olfactory mucosa

Summary

Summary: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.

Top Publications

  1. García Escudero V, García Gómez A, Langa E, Martín Bermejo M, Ramírez Camacho R, García Berrocal J, et al. Patient-derived olfactory mucosa cells but not lung or skin fibroblasts mediate axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2012;509:27-32 pubmed publisher
    Although human olfactory mucosa derived cells (OMC) have been used in animal models and clinical trials with CNS repair purposes, the exact identity of these cells in culture with respect to their tissue of origin is not fully understood ..
  2. Kanekar S, Gandham M, Lucero M. PACAP protects against TNF?-induced cell death in olfactory epithelium and olfactory placodal cell lines. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:345-54 pubmed publisher
    ..PACAP may therefore function through PAC1 receptors to protect neurons from cell death during inflammatory cytokine release in vivo as would occur upon viral infection or allergic rhinitis-associated injury. ..
  3. Escada P, Lima C, da Silva J. The human olfactory mucosa. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:1675-80 pubmed publisher
    Studies of the tissues of the human olfactory mucosa have been performed to investigate olfactory dysfunction and, more recently, olfactory mucosa has attracted a novel interest of investigators because it can be used as an early marker ..
  4. Panni P, Ferguson I, Beacham I, Mackay Sim A, Ekberg J, St John J. Phagocytosis of bacteria by olfactory ensheathing cells and Schwann cells. Neurosci Lett. 2013;539:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms of bacterial infections as well as for the use of glia for neural repair therapies. ..
  5. Strotmann J, Breer H. Internalization of odorant-binding proteins into the mouse olfactory epithelium. Histochem Cell Biol. 2011;136:357-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that a Megalin-mediated internalization of OBP/odorant complexes into the sustentacular cells may represent an important mechanism for a rapid and local clearance of odorants. ..
  6. Hegg C, Jia C, Chick W, Restrepo D, Hansen A. Microvillous cells expressing IP3 receptor type 3 in the olfactory epithelium of mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32:1632-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The characterization of IP3R3 MV cells as non-neuronal chemoresponsive cells helps to explain the differing descriptions of microvillous cells in the literature. ..
  7. Khan M, Vaes E, Mombaerts P. Regulation of the probability of mouse odorant receptor gene choice. Cell. 2011;147:907-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the P and H elements regulate the probability of OR gene choice, not OR transcript level per OSN...
  8. Ziege S, Baumgartner W, Wewetzer K. Toward defining the regenerative potential of olfactory mucosa: establishment of Schwann cell-free adult canine olfactory ensheathing cell preparations suitable for transplantation. Cell Transplant. 2013;22:355-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Olfactory mucosa (OM)-derived olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are attractive candidates for autologous cell transplantation-based therapy of nervous system injury...
  9. McIntyre J, Titlow W, McClintock T. Axon growth and guidance genes identify nascent, immature, and mature olfactory sensory neurons. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:3243-56 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications82

  1. Bazáes A, Schmachtenberg O. Odorant tuning of olfactory crypt cells from juvenile and adult rainbow trout. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:1740-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support an involvement of olfactory crypt cells in reproduction-related olfactory signaling in fishes. ..
  2. Turetsky B, Hahn C, Borgmann Winter K, Moberg P. Scents and nonsense: olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2009;35:1117-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This could help to clarify underlying brain mechanisms and facilitate identification of clinically relevant biomarkers. ..
  3. PELUSO C, Jang W, DRAGER U, Schwob J. Differential expression of components of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in the adult mouse olfactory epithelium. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:3707-26 pubmed publisher
    ..phenotype, for example, differential expression of odorant receptors and cell adhesion molecules across the olfactory mucosa (OM)...
  4. Guo Z, Packard A, Krolewski R, Harris M, Manglapus G, Schwob J. Expression of pax6 and sox2 in adult olfactory epithelium. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:4395-418 pubmed publisher
    ..Each of the Sox2/Pax6-colabeled cell types is at a remove from the birth of neurons; thus, suppressing their differentiation may be among the roles of Sox2/Pax6 in the olfactory epithelium. ..
  5. Pluznick J, Rodriguez Gil D, Hull M, Mistry K, Gattone V, Johnson C, et al. Renal cystic disease proteins play critical roles in the organization of the olfactory epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19694 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that multiple renal cystic proteins localize to the OE, where we speculate that they work together to regulate aspects of the development, maintenance or physiological activities of cilia. ..
  6. Jia C, Hegg C. Neuropeptide Y and extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediate injury-induced neuroregeneration in mouse olfactory epithelium. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012;49:158-70 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no synergistic effects of ATP and NPY or FGF2 on OE neuroregeneration. These data clearly have implications for the pharmacological modulation of neuroregeneration in the olfactory epithelium. ..
  7. Yamamoto M, Raisman G, Li D, Li Y. Transplanted olfactory mucosal cells restore paw reaching function without regeneration of severed corticospinal tract fibres across the lesion. Brain Res. 2009;1303:26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These cell preparations showed minimal migratory ability and failed to form complete bridges across the lesions. ..
  8. Jia C, Sangsiri S, Belock B, Iqbal T, Pestka J, Hegg C. ATP mediates neuroprotective and neuroproliferative effects in mouse olfactory epithelium following exposure to satratoxin G in vitro and in vivo. Toxicol Sci. 2011;124:169-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that ATP is released and promotes cell proliferation via activation of purinergic receptors in SG-induced OE injury. Thus, the purinergic system is a therapeutic target to alleviate or restore the loss of OSNs. ..
  9. Li L, Wei Y, VAN WINKLE L, Zhang Q, Zhou X, Hu J, et al. Generation and characterization of a Cyp2f2-null mouse and studies on the role of CYP2F2 in naphthalene-induced toxicity in the lung and nasal olfactory mucosa. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;339:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..catalytic efficiency of microsomal NA epoxygenases in lung (up to ~160-fold), liver (~3-fold), and nasal olfactory mucosa (OM; up to ~16-fold), and significant decreases in rates of systemic NA (300 mg/kg i.p.) clearance...
  10. Sammeta N, McClintock T. Chemical stress induces the unfolded protein response in olfactory sensory neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1825-36 pubmed publisher
  11. Stowers L, Logan D. Olfactory mechanisms of stereotyped behavior: on the scent of specialized circuits. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2010;20:274-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on these non-VNO receptors and neurons, and evaluates their potential for mediating stereotyped olfactory behavior in mammals. ..
  12. Liu Q, Yu H, Dai C, Li W, Zhu Y, Gu Y, et al. [Olfactory ensheathing cells promote the survival of newborn rat spiral ganglion cells in vitro]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2010;62:115-21 pubmed
    ..01). These results suggest that OECs can promote the survival of SGCs when they are co-cultured in vitro. BDNF released from OECs, as one of the survival factors, plays an important role in the survival of SGCs...
  13. Paviot A, Guérout N, Bon Mardion N, Duclos C, Jean L, Boyer O, et al. Efficiency of laryngeal motor nerve repair is greater with bulbar than with mucosal olfactory ensheathing cells. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;41:688-94 pubmed publisher
    The real ability of OECs provided by olfactory mucosa cultures (OM-OECs) and those from olfactory bulb cultures (OB-OECs) must be better characterized in order to propose their future clinical application...
  14. Mackay Sim A. Stem cells and their niche in the adult olfactory mucosa. Arch Ital Biol. 2010;148:47-58 pubmed
    ..A multipotent cell has been isolated from the olfactory mucosa that can give rise to cells of endodermal and mesodermal origin as well as the expected neural lineage...
  15. Su Z, Chen J, Qiu Y, Yuan Y, Zhu F, Zhu Y, et al. Olfactory ensheathing cells: the primary innate immunocytes in the olfactory pathway to engulf apoptotic olfactory nerve debris. Glia. 2013;61:490-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, engulfment of olfactory nerve debris by OECs was found in olfactory mucosa under normal turnover and was significantly increased in the animal model of olfactory bulbectomy, while ..
  16. Huang W, Kuo W, Hsu S, Cheng C, Liu J, Cheng H. Gait analysis of spinal cord injured rats after delivery of chondroitinase ABC and adult olfactory mucosa progenitor cell transplantation. Neurosci Lett. 2010;472:79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we show that ChABC administration combining olfactory mucosa progenitor cell (OMPC) transplantation can promote axonal re-growth across the lesion site and enhance the ..
  17. Breunig E, Manzini I, Piscitelli F, Gutermann B, Di Marzo V, Schild D, et al. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol controls odor sensitivity in larvae of Xenopus laevis. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8965-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Hunger renders olfactory neurons more sensitive. Endocannabinoid modulation in the nose may therefore substantially influence food-seeking behavior...
  18. Blomster L, Vukovic J, Hendrickx D, Jung S, Harvey A, Filgueira L, et al. CX?CR1 deficiency exacerbates neuronal loss and impairs early regenerative responses in the target-ablated olfactory epithelium. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;48:236-45 pubmed publisher
  19. Coppola D, Waggener C. The effects of unilateral naris occlusion on gene expression profiles in mouse olfactory mucosa. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;47:604-18 pubmed publisher
    ..key genes involved in olfactory reception, transduction, and transmission were up-regulated in deprived-side olfactory mucosa, with opposite effects in non-deprived-side mucosa, compared to controls...
  20. Gayoso J, Castro A, Anadón R, Manso M. Crypt cells of the zebrafish Danio rerio mainly project to the dorsomedial glomerular field of the olfactory bulb. Chem Senses. 2012;37:357-69 pubmed publisher
    The olfactory mucosa of the zebrafish consists of 3 morphological types of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs): ciliated, microvillous, and crypt cells...
  21. Sammeta N, Hardin D, McClintock T. Uncx regulates proliferation of neural progenitor cells and neuronal survival in the olfactory epithelium. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that UNCX acts downstream of neural determination factors to broadly control transcriptional mechanisms used by neural progenitor cells to specify neural phenotypes...
  22. Jia C, Hegg C. NPY mediates ATP-induced neuroproliferation in adult mouse olfactory epithelium. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;38:405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that ATP initiates neuroproliferation via NPY upregulation, NPY release, and Y1 receptor activation, and suggests that the olfactory epithelium is good model to study neuroregenerative mechanisms in the CNS...
  23. Nakamuta S, Nakamuta N, Taniguchi K, Taniguchi K. Histological and ultrastructural characteristics of the primordial vomeronasal organ in lungfish. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2012;295:481-91 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; This study may provide important clues to elucidate how the vomeronasal organ emerged during the evolution of vertebrates...
  24. Rasche S, Toetter B, Adler J, Tschapek A, Doerner J, Kurtenbach S, et al. Tmem16b is specifically expressed in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons. Chem Senses. 2010;35:239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Native Tmem16b is localized in the cilia of the OSNs, which is in agreement with previous electrophysiological recordings...
  25. Jenkins P, Zhang L, Thomas G, Martens J. PACS-1 mediates phosphorylation-dependent ciliary trafficking of the cyclic-nucleotide-gated channel in olfactory sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:10541-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a mechanism for the subunit-dependent ciliary trafficking of the CNG channel and offer insight into the mechanisms of ciliary transport...
  26. Gokoffski K, Wu H, Beites C, Kim J, Kim E, Matzuk M, et al. Activin and GDF11 collaborate in feedback control of neuroepithelial stem cell proliferation and fate. Development. 2011;138:4131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings demonstrate a close connection between the signals involved in the control of tissue size and those that regulate the proportions of different cell types...
  27. Magklara A, Yen A, Colquitt B, Clowney E, Allen W, Markenscoff Papadimitriou E, et al. An epigenetic signature for monoallelic olfactory receptor expression. Cell. 2011;145:555-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that chromatin-mediated silencing lays a molecular foundation upon which singular and stochastic selection for gene expression can be applied...
  28. Mackay Sim A, St John J. Olfactory ensheathing cells from the nose: clinical application in human spinal cord injuries. Exp Neurol. 2011;229:174-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Olfactory mucosa, the sense organ of smell, is an adult tissue that is regenerated and repaired throughout life to maintain the integrity of the sense of smell...
  29. Thiebaud N, Sigoillot M, Chevalier J, Artur Y, Heydel J, Le Bon A. Effects of typical inducers on olfactory xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme, transporter, and transcription factor expression in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:1865-75 pubmed publisher
    Several xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) have been identified in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of mammals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these enzymes have been little explored...
  30. Guérout N, Derambure C, Drouot L, Bon Mardion N, Duclos C, Boyer O, et al. Comparative gene expression profiling of olfactory ensheathing cells from olfactory bulb and olfactory mucosa. Glia. 2010;58:1570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..However, for a clinical human application, olfactory mucosa (OM) seems to be the only acceptable source for OECs...
  31. Plessy C, Pascarella G, Bertin N, Akalin A, Carrieri C, Vassalli A, et al. Promoter architecture of mouse olfactory receptor genes. Genome Res. 2012;22:486-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we showed that a short genomic fragment flanking the major TSS of the OR gene Olfr160 (M72) can drive OSN-specific expression in transgenic mice...
  32. Nickell M, Breheny P, Stromberg A, McClintock T. Genomics of mature and immature olfactory sensory neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:2608-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This OSN gene database not only predicts the genes responsible for the major biological processes active in OSNs, but also identifies thousands of never before studied genes that support OSN phenotypes...
  33. Barraud P, He X, Zhao C, Caldwell M, Franklin R. FGF but not EGF induces phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein in olfactory mucosa-derived cell cultures. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:1489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that FGF2 but not EGF permit the maintenance of a subset of cells responsive to FGF2 and EGF, whereas EGF induces unresponsive to either growth factor possibly via intrinsic mechanisms of regulation...
  34. Hayoz S, Jia C, Hegg C. Mechanisms of constitutive and ATP-evoked ATP release in neonatal mouse olfactory epithelium. BMC Neurosci. 2012;13:53 pubmed publisher
  35. Fletcher R, Prasol M, Estrada J, Baudhuin A, Vranizan K, Choi Y, et al. p63 regulates olfactory stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Neuron. 2011;72:748-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide critical insight into the genetic regulation of the olfactory stem cell in vivo and more generally provide an entrée toward understanding the coordination of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation...
  36. Pifferi S, Cenedese V, Menini A. Anoctamin 2/TMEM16B: a calcium-activated chloride channel in olfactory transduction. Exp Physiol. 2012;97:193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss the involvement of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in the transduction process of vomeronasal sensory neurons and the physiological role of these channels in olfaction...
  37. Nunez Parra A, Cortés Campos C, Bacigalupo J, García M, Nualart F, Reyes J. Expression and distribution of facilitative glucose (GLUTs) and monocarboxylate/H+ (MCTs) transporters in rat olfactory epithelia. Chem Senses. 2011;36:771-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the expression and localization of MCTs and GLUTs in the olfactory mucosa and found a stereotyped pattern of expression. ORNs exhibited GLUT1 labeling in soma, dendrites, and axon...
  38. Negroni J, Meunier N, Monnerie R, Salesse R, Baly C, Caillol M, et al. Neuropeptide Y enhances olfactory mucosa responses to odorant in hungry rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45266 pubmed
    ..have recently demonstrated that another nutritional cue, insulin, modulates the odorant responses of the rat olfactory mucosa (OM)...
  39. Ikeda K, Kageyama R, Suzuki Y, Kawakami K. Six1 is indispensable for production of functional progenitor cells during olfactory epithelial development. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:1453-64 pubmed publisher
  40. Maier E, Nord H, Von Hofsten J, Gunhaga L. A balance of BMP and notch activity regulates neurogenesis and olfactory nerve formation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17379 pubmed publisher
  41. Craven B, Paterson E, Settles G. The fluid dynamics of canine olfaction: unique nasal airflow patterns as an explanation of macrosmia. J R Soc Interface. 2010;7:933-43 pubmed publisher
  42. Yee K, Pribitkin E, Cowart B, Vainius A, Klock C, Rosen D, et al. Neuropathology of the olfactory mucosa in chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2010;24:110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..heterogeneous inflammatory disease that affects the nasal cavity, but the pathological examination of the olfactory mucosa (OM) in this disease has been limited...
  43. Kondo K, Suzukawa K, Sakamoto T, Watanabe K, Kanaya K, Ushio M, et al. Age-related changes in cell dynamics of the postnatal mouse olfactory neuroepithelium: cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and cell death. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1962-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation suggests that the turnover of mature ORNs is slower in the older neuroepithelium compared to the younger neuroepithelium...
  44. Gorrie C, Hayward I, Cameron N, Kailainathan G, Nandapalan N, Sutharsan R, et al. Effects of human OEC-derived cell transplants in rodent spinal cord contusion injury. Brain Res. 2010;1337:8-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study hOECs were derived from biopsies of human olfactory mucosa, purified by culture in a serum-free medium containing neurotrophin-3, genetically labelled with EGFP, and ..
  45. Hall R. Autonomic modulation of olfactory signaling. Sci Signal. 2011;4:pe1 pubmed publisher
    ..The emerging view is that the stimulation of odorant receptor signaling by odorants, which is the earliest step in olfaction, can be substantially regulated by the autonomic nervous system...
  46. Cavallin M, Powell K, Biju K, Fadool D. State-dependent sculpting of olfactory sensory neurons is attributed to sensory enrichment, odor deprivation, and aging. Neurosci Lett. 2010;483:90-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that voltage-gated activity of the mitral cells is important for OSN plasticity, and can prevent neuronal loss via sensory- and OR-dependent mechanisms...
  47. McElwain A, Kohl J, Bojkovic J, Benz G. Distribution of Kroeyerina elongata (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda) in the olfactory sacs of the blue shark, Prionace glauca. J Parasitol. 2010;96:887-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Hatching ovisacs release free-swimming nauplii into the excurrent water flow to be swept into the milieu, where they can molt into infective copepodids that may infect new hosts...
  48. de Corgnol A, Guérout N, Duclos C, Verin E, Marie J. Olfactory ensheathing cells in a rat model of laryngeal reinnervation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2011;120:273-80 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to determine whether olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory bulb or olfactory mucosa were able to improve functional recovery in a laryngeal reinnervation animal model.
  49. Ahmed M, Takumida M, Ishibashi T, Hamamoto T, Hirakawa K. Expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) families 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the mouse olfactory epithelium. Rhinology. 2009;47:242-7 pubmed
    ..TRPVs in respiratory mucosa may play a significant role in nasal nociception, ciliary movement and the regulation of mucous secretion...
  50. Kudo H, Doi Y, Fujimoto S. Expressions of the multidrug resistance-related proteins in the rat olfactory epithelium: a possible role in the phase III xenobiotic metabolizing function. Neurosci Lett. 2010;468:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that MRP1 is involved in olfaction as a part of the "olfactory signal termination" by the chemical homeostasis in the "perireceptor events" of the olfactory epithelium...
  51. Jia C, Roman C, Hegg C. Nickel sulfate induces location-dependent atrophy of mouse olfactory epithelium: protective and proliferative role of purinergic receptor activation. Toxicol Sci. 2010;115:547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide therapeutic strategies to alleviate or cure the loss of olfactory function associated with exposure to nickel compounds...
  52. Maier E, Von Hofsten J, Nord H, Fernandes M, Paek H, Hebert J, et al. Opposing Fgf and Bmp activities regulate the specification of olfactory sensory and respiratory epithelial cell fates. Development. 2010;137:1601-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we present a conserved mechanism in amniotes in which Bmp and Fgf signals act in an opposing manner to regulate the respiratory versus sensory epithelial cell fate decision...
  53. Kavoi B, Makanya A, Hassanali J, Carlsson H, Kiama S. Comparative functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in the domestic dog and sheep. Ann Anat. 2010;192:329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep...
  54. Oka Y, Korsching S. Shared and unique G alpha proteins in the zebrafish versus mammalian senses of taste and smell. Chem Senses. 2011;36:357-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show general similarity to the mammalian situation but also clear-cut differences and as such are essential for using the zebrafish model system to study chemosensory perception...
  55. Gueye Y, Ferhat L, Sbai O, Bianco J, Ould Yahoui A, Bernard A, et al. Trafficking and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in olfactory ensheathing glial cells: A role in cell migration?. Glia. 2011;59:750-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that MMPs are involved in migration of OECs in vitro on different ECM substrates...
  56. Kueh J, Raisman G, Li Y, Stevens R, Li D. Comparison of bulbar and mucosal olfactory ensheathing cells using FACS and simultaneous antigenic bivariate cell cycle analysis. Glia. 2011;59:1658-71 pubmed publisher
    ..we compare the evolution of cultures from the superficial layers of the olfactory bulb with tissue from the olfactory mucosa, both whole and split into lamina propria and epithelial layer...
  57. Xie F, Zhou X, Genter M, Behr M, Gu J, Ding X. The tissue-specific toxicity of methimazole in the mouse olfactory mucosa is partly mediated through target-tissue metabolic activation by CYP2A5. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011;39:947-51 pubmed publisher
    The antithyroid drug methimazole (MMZ) can cause severe, tissue-specific toxicity in mouse olfactory mucosa (OM), presumably through a sequential metabolic activation of MMZ by cytochrome P450 (P450) and flavin monooxygenases (FMO)...
  58. Granger N, Blamires H, Franklin R, Jeffery N. Autologous olfactory mucosal cell transplants in clinical spinal cord injury: a randomized double-blinded trial in a canine translational model. Brain. 2012;135:3227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we find no evidence for concomitant improvement in long tract function...
  59. Skaat H, Ziv Polat O, Shahar A, Margel S. Enhancement of the growth and differentiation of nasal olfactory mucosa cells by the conjugation of growth factors to functional nanoparticles. Bioconjug Chem. 2011;22:2600-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, nasal olfactory mucosa (NOM) cells from adult rats were cultured in suspension on chitosan microcarriers (MCs) in the presence of ..
  60. Jia C, Cussen A, Hegg C. ATP differentially upregulates fibroblast growth factor 2 and transforming growth factor ? in neonatal and adult mice: effect on neuroproliferation. Neuroscience. 2011;177:335-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that different mechanisms regulate neurogenesis in neonatal and adult OE, and FGF2 and TGF? may have different roles throughout development...
  61. Genter M, Krishan M, Augustine L, Cherrington N. Drug transporter expression and localization in rat nasal respiratory and olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:1644-7 pubmed publisher
    ..polypeptide (OATP)3; and multidrug resistance (MRP)1 and MRP4] in nasal respiratory mucosa, olfactory mucosa, and olfactory bulb to the level of expression of these transporters in the liver and kidney...
  62. Windus L, Chehrehasa F, Lineburg K, Claxton C, Mackay Sim A, Key B, et al. Stimulation of olfactory ensheathing cell motility enhances olfactory axon growth. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:3233-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the migration of OECs strongly regulates the motility of axons and that stimulation of OEC motility enhances axon extension and growth cone activity...
  63. Diaz Solano D, Wittig O, Ayala Grosso C, Pieruzzini R, Cardier J. Human olfactory mucosa multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells promote survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human hematopoietic cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2012;21:3187-96 pubmed publisher
    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the human olfactory mucosa (OM) are cells that have been proposed as a niche for neural progenitors...
  64. Aoki M, Kishima H, Yoshimura K, Ishihara M, Ueno M, Hata K, et al. Limited functional recovery in rats with complete spinal cord injury after transplantation of whole-layer olfactory mucosa: laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010;12:122-30 pubmed publisher
    The olfactory mucosa (OM) consists of 2 layers, the epithelium and the lamina propria...
  65. Chiu S, Hung H, Lin S, Chiang E, Liu D. Therapeutic potential of olfactory ensheathing cells in neurodegenerative diseases. J Mol Med (Berl). 2009;87:1179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary OECs produce several neurotrophic factors such as stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and enhance axonal regeneration to promote neuroplasticity in neurodegenerative diseases...
  66. Toft A, Tomé M, Barnett S, Riddell J. A comparative study of glial and non-neural cell properties for transplant-mediated repair of the injured spinal cord. Glia. 2013;61:513-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, purified glial cells have advantages for transplant-mediated repair, combining maximal support for axonal regeneration with a minimal astrocytic reaction around the transplant site...
  67. Lima C, Escada P, Pratas Vital J, Branco C, Arcangeli C, Lazzeri G, et al. Olfactory mucosal autografts and rehabilitation for chronic traumatic spinal cord injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2010;24:10-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors report a prospective, uncontrolled pilot study of the safety and outcomes of implanting olfactory mucosal autografts (OMA) in 20 patients with chronic, sensorimotor complete or motor complete SCI...
  68. Tabakow P, Jarmundowicz W, Czapiga B, Fortuna W, Miedzybrodzki R, Czyz M, et al. Transplantation of autologous olfactory ensheathing cells in complete human spinal cord injury. Cell Transplant. 2013;22:1591-612 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no adverse findings related to olfactory mucosa biopsy or transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells at 1 year after surgery...
  69. Barraud P, Seferiadis A, Tyson L, Zwart M, Szabo Rogers H, Ruhrberg C, et al. Neural crest origin of olfactory ensheathing glia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21040-5 pubmed publisher
  70. Thiebaud N, Menetrier F, Belloir C, Minn A, Neiers F, Artur Y, et al. Expression and differential localization of xenobiotic transporters in the rat olfactory neuro-epithelium. Neurosci Lett. 2011;505:180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The pattern of expression and the distinct localization of the olfactory transporters showed in this work may highlight on their specific function in the whole olfactory epithelium...
  71. Guérout N, Paviot A, Bon Mardion N, Duclos C, Genty D, Jean L, et al. Co-transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells from mucosa and bulb origin enhances functional recovery after peripheral nerve lesion. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22816 pubmed publisher
    ..ensheathing cells (OECs) represent an interesting candidate for cell therapy and could be obtained from olfactory mucosa (OM-OECs) or olfactory bulbs (OB-OECs)...
  72. Krolewski R, Jang W, Schwob J. The generation of olfactory epithelial neurospheres in vitro predicts engraftment capacity following transplantation in vivo. Exp Neurol. 2011;229:308-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings demonstrate that sphere formation serves as a biomarker for engraftment capacity and multipotency of olfactory progenitors, which are requirements for their eventual translational use...
  73. Ohmomo H, Ehara A, Yoshida S, Shutoh F, Ueda S, Hisano S. Temporally distinct expression of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 during embryonic development of the rat olfactory system. Neurosci Res. 2011;70:376-82 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to E20.5. The present study clarifies the expression of VGLUT2 precedent to VGLUT1 during olfactory bulb morphogenesis, suggesting differential contribution of the two VGLUT subtypes to glutamate-mediated embryonic events...