taste buds

Summary

Summary: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.

Top Publications

  1. Shi L, He L, Sarvepalli P, McCluskey L. Functional role for interleukin-1 in the injured peripheral taste system. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90:816-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytokine actions in the taste system are largely unstudied. These results demonstrate that IL-1 has a beneficial effect on taste function after nearby injury, in contrast to its detrimental role in the injured central nervous system...
  2. Tomonari H, Miura H, Nakayama A, Matsumura E, Ooki M, Ninomiya Y, et al. G?-gustducin is extensively coexpressed with sweet and bitter taste receptors in both the soft palate and fungiform papillae but has a different functional significance. Chem Senses. 2012;37:241-51 pubmed publisher
    ..differences in the expression and functional significance of G?-gustducin in soft palate (SP) and fungiform (FF) taste buds, we examined the coexpression of G?-gustducin with taste receptors and the impact of G?-gustducin knockout (gKO) ..
  3. Chandrashekar J, Kuhn C, Oka Y, Yarmolinsky D, Hummler E, Ryba N, et al. The cells and peripheral representation of sodium taste in mice. Nature. 2010;464:297-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies substantiate independent cellular substrates for all five basic taste qualities, and validate the essential role of ENaC for sodium taste in mice. ..
  4. Barreiro Iglesias A, Villar Cerviño V, Villar Cheda B, Anadón R, Rodicio M. Neurochemical characterization of sea lamprey taste buds and afferent gustatory fibers: presence of serotonin, calretinin, and CGRP immunoreactivity in taste bud bi-ciliated cells of the earliest vertebrates. J Comp Neurol. 2008;511:438-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Lampreys are the earliest vertebrates that possess taste buds, although these differ in structure from taste buds in jawed vertebrates, and their neurochemistry remains ..
  5. Ishimaru Y. Molecular mechanisms of taste transduction in vertebrates. Odontology. 2009;97:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This review covers recent studies on taste receptors, intracellular signaling transduction in taste receptor cells, and taste coding at the periphery in vertebrates from fish to mammals...
  6. San Gabriel A, Uneyama H, Maekawa T, Torii K. The calcium-sensing receptor in taste tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:414-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, CaSR was found in isolated taste buds from rats and mice...
  7. Huang Y, Maruyama Y, Roper S. Norepinephrine is coreleased with serotonin in mouse taste buds. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13088-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Norepinephrine (NE) has also been proposed to be a neurotransmitter or paracrine hormone in taste buds. Yet, to date, the specific stimulus for NE release in taste buds is not well understood, and the identity of ..
  8. Huang Y, Dando R, Roper S. Autocrine and paracrine roles for ATP and serotonin in mouse taste buds. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13909-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The roles of these neurotransmitters in taste buds have not been fully elucidated...
  9. Vandenbeuch A, Kinnamon S. Why do taste cells generate action potentials?. J Biol. 2009;8:42 pubmed publisher
    ..A paper in BMC Neuroscience reveals the identity of the voltage-gated Na+ channels underlying action potentials, providing the foundation for insights into their function...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Sullivan J, Borecki A, Oleskevich S. Stem and progenitor cell compartments within adult mouse taste buds. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:1549-60 pubmed publisher
    Adult taste buds are maintained by the lifelong proliferation of epithelial stem and progenitor cells, the identities of which have remained elusive...
  2. Ishida Y, Ugawa S, Ueda T, Yamada T, Shibata Y, Hondoh A, et al. P2X(2)- and P2X(3)-positive fibers in fungiform papillae originate from the chorda tympani but not the trigeminal nerve in rats and mice. J Comp Neurol. 2009;514:131-44 pubmed publisher
    ..for both receptors was mostly colocalized and was seen in nerve fibers and their bundles concentrated in the taste buds. Because it is well known that the P2X receptors are involved in not only taste but also nociception, we ..
  3. Chaudhari N, Roper S. The cell biology of taste. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:285-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Taste buds are aggregates of 50-100 polarized neuroepithelial cells that detect nutrients and other compounds. Combined analyses of gene expression and cellular function reveal an elegant cellular organization within the taste bud...
  4. Zachar P, Jonz M. Confocal imaging of Merkel-like basal cells in the taste buds of zebrafish. Acta Histochem. 2012;114:101-15 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Taste buds are found throughout this tissue and may participate in both processes...
  5. Dvoryanchikov G, Huang Y, Barro Soria R, Chaudhari N, Roper S. GABA, its receptors, and GABAergic inhibition in mouse taste buds. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5782-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Taste buds consist of at least three principal cell types that have different functions in processing gustatory signals: glial-like (type I) cells, receptor (type II) cells, and presynaptic (type III) cells...
  6. Niki M, Takai S, Kusuhara Y, Ninomiya Y, Yoshida R. Responses to apical and basolateral application of glutamate in mouse fungiform taste cells with action potentials. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:1033-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the existence of multiple types of umami-sensitive taste cells and the existence of glutamate receptor(s) on the basolateral membrane of a subset of taste cells...
  7. Ohmoto M, Matsumoto I, Yasuoka A, Yoshihara Y, Abe K. Genetic tracing of the gustatory and trigeminal neural pathways originating from T1R3-expressing taste receptor cells and solitary chemoreceptor cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;38:505-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In the taste buds, WGA transgene was faithfully expressed in T1R3-positive sweet/umami taste receptor cells...
  8. Shin Y, Martin B, Kim W, White C, Ji S, Sun Y, et al. Ghrelin is produced in taste cells and ghrelin receptor null mice show reduced taste responsivity to salty (NaCl) and sour (citric acid) tastants. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12729 pubmed publisher
    ..The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved...
  9. Nguyen H, Barlow L. Differential expression of a BMP4 reporter allele in anterior fungiform versus posterior circumvallate taste buds of mice. BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:129 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of BMP4 in taste buds of adult mice is unknown...
  10. Vandenbeuch A, Tizzano M, Anderson C, Stone L, Goldberg D, Kinnamon S. Evidence for a role of glutamate as an efferent transmitter in taste buds. BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:77 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we used molecular, physiological and immunohistochemical methods to investigate the origin of glutamate as well as the targeted receptors in taste buds.
  11. Ishimaru Y, Katano Y, Yamamoto K, Akiba M, Misaka T, Roberts R, et al. Interaction between PKD1L3 and PKD2L1 through their transmembrane domains is required for localization of PKD2L1 at taste pores in taste cells of circumvallate and foliate papillae. FASEB J. 2010;24:4058-67 pubmed publisher
  12. Mattes R. Accumulating evidence supports a taste component for free fatty acids in humans. Physiol Behav. 2011;104:624-31 pubmed publisher
    ..On no point is there strong evidence challenging these observations. The reviewed findings are suggestive, albeit not definitive, that there is a taste component for FFA...
  13. DeSimone J, Phan T, Ren Z, Mummalaneni S, Lyall V. Changes in taste receptor cell [Ca2+]i modulate chorda tympani responses to bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. J Neurophysiol. 2012;108:3221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) in a separate subcompartment, sensitive to inositol trisphosphate and thapsigargin but inaccessible to BAPTA and ionomycin + Ca(2+), are associated with neurotransmitter release...
  14. Okubo T, Clark C, Hogan B. Cell lineage mapping of taste bud cells and keratinocytes in the mouse tongue and soft palate. Stem Cells. 2009;27:442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..organized into filiform and fungiform papillae, and taste receptor cells present in tight clusters known as taste buds in the fungiform and circumvallate papillae and soft palate...
  15. Ueda K, Ichimori Y, Maruyama H, Murakami Y, Fujii M, Honma S, et al. Cell-type specific occurrence of apoptosis in taste buds of the rat circumvallate papilla. Arch Histol Cytol. 2008;71:59-67 pubmed
    The present study employed immunohistochemistry for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to detect apoptotic cells in taste buds of the rat circumvallate papilla...
  16. Starostik M, Rebello M, Cotter K, Kulik A, Medler K. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13639 pubmed publisher
    ..GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A) and GABA(C)) or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B)) while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs)...
  17. Mukherjee N, Delay E. Cyclophosphamide-induced disruption of umami taste functions and taste epithelium. Neuroscience. 2011;192:732-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Circumvallate taste buds began to show disturbances by 8 days after injection and evidence of recovery beginning 12 days after injection...
  18. Ishimaru Y, Matsunami H. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and taste sensation. J Dent Res. 2009;88:212-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3/polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 may play a significant role, possibly as taste receptors, in sour taste sensation...
  19. Maruyama Y, Yasuda R, Kuroda M, Eto Y. Kokumi substances, enhancers of basic tastes, induce responses in calcium-sensing receptor expressing taste cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34489 pubmed publisher
  20. Yoshida R, Miyauchi A, Yasuo T, Jyotaki M, Murata Y, Yasumatsu K, et al. Discrimination of taste qualities among mouse fungiform taste bud cells. J Physiol. 2009;587:4425-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We did not find any NaCl-best cells among the gustducin and GAD67 taste cells, raising the possibility that salt sensitive taste cells comprise a different population...
  21. Yarmolinsky D, Zuker C, Ryba N. Common sense about taste: from mammals to insects. Cell. 2009;139:234-44 pubmed publisher
    ..There is now persuasive evidence that tastant quality is mediated by labeled lines, whereby distinct and strictly segregated populations of taste receptor cells encode each of the taste qualities...
  22. Born S, Levit A, Niv M, Meyerhof W, Behrens M. The human bitter taste receptor TAS2R10 is tailored to accommodate numerous diverse ligands. J Neurosci. 2013;33:201-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This implies that the gene duplication event preceding primate speciation was accompanied by independent evolution of the strychnine-binding sites...
  23. Hevezi P, Moyer B, Lu M, Gao N, White E, Echeverri F, et al. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in primate taste buds reveals links to diverse processes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6395 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds...
  24. Huang Y, Maruyama Y, Stimac R, Roper S. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste. J Physiol. 2008;586:2903-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells...
  25. Kim A, Feng P, Ohkuri T, Sauers D, Cohn Z, Chai J, et al. Defects in the peripheral taste structure and function in the MRL/lpr mouse model of autoimmune disease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35588 pubmed publisher
    ..Histological studies reveal that the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice are smaller than those of wild-type congenic control (MRL/+/+) mice...
  26. Martin B, Dotson C, Shin Y, Ji S, Drucker D, Maudsley S, et al. Modulation of taste sensitivity by GLP-1 signaling in taste buds. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1170:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..that the peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor (GLP-1R) are expressed in mammalian taste buds. Furthermore, we found that GLP-1 signaling plays an important role in the modulation of taste sensitivity: GLP-..
  27. Hennigs J, Burhenne N, Stähler F, Winnig M, Walter B, Meyerhof W, et al. Sweet taste receptor interacting protein CIB1 is a general inhibitor of InsP3-dependent Ca2+ release in vivo. J Neurochem. 2008;106:2249-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of CIB1 on InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release from the ER is most likely mediated by its interaction with the InsP3 receptor. Thus, CIB1 seems to be an inhibitor of InsP3-dependent Ca2+ release in vivo...
  28. Martin C, Passilly Degrace P, Gaillard D, Merlin J, Chevrot M, Besnard P. The lipid-sensor candidates CD36 and GPR120 are differentially regulated by dietary lipids in mouse taste buds: impact on spontaneous fat preference. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24014 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that CD36 or GPR120 gene inactivation leads to a decrease in the preference for lipids raises the question of the respective role(s) played by these gustatory lipid-sensor candidates...
  29. Roper S. Taste buds as peripheral chemosensory processors. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2013;24:71-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Taste buds are peripheral chemosensory organs situated in the oral cavity. Each taste bud consists of a community of 50-100 cells that interact synaptically during gustatory stimulation...
  30. Matsumoto I, Ohmoto M, Narukawa M, Yoshihara Y, Abe K. Skn-1a (Pou2f3) specifies taste receptor cell lineage. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:685-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Skn-1a is critical for generating and balancing the diverse composition of taste cells...
  31. Liu H, Henson B, Zhou Y, D Silva N, Mistretta C. Fungiform papilla pattern: EGF regulates inter-papilla lingual epithelium and decreases papilla number by means of PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK, and p38 MAPK signaling. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2378-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, EGF/EGFR signaling by means of PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK, and p38 MAPK contributes to epithelial cell proliferation between papillae; this biases against papilla differentiation and reduces numbers of papillae...
  32. Zhang X, Zhou L, Ban X, Liu D, Jiang W, Liu X. Decreased expression of CD36 in circumvallate taste buds of high-fat diet induced obese rats. Acta Histochem. 2011;113:663-7 pubmed publisher
    ..CD36, a trans-membrane glycoprotein, which is located in the taste buds of circumvallate papillae of rodents, appears to be a plausible receptor for this fatty taste...
  33. Murata Y, Yasuo T, Yoshida R, Obata K, Yanagawa Y, Margolskee R, et al. Action potential-enhanced ATP release from taste cells through hemichannels. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:896-901 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the hypothesis that action potentials in taste cells responsive to sweet, bitter, or umami tastants enhance ATP release through pannexin 1, not connexin-based hemichannels...
  34. Wang H, Zhou M, Brand J, Huang L. Inflammation and taste disorders: mechanisms in taste buds. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1170:596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Some TLRs appear to be selectively or more abundantly expressed in taste buds than in nongustatory lingual epithelium...
  35. Asano Miyoshi M, Hamamichi R, Emori Y. Synaptophysin as a probable component of neurotransmission occurring in taste receptor cells. J Mol Histol. 2009;40:59-70 pubmed publisher
    Taste signal is received in taste buds and transmitted via sensory afferent nerves to the brainstem...
  36. Luo X, Okubo T, Randell S, Hogan B. Culture of endodermal stem/progenitor cells of the mouse tongue. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2009;45:44-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Krt5-GFP(hi) cells can both self renew and give rise to differentiated stratified keratinized epithelial cells when cultured on an air-liquid interface...
  37. Padiglia A, Zonza A, Atzori E, Chillotti C, Calo C, Tepper B, et al. Sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil is associated with gustin (carbonic anhydrase VI) gene polymorphism, salivary zinc, and body mass index in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:539-45 pubmed publisher
    ..to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) may be correlated with body mass index (BMI) and differences in the salivary proteins involved in taste function, such as the zinc-dependent enzyme gustin, which is a trophic factor of taste buds.
  38. Patel A, Huang T, Krimm R. Lingual and palatal gustatory afferents each depend on both BDNF and NT-4, but the dependence is greater for lingual than palatal afferents. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:3290-301 pubmed publisher
    Neurons of the geniculate ganglion innervate taste buds located in two spatially distinct targets, the tongue and palate. About 50% of these neurons die in Bdnf(-/-) mice and Ntf4/5(-/-) mice...
  39. Kulkarni B, Mattes R. Evidence for presence of nonesterified fatty acids as potential gustatory signaling molecules in humans. Chem Senses. 2013;38:119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate NEFA concentrations likely to be sufficient to initiate gustatory signaling are present in the human oral cavity when masticating high-fat foods...
  40. Calo C, Padiglia A, Zonza A, Corrias L, Contu P, Tepper B, et al. Polymorphisms in TAS2R38 and the taste bud trophic factor, gustin gene co-operate in modulating PROP taste phenotype. Physiol Behav. 2011;104:1065-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show how the combination of the TAS2R38 and gustin gene genotypes modulate PROP phenotype, providing an additional tool for the evaluation of human eating behavior and nutritional status...
  41. Braud A, Boucher Y, Zerari Mailly F. Vesicular glutamate transporters localization in the rat lingual papillae. Neuroreport. 2010;21:64-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show the specific lingual pattern of distribution for VGluts and suggest that only VGlut 1 takes part in glutamatergic regulation of epithelial and taste cells within the tongue in physiological conditions...
  42. Gao N, Lu M, Echeverri F, Laita B, Kalabat D, Williams M, et al. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:20 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown...
  43. Degrace Passilly P, Besnard P. CD36 and taste of fat. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012;15:107-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This review explores the recent literature on the role of CD36 in the taste of fat, eating behavior and obesity risk in rodents and humans...
  44. Martin C, Passilly Degrace P, Chevrot M, Ancel D, Sparks S, Drucker D, et al. Lipid-mediated release of GLP-1 by mouse taste buds from circumvallate papillae: putative involvement of GPR120 and impact on taste sensitivity. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:2256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..in a GLP-1 receptor-dependent manner, iii) suggest an involvement of the LCFA receptor GPR120 expressed in taste buds in this system, and iv) support the existence of a regulation by GLP-1 of the lipid sensing mediated by lingual ..
  45. Moyer B, Hevezi P, Gao N, Lu M, Kalabat D, Soto H, et al. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7682 pubmed publisher
    Using fungiform (FG) and circumvallate (CV) taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 ..
  46. Feng P, Yee K, Rawson N, Feldman L, Feldman R, Breslin P. Immune cells of the human peripheral taste system: dominant dendritic cells and CD4 T cells. Brain Behav Immun. 2009;23:760-6 pubmed publisher
  47. Dvoryanchikov G, Sinclair M, Perea Martinez I, Wang T, Chaudhari N. Inward rectifier channel, ROMK, is localized to the apical tips of glial-like cells in mouse taste buds. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:1-14 pubmed publisher
    Cells in taste buds are closely packed, with little extracellular space. Tight junctions and other barriers further limit permeability and may result in buildup of extracellular K(+) following action potentials...
  48. Chaudhari N, Pereira E, Roper S. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:738S-742S pubmed publisher
    ..Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants...
  49. Cartoni C, Yasumatsu K, Ohkuri T, Shigemura N, Yoshida R, Godinot N, et al. Taste preference for fatty acids is mediated by GPR40 and GPR120. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8376-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that GPR120 and GPR40 are expressed in the taste buds, mainly in type II and type I cells, respectively...
  50. Reiner D, Jan T, Boughter J, Li C, Lu L, Williams R, et al. Genetic analysis of tongue size and taste papillae number and size in recombinant inbred strains of mice. Chem Senses. 2008;33:693-707 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is an important first step in identifying genetic factors underlying tongue size, papillae size, and papillae number using QTL analysis...
  51. Bajec M, Pickering G. Thermal taste, PROP responsiveness, and perception of oral sensations. Physiol Behav. 2008;95:581-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that pSTs and TTs possess greater responsiveness across a range of taste and trigeminal stimuli and concentrations...
  52. Damak S, Mosinger B, Margolskee R. Transsynaptic transport of wheat germ agglutinin expressed in a subset of type II taste cells of transgenic mice. BMC Neurosci. 2008;9:96 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine how WGA produced in T1r3-expressing taste cells is transported into gustatory neurons, transgenic mice expressing WGA-IRES-GFP driven by the T1r3 promoter were generated...