tooth apex

Summary

Summary: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)

Top Publications

  1. Mitchell R, Baumgartner J, Sedgley C. Apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite using different root canal irrigation systems. J Endod. 2011;37:1677-81 pubmed publisher
    ..06 and 50.06 by measuring the frequency and extent of apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) into a simulated periapical environment. The null hypothesis was tested that there is no difference between systems...
  2. Stöber E, Duran Sindreu F, Mercadé M, Vera J, Bueno R, Roig M. An evaluation of root ZX and iPex apex locators: an in vivo study. J Endod. 2011;37:608-10 pubmed publisher
    ..iPex is a fourth-generation apex locator (EAL) that has not yet been tested in vivo. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Root ZX (J Morita Corp, Tokyo, Japan) and iPex (NSK, Tochigi, Japan) EALs...
  3. Marzouk A, Ghoneim A. Computed tomographic evaluation of canal shape instrumented by different kinematics rotary nickel-titanium systems. J Endod. 2013;39:906-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Psimma Z, Boutsioukis C, Vasiliadis L, Kastrinakis E. A new method for real-time quantification of irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation ex vivo. Int Endod J. 2013;46:619-31 pubmed publisher
    ..ii) to evaluate the effect of periapical tissue simulation and pressure equalization and (iii) to determine the effect of needle type, apical preparation size and apical constriction diameter on irrigant extrusion...
  5. Malentacca A, Uccioli U, Zangari D, Lajolo C, Fabiani C. Efficacy and safety of various active irrigation devices when used with either positive or negative pressure: an in vitro study. J Endod. 2012;38:1622-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of different devices available for canal cleansing...
  6. Orosco F, Bernardineli N, Garcia R, Bramante C, Duarte M, Moraes I. In vivo accuracy of conventional and digital radiographic methods in confirming root canal working length determination by Root ZX. J Appl Oral Sci. 2012;20:522-5 pubmed
    ..To compare, in vivo, the accuracy of conventional and digital radiographic methods in determining root canal working length...
  7. Vasconcelos B, Matos L, Pinheiro Junior E, Menezes A, Vivacqua Gomes N. Ex vivo accuracy of three electronic apex locators using different apical file sizes. Braz Dent J. 2012;23:199-204 pubmed
    ..Justy II and Novapex provided electronic measurements nearest to the AC...
  8. Bürklein S, Schafer E. Apically extruded debris with reciprocating single-file and full-sequence rotary instrumentation systems. J Endod. 2012;38:850-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems...
  9. Paludo L, Souza S, Só M, Rosa R, Vier Pelisser F, Duarte M. An in vivo radiographic evaluation of the accuracy of Apex and iPex electronic Apex locators. Braz Dent J. 2012;23:54-8 pubmed
    ..05) or in terms of the distance recorded from file tip and the radiographic apex (p>0.05). Apex and iPex EALs provided reliable measurements for WL determination for endodontic therapy...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Bürklein S, Hinschitza K, Dammaschke T, Schafer E. Shaping ability and cleaning effectiveness of two single-file systems in severely curved root canals of extracted teeth: Reciproc and WaveOne versus Mtwo and ProTaper. Int Endod J. 2012;45:449-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare shaping ability and cleaning effectiveness of two reciprocating single-file systems with Mtwo and ProTaper rotary instruments during the preparation of curved root canals in extracted teeth...
  2. Cehreli Z, Isbitiren B, Sara S, Erbas G. Regenerative endodontic treatment (revascularization) of immature necrotic molars medicated with calcium hydroxide: a case series. J Endod. 2011;37:1327-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The present case series demonstrates the outcome of revascularization treatment with intracanal medicament of calcium hydroxide in immature necrotic molars...
  3. Duran Sindreu F, Stöber E, Mercade M, Vera J, Garcia M, Bueno R, et al. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro readings when testing the accuracy of the Root ZX apex locator. J Endod. 2012;38:236-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the Root ZX electronic apex locator (J Morita Corp, Tokyo, Japan) between an in vivo and an in vitro model...
  4. Mancini M, Felici R, Conte G, Costantini M, Cianconi L. Accuracy of three electronic apex locators in anterior and posterior teeth: an ex vivo study. J Endod. 2011;37:684-7 pubmed publisher
  5. Miletic V, Beljic Ivanovic K, Ivanovic V. Clinical reproducibility of three electronic apex locators. Int Endod J. 2011;44:769-76 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the reproducibility of three electronic apex locators (EALs), Dentaport ZX, RomiApex A-15 and Raypex 5, under clinical conditions...
  6. Genç O, Alacam T, Kayaoglu G. Evaluation of three instrumentation techniques at the precision of apical stop and apical sealing of obturation. J Appl Oral Sci. 2011;19:350-4 pubmed
    ..5 mm short of the apical foramen) in teeth with disrupted apical constriction, and to evaluate microleakage following obturation in such prepared teeth...
  7. Chen E, Kaing S, Mohan H, Ting S, Wu J, Parashos P. An ex vivo comparison of electronic apex locator teaching models. J Endod. 2011;37:1147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to develop a simple and inexpensive ex vivo model to teach students the use of electronic apex locators in a preclinical setting...
  8. Herrera M, Abalos C, Lucena C, Jiménez Planas A, Llamas R. Critical diameter of apical foramen and of file size using the Root ZX apex locator: an in vitro study. J Endod. 2011;37:1306-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An evaluation was made of the accuracy of the Root ZX apex locator (J. Morita Corp, Tokyo, Japan) in widened foramina, considering the existing controversy over this issue in the literature...
  9. Berutti E, Chiandussi G, Paolino D, Scotti N, Cantatore G, Castellucci A, et al. Effect of canal length and curvature on working length alteration with WaveOne reciprocating files. J Endod. 2011;37:1687-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the working length (WL) modification after instrumentation with WaveOne Primary (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) reciprocating files and the incidence of overinstrumentation in relation to the initial WL...
  10. Renner D, Grazziotin Soares R, Gavini G, Barletta F. Influence of pulp condition on the accuracy of an electronic foramen locator in posterior teeth: an in vivo study. Braz Oral Res. 2012;26:106-11 pubmed
    ..In none of these cases was the file tip located beyond the radiographic apex; in 32, it was located short of the NovApex® measurement. Pulp condition had no significant effect on the accuracy of NovApex®...
  11. Brito Junior M, Camilo C, Moreira Júnior G, Pecora J, Sousa Neto M. Effect of pre-flaring and file size on the accuracy of two electronic apex locators. J Appl Oral Sci. 2012;20:538-43 pubmed
    ..This ex vivo study evaluated the effect of pre-flaring and file size on the accuracy of the Root ZX and Novapex electronic apex locators (EALs)...
  12. Tilotta Yasukawa F, Millot S, El Haddioui A, Bravetti P, Gaudy J. Labiomandibular paresthesia caused by endodontic treatment: an anatomic and clinical study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102:e47-59 pubmed
  13. Erdem A, Sepet E. Mineral trioxide aggregate for obturation of maxillary central incisors with necrotic pulp and open apices. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24:e38-41 pubmed publisher
    ..MTA can be considered a very effective option for apexification with the advantage of reduced treatment time, good sealing ability and high biocompatibility...
  14. Ebrahim A, Wadachi R, Suda H. Ex vivo evaluation of the ability of four different electronic apex locators to determine the working length in teeth with various foramen diameters. Aust Dent J. 2006;51:258-62 pubmed
    ..The Root ZX and Foramatron D10 showed significantly better scores than the other two EALs and may be more reliable to determine the working length of teeth with a wide apical foramen, if a tight-fit file is used. ..
  15. Mente J, Hage N, Pfefferle T, Koch M, Dreyhaupt J, Staehle H, et al. Mineral trioxide aggregate apical plugs in teeth with open apical foramina: a retrospective analysis of treatment outcome. J Endod. 2009;35:1354-8 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the variables analyzed had a significant effect on the outcome. The results supported the management of open apical foramina with mineral trioxide aggregate apical plugs. ..
  16. Ng Y, Mann V, Gulabivala K. A prospective study of the factors affecting outcomes of nonsurgical root canal treatment: part 1: periapical health. Int Endod J. 2011;44:583-609 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the probability of and factors influencing periapical status of teeth following primary (1°RCTx) or secondary (2°RCTx) root canal treatment...
  17. Gomes Filho J, Hopp R, Bernabe P, Nery M, Otoboni Filho J, Dezan Junior E. Evaluation of the apical infiltration after root canal disruption and obturation. J Appl Oral Sci. 2008;16:345-9 pubmed
    ..01). In conclusion, none of the evaluated techniques was able to prevent apical infiltration, so working length so the working length determination has to be established and maintained carefully. ..
  18. Ghaziani P, Aghasizadeh N, Sheikh Nezami M. Endodontic treatment with MTA apical plugs: a case report. J Oral Sci. 2007;49:325-9 pubmed
    ..Considering the importance of a coronal seal, the use of MTA for apical plugging appears to be a valid option. ..
  19. Esteves T, Ramos A, Pereira C, Hidalgo M. Orthodontic root resorption of endodontically treated teeth. J Endod. 2007;33:119-22 pubmed
    ..There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in apical root resorption found in the endodontically treated teeth compared to the group of vital teeth. ..
  20. Mickel A, Chogle S, Liddle J, Huffaker K, Jones J. The role of apical size determination and enlargement in the reduction of intracanal bacteria. J Endod. 2007;33:21-3 pubmed
    ..05). There was a significant increase in the number of samples with negative cultures from CDF + 1 to CDF + 3. SEM observation revealed bacteria on dentinal walls and in tubules even in most negative canal cultures. ..
  21. Sonntag D, Ott M, Kook K, Stachniss V. Root canal preparation with the NiTi systems K3, Mtwo and ProTaper. Aust Endod J. 2007;33:73-81 pubmed
    ..No significant differences were found in the preparation length, transportation or taper. The three systems tested, K3, Mtwo and ProTaper, achieved good preparation results. ..
  22. Raldi D, Mello I, Habitante S, Lage Marques J, Coil J. Treatment options for teeth with open apices and apical periodontitis. J Can Dent Assoc. 2009;75:591-6 pubmed
    ..In the third case, the tooth, which had a divergent root canal system, was completely obturated with MTA and treatment was also completed over 2 appointments. In all 3 cases, signs of bone healing were observed after treatment...
  23. Kovisto T, Ahmad M, Bowles W. Proximity of the mandibular canal to the tooth apex. J Endod. 2011;37:311-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Dental practitioners should consider potential differences of mandibular canal position as a result of age and gender when performing these procedures in this area. ..
  24. Carvalho A, Moura Netto C, Moura A, Marques M, Davidowicz H. Accuracy of three electronic apex locators in the presence of different irrigating solutions. Braz Oral Res. 2010;24:394-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of irrigating solutions does not interfere with the performance of the EALs...
  25. de Vasconcelos B, do Vale T, de Menezes A, Pinheiro Junior E, Vivacqua Gomes N, Bernardes R, et al. An ex vivo comparison of root canal length determination by three electronic apex locators at positions short of the apical foramen. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:e57-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of working length determination of 3 electronic apex locators (EALs): Root ZX, RomiApex D-30, and Ipex at 0.0 mm, at the apical foramen (AF), and at 1.0 mm short of the AF...
  26. Martins D, Tibola D, Janson G, Maria F. Effects of intrusion combined with anterior retraction on apical root resorption. Eur J Orthod. 2012;34:170-5 pubmed publisher
    ..324 and r = 0.320, respectively). The combination of anterior retraction with intrusive mechanics causes more root resorption than anterior retraction of the maxillary incisors alone...
  27. Krajczár K, Marada G, Gyulai G, Tóth V. Comparison of radiographic and electronical working length determination on palatal and mesio-buccal root canals of extracted upper molars. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;106:e90-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this work was to compare the accuracy of working length determination of ProPex (Dentsply-Maillefer) electronic apex locator (EAL) to the radiographic method on extracted molars...
  28. Stoll R, Urban Klein B, Roggendorf M, Jablonski Momeni A, Strauch K, Frankenberger R. Effectiveness of four electronic apex locators to determine distance from the apical foramen. Int Endod J. 2010;43:808-17 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the accuracy of four electronic apex locators (EAL) in the apical region (0-3 mm short of the foramen) and to compare the precision of the readings on the display with the real position of the file in the root canal...
  29. Hecker H, Bartha T, Löst C, Weiger R. Determining the apical preparation size in premolars: part III. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate cross sections of the apical part of premolar root canals and determine recommendations for their optimal apical preparation size...
  30. D Assunção F, Albuquerque D, Salazar Silva J, Dos Santos V, Sousa J. Ex vivo evaluation of the accuracy and coefficient of repeatability of three electronic apex locators using a simple mounting model: a preliminary report. Int Endod J. 2010;43:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare ex vivo the accuracy and coefficient of repeatability of three electronic apex locators in locating the apical constriction...
  31. Paque F, Zehnder M, Marending M. Apical fit of initial K-files in maxillary molars assessed by micro-computed tomography. Int Endod J. 2010;43:328-35 pubmed publisher
    ..To two- and three-dimensionally assess the fit of the first K-file binding at working length after a crown-down canal procedure...
  32. Shin S, Albert J, Mortman R. One step pulp revascularization treatment of an immature permanent tooth with chronic apical abscess: a case report. Int Endod J. 2009;42:1118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe a case in which a mandibular right second premolar with a necrotic pulp, sinus tract, periradicular radiolucency and an immature apex underwent revascularization via a single treatment approach...
  33. Bose R, Nummikoski P, Hargreaves K. A retrospective evaluation of radiographic outcomes in immature teeth with necrotic root canal systems treated with regenerative endodontic procedures. J Endod. 2009;35:1343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These case series have used varying treatments to achieve endodontic regeneration including triple antibiotic paste, Ca(OH)(2), and formocresol. However, no study has analyzed the overall results...
  34. Pandis N, Nasika M, Polychronopoulou A, Eliades T. External apical root resorption in patients treated with conventional and self-ligating brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;134:646-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to comparatively investigate the amount of external apical root resorption (EARR) between conventional and passive self-ligating brackets...
  35. Dudic A, Giannopoulou C, Leuzinger M, Kiliaridis S. Detection of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment by using panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography of super-high resolution. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;135:434-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of orthodontic treatment. We compared panoramic radiography (OPT) with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in evaluating orthodontically induced apical root resorption...
  36. Cianconi L, Angotti V, Felici R, Conte G, Mancini M. Accuracy of three electronic apex locators compared with digital radiography: an ex vivo study. J Endod. 2010;36:2003-7 pubmed publisher
  37. Versiani M, Santana B, Caram C, Pascon E, de Souza C, Biffi J. Ex vivo comparison of the accuracy of Root ZX II in detecting apical constriction using different meter's reading. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;108:e41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The accuracy was 90.5% and 83.78% for the Root ZX II "0.5" and "1" readings, respectively. It was concluded that the meter reading "1" of Root ZX II reduced the risk of working length overestimation...
  38. Tobón Arroyave S, Restrepo Pérez M, Arismendi Echavarría J, Velásquez Restrepo Z, Marín Botero M, García Dorado E. Ex vivo microscopic assessment of factors affecting the quality of apical seal created by root-end fillings. Int Endod J. 2007;40:590-602 pubmed
    ..iii) To describe the microstructure of the surface of root-end filling materials...
  39. Barthelemy J, Gregor L, Krejci I, Wataha J, Bouillaguet S. Accuracy of electronic apex locater-controlled handpieces. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:437-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that although the motor-driven mode of these devices appeared to be clinically safe, measurements obtained in manual and motor-driven operating modes are not equivalent...
  40. Kustarci A, Akpinar K, Sumer Z, Er K, Bek B. Apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria following use of various instrumentation techniques. Int Endod J. 2008;41:1066-71 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the number of bacteria extruded apically from extracted teeth ex vivo after canal instrumentation using a manual technique and three engine-driven techniques utilizing nickel-titanium instruments (K3, RaCe, and FlexMaster)...
  41. Sarris S, Tahmassebi J, Duggal M, Cross I. A clinical evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate for root-end closure of non-vital immature permanent incisors in children-a pilot study. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, larger clinical studies are required to evaluate the long-term success of this procedure...
  42. Ding R, Cheung G, Chen J, Yin X, Wang Q, Zhang C. Pulp revascularization of immature teeth with apical periodontitis: a clinical study. J Endod. 2009;35:745-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a pulpal revascularization procedure for immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis...
  43. Pace R, Giuliani V, Pini Prato L, Baccetti T, Pagavino G. Apical plug technique using mineral trioxide aggregate: results from a case series. Int Endod J. 2007;40:478-84 pubmed
    ..To examine the clinical and radiographic appearance of teeth that suffered premature interruption of root development and were treated by an mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plug technique...
  44. D Arcangelo C, D Amario M. Use of MTA for orthograde obturation of nonvital teeth with open apices: report of two cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;104:e98-101 pubmed
    ..The treated teeth were asymptomatic, and radiographic follow-ups showed healing of periradicular tissues and new hard tissue formation in the apical area of the affected teeth...
  45. Chueh L, Huang G. Immature teeth with periradicular periodontitis or abscess undergoing apexogenesis: a paradigm shift. J Endod. 2006;32:1205-13 pubmed
    ..Our clinical observations support a shifting paradigm toward a conservative approach by providing a favorable environment for tissue regeneration. The mechanism of this continued development and formation of the root end is discussed...
  46. Schmitz M, Santos R, Capelli A, Jacobovitz M, Spanó J, Pecora J. Influence of cervical preflaring on determination of apical file size in mandibular molars: SEM analysis. Braz Dent J. 2008;19:245-51 pubmed
    ..The rotary instruments evaluated in this study did not differ from each other regarding the discrepancies produced between the IAF size and canal diameter at the WL...
  47. Jung I, Lee S, Hargreaves K. Biologically based treatment of immature permanent teeth with pulpal necrosis: a case series. J Endod. 2008;34:876-87 pubmed publisher
  48. Simon S, Rilliard F, Berdal A, Machtou P. The use of mineral trioxide aggregate in one-visit apexification treatment: a prospective study. Int Endod J. 2007;40:186-97 pubmed
    ..To assess the outcome of apexification using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)...
  49. Wrbas K, Ziegler A, Altenburger M, Schirrmeister J. In vivo comparison of working length determination with two electronic apex locators. Int Endod J. 2007;40:133-8 pubmed
    ..To compare the accuracy of two electronic apex locators (EALs) in the same teeth in vivo...
  50. Kielbassa A, Uchtmann H, Wrbas K, Bitter K. In vitro study assessing apical leakage of sealer-only backfills in root canals of primary teeth. J Dent. 2007;35:607-13 pubmed
    ..To assess the sealing ability of zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE), Apexit, and Sealapex used as sealer-only backfills in root canals of primary teeth using the high-pressure replica technique...
  51. Shah N, Logani A, Bhaskar U, Aggarwal V. Efficacy of revascularization to induce apexification/apexogensis in infected, nonvital, immature teeth: a pilot clinical study. J Endod. 2008;34:919-25; Discussion 1157 pubmed publisher
    ..This pilot study documented a favorable outcome of revascularization procedures conducted in immature nonvital, infected permanent teeth...
  52. Bernardes R, Duarte M, Vasconcelos B, Moraes I, Bernardineli N, Garcia R, et al. Evaluation of precision of length determination with 3 electronic apex locators: Root ZX, Elements Diagnostic Unit and Apex Locator, and RomiAPEX D-30. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;104:e91-4 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of precision of 3 apex locators: Root ZX, Elements Diagnostic Unit and Apex Locator, and RomiAPEX D-30...
  53. Kim E, Marmo M, Lee C, Oh N, Kim I. An in vivo comparison of working length determination by only root-ZX apex locator versus combining root-ZX apex locator with radiographs using a new impression technique. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105:e79-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to compare, in vivo, the accuracy of working length determination using only the Root-ZX electronic apex locator versus adjusting Root-ZX measurements after obtaining a working length radiograph...
  54. Briseño Marroquín B, Frajlich S, Goldberg F, Willershausen B. Influence of instrument size on the accuracy of different apex locators: an in vitro study. J Endod. 2008;34:698-702 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant differences were found between the actual working length and EALs/instrument size. A nonsignificant higher number of unstable measurements were observed in all EALs with instrument size 15...
  55. Vieyra J, Acosta J. Comparison of working length determination with radiographs and four electronic apex locators. Int Endod J. 2011;44:510-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the accuracy of the Root ZX, Elements-Diagnostic, Precision AL and Raypex 5 electronic apex locators when compared to radiographs for locating the apical constriction...
  56. Jung I, Yoon B, Lee S, Lee S. Comparison of the reliability of "0.5" and "APEX" mark measurements in two frequency-based electronic apex locators. J Endod. 2011;37:49-52 pubmed publisher
    ..A measuring instrument must be both accurate and reliable. This study compared the reliability of the "0.5" and "APEX" mark measurements by using 2 impedance quotient-based electronic apex locators (EALs)...
  57. Tennert C, Herbert J, Altenburger M, Wrbas K. The effect of cervical preflaring using different rotary nickel-titanium systems on the accuracy of apical file size determination. J Endod. 2010;36:1669-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the discrepancies of the initial apical root canal diameter and the diameter that is measured by the initial apical file (IAF) after cervical flaring using current rotary nickel-titanium systems...
  58. Aguiar C, Mendes D, Câmara A, Figueiredo A. Assessment of canal walls after biomechanical preparation of root canals instrumented with Protaper Universal rotary system. J Appl Oral Sci. 2009;17:590-5 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the instrumented walls of root canals prepared with the ProTaper Universal rotary system...
  59. Oddoni P, Mello I, Coil J, Antoniazzi J. Coronal and apical leakage analysis of two different root canal obturation systems. Braz Oral Res. 2008;22:211-5 pubmed
    ..05). AH Plus with gutta-percha and Epiphany with Resilon provided the same coronal seal, whereas Epiphany with Resilon provided the best apical seal...
  60. Thibodeau B, Trope M. Pulp revascularization of a necrotic infected immature permanent tooth: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dent. 2007;29:47-50 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this treatment approach can help rescue infected immature teeth by physiologically strengthening the root walls...
  61. Huang G, Sonoyama W, Liu Y, Liu H, Wang S, Shi S. The hidden treasure in apical papilla: the potential role in pulp/dentin regeneration and bioroot engineering. J Endod. 2008;34:645-51 pubmed publisher
  62. Holden D, Schwartz S, Kirkpatrick T, Schindler W. Clinical outcomes of artificial root-end barriers with mineral trioxide aggregate in teeth with immature apices. J Endod. 2008;34:812-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results indicated that the mineral trioxide aggregate apical barrier technique is a successful method for obturating teeth with immature apices...
  63. Ozer S. Comparison of root canal transportation induced by three rotary systems with noncutting tips using computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011;111:244-50 pubmed publisher
  64. Al Ansary M, Day P, Duggal M, Brunton P. Interventions for treating traumatized necrotic immature permanent anterior teeth: inducing a calcific barrier & root strengthening. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:367-79 pubmed publisher
    ..This systematic review attempts to establish where the effects of interventions using multi-visit apexification, single visit apical plug techniques and root strengthening procedures are consistent and where they may vary significantly...
  65. George R, Meyers I, Walsh L. Laser activation of endodontic irrigants with improved conical laser fiber tips for removing smear layer in the apical third of the root canal. J Endod. 2008;34:1524-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a "proof of concept" for lateral emitting fibers for endodontic procedures and illustrate the novel contribution of lasing to the action of EDTAC in dissolving smear layer...
  66. Lofthag Hansen S, Huumonen S, Grondahl K, Gröndahl H. Limited cone-beam CT and intraoral radiography for the diagnosis of periapical pathology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103:114-9 pubmed
    ..To compare intraoral periapical radiography with 3D images for the diagnosis of periapical pathology...