, Caramanna C, Saraniti C. Frontal sinus osteoma complicated by palpebral abscess: case report. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2004;24:357-60 pubmed
    Osteomas of the paranasal sinuses are slow-growing, benign tumours most frequently found in the frontal sinus with an incidence that varies from 47% to 80% of the cases; there are often no symptoms and they are diagnosed by chance during ..
  62. Eggesbø H, Søvik S, Dølvik S, Eiklid K, Kolmannskog F. CT characterization of developmental variations of the paranasal sinuses in cystic fibrosis. Acta Radiol. 2001;42:482-93 pubmed
    ..We focused on anatomic variants that predispose to orbital and cerebral penetration during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), e.g. hypoplasia of the maxillary sinus and low ethmoid roof...
  63. El Hakim H, Ahsan F, Wills L. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the frontal sinus: how we diagnosed it. Ear Nose Throat J. 2000;79:738, 741-3 pubmed
    Isolated primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the frontal sinus is rare. We describe the case of a middle-aged man who came to us with signs of orbital cellulitis complicating an acute infected frontal mucocele...
  64. Pondé J, Metzger P, Amaral G, Machado M, Prandini M. Anatomic variations of the frontal sinus. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2003;46:29-32 pubmed
    Minimally invasive approaches are increasing in popularity. We have undertaken an anatomic and radiological study of the frontal sinus that is frequently involved in the supercilliary minicraniotomy used to access the parasellar region.
  65. Aydinlioglu A, Kavakli A, Erdem S. Absence of frontal sinus in Turkish individuals. Yonsei Med J. 2003;44:215-8 pubmed
    The frontal sinus has been used for personal identification since the early part of the 20th century as a result of its tremendous interindividual variation. The frontal sinus is present in approximately 90% of adults...
  66. Peltola M, Aitasalo K, Suonpää J, Yli Urpo A, Laippala P, Forsback A. Frontal sinus and skull bone defect obliteration with three synthetic bioactive materials. A comparative study. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2003;66:364-72 pubmed
    Three synthetic bioactive materials were studied in an experimental model to compare their usability in a frontal sinus and a skull bone defect obliteration...
  67. Daniels D, Mafee M, Smith M, Smith T, Naidich T, Brown W, et al. The frontal sinus drainage pathway and related structures. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:1618-27 pubmed
  68. Naim R, Steinhoff I, Hormann K, Maurer J. Ossifying haemangioma of the frontal sinus. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2004;66:98-100 pubmed
    ..Although cases of ossifying haemangioma have been described in the literature, no involvement of the frontal sinus has been presented yet...
  69. Taghizadeh F, Krömer A, Laedrach K. Evaluation of hydroxyapatite cement for frontal sinus obliteration after mucocele resection. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2006;8:416-22 pubmed
    To retrospectively evaluate our experience with frontal sinus obliteration using hydroxyapatite cement (BoneSource; Stryker Biotech Europe, Montreux, Switzerland) and compare it with fat obliteration over the approximate same period...
  70. Christensen A. Assessing the variation in individual frontal sinus outlines. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2005;127:291-5 pubmed
    It is often suggested that the frontal sinus morphology of no two individuals is alike, and that the configuration of the frontal sinus is as unique to an individual as his or her fingerprints...
  71. Anand V, Hiltzik D, Kacker A, Honrado C. Osteoplastic flap for frontal sinus obliteration in the era of image-guided endoscopic sinus surgery. Am J Rhinol. 2005;19:406-10 pubmed
    This study evaluates the management of frontal sinus disease using osteoplastic flap surgery (OPFS) in the current era of image-guided endoscopic sinus surgery (IGESS).
  72. Weber R, Draf W, Kratzsch B, Hosemann W, Schaefer S. Modern concepts of frontal sinus surgery. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:137-46 pubmed
    To validate the endonasal surgical approach to frontal sinus in inflammatory sinus disease, trauma, and selective tumor surgery, and to define the role of external approaches to the frontal sinus...
  73. Parhiscar A, Har El G. Frontal sinus obliteration with the pericranial flap. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001;124:304-7 pubmed
    b>Frontal sinus obliteration is often accomplished by autologous grafts such as fat, muscle, or bone. These avascular grafts carry an increased risk of resorption and infection as well as donor site morbidity...
  74. Dubin M, Kuhn F. Preservation of natural frontal sinus outflow in the management of frontal sinus osteomas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;134:18-24 pubmed
    Management of frontal sinus tumors has traditionally been through open approaches with obliteration of the sinus...
  75. Montovani J, Nogueira E, Ferreira F, Lima Neto A, Nakajima V. Surgery of frontal sinus fractures: epidemiologic study and evaluation of techniques. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;72:204-9 pubmed
    The frontal sinus trauma is not rare and it is 8% of the facial fractures. It can affect the anterior and/or posterior plates, with or without hitting the nasofrontal duct...
  76. Becker S, Bomeli S, Gross C, Han J. Limits of endoscopic visualization and instrumentation in the frontal sinus. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;135:917-21 pubmed
    Endoscopic limitations in the frontal sinus are poorly defined. We set out to define these limits.
  77. Skinner A, Pachnicke S, Lakatos A, Franklin R, Jeffery N. Nasal and frontal sinus mucosa of the adult dog contain numerous olfactory sensory neurons and ensheathing glia. Res Vet Sci. 2005;78:9-15 pubmed
    ..on perfused tissue we demonstrate that olfactory sensory neurons are found in both the caudal nasal and the frontal sinus epithelia...
  78. Chandra R, Schlosser R, Kennedy D. Use of the 70-degree diamond burr in the management of complicated frontal sinus disease. Laryngoscope. 2004;114:188-92 pubmed
    Management of frontal sinus disease may require drill-out of bone in the frontal recess for access, ventilation, and drainage of the sinus cavity; removal of osteitic foci; or resection of neoplastic tissue...
  79. Kew J, Rees G, Close D, Sdralis T, Sebben R, Wormald P. Multiplanar reconstructed computed tomography images improves depiction and understanding of the anatomy of the frontal sinus and recess. Am J Rhinol. 2002;16:119-23 pubmed
    ..The use of multiplanar reconstructed computed tomography (CT) images of frontal recess and sinuses was assessed with regard to depiction and understanding of anatomy and effect on surgical approach...
  80. Suri A, Mahapatra A, Gaikwad S, Sarkar C. Giant mucoceles of the frontal sinus: a series and review. J Clin Neurosci. 2004;11:214-8 pubmed
    Giant mucoceles of the frontal sinus are a rare pathology but their recognition is important in the differential diagnosis of paediatric proptosis and fronto-orbital lesions...
  81. Shykhon M, Trotter M, Morgan D, Reuser T, Henderson M. Cholesterol granuloma of the frontal sinus. J Laryngol Otol. 2002;116:1041-3 pubmed
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) scans are usually diagnostic. We present a rare case of cholesterol granuloma in the frontal sinus, few cases have been reported in the literature.
  82. El Khatib K, Danino A, Malka G. The frontal sinus: a culprit or a victim? A review of 40 cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2004;32:314-7 pubmed
    b>Frontal sinus fractures represent 2-12% of facial trauma...
  83. Montgomery W. State-of-the-art for osteoplastic frontal sinus operation. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2001;34:167-77 pubmed
    Endoscopic ethmoid and frontal sinus surgery have reduced but not eliminated the indication for the osteoplastic adipose obliteration operation...
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    b>Frontal sinus mucoceles can present with a multitude of different symptoms including ophthalmic disturbances...
  85. Nabeshima K, Marutsuka K, Shimao Y, Uehara H, Kodama T. Osteoma of the frontal sinus complicated by intracranial mucocele. Pathol Int. 2003;53:227-30 pubmed
    We present a rare case of intracranial mucocele associated with frontal sinus osteoma in a patient suffering from generalized convulsion...