enamel organ


Summary: Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.

Top Publications

  1. Aida M, Irie T, Aida T, Tachikawa T. Expression of protein kinases C betaI, betaII, and VEGF during the differentiation of enamel epithelium in tooth development. J Dent Res. 2005;84:234-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PKC betaI, betaII, and VEGF are closely associated with the differentiation of the inner enamel epithelium to ameloblasts. ..
  2. Jiang B, Yokohama Tamaki T, Wang Z, Obara N, Shibata S. Expression, localisation and synthesis of versican by the enamel organ of developing mouse molar tooth germ: an in vivo and in vitro study. Arch Oral Biol. 2010;55:995-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..In dental tissue, versican expression occurs primarily in mesenchymal tissue but rarely in epithelial tissue. We investigated the expression, localisation and synthesis of versican in the enamel organ of the developing tooth germ.
  3. Ida Yonemochi H, Ohshiro K, Swelam W, Metwaly H, Saku T. Perlecan, a basement membrane-type heparan sulfate proteoglycan, in the enamel organ: its intraepithelial localization in the stellate reticulum. J Histochem Cytochem. 2005;53:763-72 pubmed
    ..tooth germs by using murine molars in neonatal and postnatal stages and primary cultured cells of the enamel organ and dental papilla to demonstrate the role of perlecan in normal odontogenesis...
  4. DenBesten P, Machule D, Zhang Y, Yan Q, Li W. Characterization of human primary enamel organ epithelial cells in vitro. Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50:689-94 pubmed
    Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which are derived from the epithelial cells of the enamel organ.
  5. Ohshima H, Maeda T, Takano Y. Cytochrome oxidase activity in the enamel organ during amelogenesis in rat incisors. Anat Rec. 1998;252:519-31 pubmed
    ..Mitochondria in the enamel organ show drastic changes in localization during amelogenesis (Smith. INSERM, 1984;125:273-282)...
  6. Lacruz R, Smith C, Chen Y, Hubbard M, Hacia J, Paine M. Gene-expression analysis of early- and late-maturation-stage rat enamel organ. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011;119 Suppl 1:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify potential differences in gene expression throughout maturation, we obtained enamel organ epithelial cells derived from the early- and late-maturation stages of rat incisor and analyzed the global gene-..
  7. Lesot H, Kieffer Combeau S, Fausser J, Meyer J, Perrin Schmitt F, Peterkova R, et al. Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions during initial enamel organ histomorphogenesis in the mouse. Connect Tissue Res. 2002;43:191-200 pubmed
    Relationships between cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions and enamel organ histomorphogenesis were examined by immunostaining and electron microscopy...
  8. Nagano T, Oida S, Ando H, Gomi K, Arai T, Fukae M. Relative levels of mRNA encoding enamel proteins in enamel organ epithelia and odontoblasts. J Dent Res. 2003;82:982-6 pubmed
    ..that odontoblasts express all enamel proteins and proteases, and we measured their relative mRNA levels in enamel organ epithelia and odontoblasts associated with porcine secretory- and maturation-stage enamel by RT-PCR, using a ..
  9. Nakasone N, Yoshie H, Ohshima H. An immunohistochemical study of the expression of heat-shock protein-25 and cell proliferation in the dental pulp and enamel organ during odontogenesis in rat molars. Arch Oral Biol. 2006;51:378-86 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to clarify the functional significance of heat-shock protein (HSP)-25 during tooth development...

More Information


  1. Le T, Zhang Y, Li W, DenBesten P. The effect of LRAP on enamel organ epithelial cell differentiation. J Dent Res. 2007;86:1095-9 pubmed
    Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP) is an alternatively spliced amelogenin found in the developing enamel organ. LRAP functions to regulate the development of mesenchymal-derived cells; however, its effect on cells of the enamel organ ..
  2. Yuan Z, Golub E, Collier P, Gibson C. Bovine enamel organ cells express tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase mRNA. J Dent Res. 1995;74:1886-90 pubmed
    ..To determine unequivocally the AP isoform made by enamel organ cells, we constructed a fetal bovine enamel organ cDNA library, which yielded eight AP cDNA clones...
  3. Moffatt P, Smith C, Sooknanan R, St Arnaud R, Nanci A. Identification of secreted and membrane proteins in the rat incisor enamel organ using a signal-trap screening approach. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114 Suppl 1:139-46; discussion 164-5, 380-1 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was carried out to establish a secretome profile of rat enamel organ (EO) cells...
  4. Honda M, Shinmura Y, Shinohara Y. Enamel tissue engineering using subcultured enamel organ epithelial cells in combination with dental pulp cells. Cells Tissues Organs. 2009;189:261-7 pubmed publisher
    We describe a strategy for the in vitro engineering of enamel tissue using a novel technique for culturing enamel organ epithelial (EOE) cells isolated from the enamel organ using 3T3-J2 cells as a feeder layer...
  5. Bartlett J, Simmer J, Xue J, Margolis H, Moreno E. Molecular cloning and mRNA tissue distribution of a novel matrix metalloproteinase isolated from porcine enamel organ. Gene. 1996;183:123-8 pubmed
    A cDNA encoding a novel matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) was isolated from a porcine enamel organ-specific cDNA library...
  6. Tsuchiya M, Sharma R, Tye C, Sugiyama T, Bartlett J. Transforming growth factor-beta1 expression is up-regulated in maturation-stage enamel organ and may induce ameloblast apoptosis. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009;117:105-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The ameloblast cells of the enamel organ epithelium are adjacent to and responsible for the developing enamel layer on unerupted teeth...
  7. Torres Quintana M, Gaete M, Hernandez M, Farías M, Lobos N. Ameloblastin and amelogenin expression in posnatal developing mouse molars. J Oral Sci. 2005;47:27-34 pubmed
    ..In this case, the downregulation of expression may indicate the beginning of the maturation stage in which the ameloblasts tend to detach from the enamel layer...
  8. Obara N, Lesot H. Subcellular localization of beta-catenin and cadherin expression in the cap-stage enamel organ of the mouse molar. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;121:351-8 pubmed
    We analyzed the subcellular distribution of beta-catenin in the cap-stage enamel organ and compared it with the expression of E- and P-cadherin by using confocal laser microscopy...
  9. Wazen R, Moffatt P, Zalzal S, Yamada Y, Nanci A. A mouse model expressing a truncated form of ameloblastin exhibits dental and junctional epithelium defects. Matrix Biol. 2009;28:292-303 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to further characterize the enamel organ and mineralized matrix produced in the AMBN knockout mouse...
  10. Chen L, Couwenhoven R, Hsu D, Luo W, Snead M. Maintenance of amelogenin gene expression by transformed epithelial cells of mouse enamel organ. Arch Oral Biol. 1992;37:771-8 pubmed
    Electroporation was used to introduce foreign genes into cells derived from the mouse enamel organ epithelia (EOE). Optimal conditions for this electroporation were established...
  11. Morita T, Fujikawa K, Baba O, Shibata S. An in situ hybridization study of Hyaluronan synthase (Has) mRNA in developing mouse molar and incisor tooth germs. Gene Expr Patterns. 2016;21:28-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, Has3 mRNA was exclusively expressed within the enamel organ, especially in the inner enamel epithelium (IEE), stellate reticulum (SR), and stratum intermedium (SI) until ..
  12. Yuan Z, Collier P, Rosenbloom J, Gibson C. Analysis of amelogenin mRNA during bovine tooth development. Arch Oral Biol. 1996;41:205-13 pubmed
    ..This new exon-4 sequence is unusual in that it is not highly conserved between species. ..
  13. Kumamoto H, Ohki K. Detection of CD133, Bmi-1, and ABCG2 in ameloblastic tumors. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010;39:87-93 pubmed publisher
  14. Pandya M, Rosene L, Farquharson C, MILLAN J, Diekwisch T. Intravesicular Phosphatase PHOSPHO1 Function in Enamel Mineralization and Prism Formation. Front Physiol. 2017;8:805 pubmed publisher
    The transport of mineral ions from the enamel organ-associated blood vessels to the developing enamel crystals involves complex cargo packaging and carriage mechanisms across several cell layers, including the ameloblast layer and the ..
  15. Lacruz R, Smith C, Smith S, Hu P, Bringas P, Sahin Toth M, et al. Chymotrypsin C (caldecrin) is associated with enamel development. J Dent Res. 2011;90:1228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..During a recent whole-genome microarray analysis of rat incisor enamel organ cells derived from the secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis, the serine protease chymotrypsin C (..
  16. Stembírek J, Buchtová M, Král T, Matalova E, Lozanoff S, Misek I. Early morphogenesis of heterodont dentition in minipigs. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:547-58 pubmed publisher
  17. Bronckers A, Guo J, Zandieh Doulabi B, Bervoets T, Lyaruu D, Li X, et al. Developmental expression of solute carrier family 26A member 4 (SLC26A4/pendrin) during amelogenesis in developing rodent teeth. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011;119 Suppl 1:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..SLC26A4 does not appear to be critical for ameloblast function and is probably compensated by other pH regulators. ..
  18. Kieffer Combeau S, Meyer J, Lesot H. Cell-matrix interactions and cell-cell junctions during epithelial histo-morphogenesis in the developing mouse incisor. Int J Dev Biol. 2001;45:733-42 pubmed
    ..the cap stage and increases further during the cap to bell transition (ED14 to ED16) when histogenesis of the enamel organ proceeds...
  19. Riksen E, Stunes A, Kalvik A, Gustafsson B, Snead M, Syversen U, et al. Serotonin and fluoxetine receptors are expressed in enamel organs and LS8 cells and modulate gene expression in LS8 cells. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:566-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced transcription of enamel proteins and secretion of vascular factors may indicate possible adverse effects of fluoxetine on amelogenesis. ..
  20. Cerri P, de Faria F, Villa R, Katchburian E. Light microscopy and computer three-dimensional reconstruction of the blood capillaries of the enamel organ of rat molar tooth germs. J Anat. 2004;204:191-5 pubmed
    ..a light microscope and a computer three-dimensional reconstruction study of serial sections of the molar enamel organ of 3- and 5-day-old rats perfused with Indian ink through the arterial system...
  21. Nurbaeva M, Eckstein M, Feske S, Lacruz R. Ca2+ transport and signalling in enamel cells. J Physiol. 2017;595:3015-3039 pubmed publisher
    ..Ameloblasts are supported by a host of cell types which combined represent the enamel organ. Fully mineralized enamel is the hardest tissue found in vertebrates owing its properties partly to the unique ..
  22. Nandasena T, Jayawardena C, Tilakaratne W, Nanayakkara C. Distribution pattern of cholinesterase enzymes in human tooth germs. Arch Oral Biol. 2010;55:561-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, our results have provided strong evidence to speculate the action of AChE is on the cells of enamel organ during tooth development.
  23. McKee M, Yadav M, Foster B, Somerman M, Farquharson C, Millan J. Compounded PHOSPHO1/ALPL deficiencies reduce dentin mineralization. J Dent Res. 2013;92:721-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this study support prominent non-redundant roles for both PHOSPHO1 and TNAP in dentin mineralization. ..
  24. MacDougall M, Nydegger J, Gu T, Simmons D, Luan X, Cavender A, et al. Developmental regulation of dentin sialophosphoprotein during ameloblast differentiation: a potential enamel matrix nucleator. Connect Tissue Res. 1998;39:25-37; discussion 63-7 pubmed
    ..These data were correlated with RT-PCR analysis of in vitro enamel organ epithelium monolayer cell cultures enriched for ameloblasts...
  25. Pandya M, Liu H, Dangaria S, Zhu W, Li L, Pan S, et al. Integrative Temporo-Spatial, Mineralogic, Spectroscopic, and Proteomic Analysis of Postnatal Enamel Development in Teeth with Limited Growth. Front Physiol. 2017;8:793 pubmed publisher
    Tooth amelogenesis is a complex process beginning with enamel organ cell differentiation and enamel matrix secretion, transitioning through changes in ameloblast polarity, cytoskeletal, and matrix organization, that affects crucial ..
  26. Bologna Molina R, Mikami T, Pereira Prado V, Pires F, Carlos Bregni R, Mosqueda Taylor A. Primordial odontogenic tumor: An immunohistochemical profile. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2017;22:e314-e323 pubmed
    ..to the dental papilla, covered by cuboidal to columnar epithelium that resembles the internal epithelium of the enamel organ, surrounded at least partly by a delicate fibrous capsule...
  27. Bae C, Kim T, Chu J, Cho E. New population of odontoblasts responsible for tooth root formation. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may contribute to the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying tooth root formation and root regeneration. ..
  28. Miletich I, Cobourne M, Abdeen M, Sharpe P. Expression of the Hedgehog antagonists Rab23 and Slimb/betaTrCP during mouse tooth development. Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50:147-51 pubmed
    ..These findings provide the first evidence of distinct regulatory pathways for Shh in teeth of different classes. ..
  29. Almeida B, Silva A, Pereira M, Silva M, Nunes S. Case report of a dilated odontome in the posterior mandible. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2016;20:14-6 pubmed publisher
    Dens invaginatus (dens in dente) is a developmental malformation resulting from an invagination of enamel organ into the dental papilla, beginning at the crown and sometimes extending into the root before calcification occurs...
  30. Bluteau G, Luder H, De Bari C, Mitsiadis T. Stem cells for tooth engineering. Eur Cell Mater. 2008;16:1-9 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, the development of biological approaches for dental reconstruction using stem cells is promising and remains one of the greatest challenges in the dental field for the years to come. ..
  31. Bosshardt D. Are cementoblasts a subpopulation of osteoblasts or a unique phenotype?. J Dent Res. 2005;84:390-406 pubmed
    ..The role of enamel matrix proteins in cementoblast and osteoblast differentiation and their potential use for tissue engineering are discussed. ..
  32. Miwa T, Matsuzaka K, Inoue T. Effect of interrupted eruption on the enamel organ of the rat incisor. Zoology (Jena). 2013;116:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that inhibition of tooth eruption accelerates the apical elongation with resorption of the mesial area of the alveolar bone and stimulates cell proliferation with thickened enamel towards the apical end. ..
  33. Alfaqeeh S, Gaete M, Tucker A. Interactions of the tooth and bone during development. J Dent Res. 2013;92:1129-35 pubmed publisher
  34. Monteiro N, Smith E, Angstadt S, Zhang W, Khademhosseini A, Yelick P. Dental cell sheet biomimetic tooth bud model. Biomaterials. 2016;106:167-79 pubmed publisher
    ..model consisting of dental epithelial (DE) - dental mesenchymal (DM) cell sheets (CSs) combined with biomimetic enamel organ and pulp organ layers created using GelMA hydrogels...
  35. Lesot H, Peterkova R, Kristenová P, Lisi S, Peterka M. [Effect of the Tabby mutation on the dentition of mice]. Bull Group Int Rech Sci Stomatol Odontol. 2003;45:1-11 pubmed
    ..Although the enamel organ in Ta incisors was smaller, a larger proportion of the dental papilla was covered by preameloblasts-ameloblasts...
  36. Goldberg M, Septier D, Bourd K, Hall R, George A, Goldberg H, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in the forming rat incisor. Connect Tissue Res. 2003;44:143-53 pubmed
    ..material provided evidence for strong MMP-2 staining in the secretory ameloblasts, odontoblasts, in the enamel organ, and in the pulp. A weaker staining was observed in predentin and in the outer part of the forming enamel...
  37. Liu F, Dangaria S, Andl T, Zhang Y, Wright A, Damek Poprawa M, et al. beta-Catenin initiates tooth neogenesis in adult rodent incisors. J Dent Res. 2010;89:909-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, forced activation of beta-catenin signaling can initiate an embryonic-like program of tooth development in adult rodent incisor teeth. ..
  38. Matalova E, Dubska L, Fleischmannova J, Chlastakova I, Janeckova E, Tucker A. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in the primary enamel knot measured by flow cytometry of laser microdissected samples. Arch Oral Biol. 2010;55:570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Flow cytometric results correlated well with immunohistochemical findings, demonstrating the success and sensitivity of this combined procedure. ..
  39. Kwon H, Li L, Jung H. Hippo pathway/Yap regulates primary enamel knot and dental cusp patterning in tooth morphogenesis. Cell Tissue Res. 2015;362:447-51 pubmed publisher
    ..e., cusp patterning. Enamel knots that appear in the enamel organ during tooth morphogenesis have been suggested to play important roles in cusp patterning...
  40. Houari S, Loiodice S, Jedeon K, Berdal A, Babajko S. Expression of Steroid Receptors in Ameloblasts during Amelogenesis in Rat Incisors. Front Physiol. 2016;7:503 pubmed
    ..retinoid receptor RXR?, and PPAR? were established using RT-qPCR analysis of RNAs extracted from microdissected enamel organ of adult rats...
  41. do Espírito Santo A, Frozoni M, Ramos Perez F, Novaes P, Line S. Birefringence of the secretory-stage enamel organic extracellular matrix from rats submitted to successive injections of bisphosphonates. Connect Tissue Res. 2010;51:208-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here suggest that alterations in the supramolecular organization of the secretory-stage enamel organic ECM are a plausible mechanism by which environmental factors may cause enamel defects. ..
  42. Vandervennet E, Huysseune A. Histological description of tooth formation in adult Eretmodus cf. cyanostictus (Teleostei, Cichlidae). Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50:635-43 pubmed
    ..between inner dental epithelium (IDE) and outer dental epithelium (ODE), the asymmetric shape of the enamel organ, the fact that the pulp cavity recedes in front of the forming enameloid during enameloid formation, and ..
  43. Li P, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Duan C, Hao T, Wu B, et al. RCCS enhances EOE cell proliferation and their differentiation into ameloblasts. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:309-17 pubmed publisher
    In this article we report on the culturing of dental enamel organ epithelia (EOE) using a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) bioreactor associated with a cytodex-3 microcarrier...
  44. Witzel C, Kierdorf U, Dobney K, Ervynck A, Vanpoucke S, Kierdorf H. Reconstructing impairment of secretory ameloblast function in porcine teeth by analysis of morphological alterations in dental enamel. J Anat. 2006;209:93-110 pubmed
  45. Yoshiba N, Yoshiba K, Aberdam D, Meneguzzi G, Perrin Schmitt F, Stoetzel C, et al. Expression and localization of laminin-5 subunits in the mouse incisor. Cell Tissue Res. 1998;292:143-9 pubmed
  46. Couwenhoven R, Snead M. Early determination and permissive expression of amelogenin transcription during mouse mandibular first molar development. Dev Biol. 1994;164:290-9 pubmed
    ..of tissue-specific enamel matrix genes is believed to require both instructive and permissive interactions of enamel organ epithelium with dental papilla mesenchyme and/or extracellular matrix during a restricted period of development...
  47. Honda M, Shimodaira T, Ogaeri T, Shinohara Y, Hata K, Ueda M. A novel culture system for porcine odontogenic epithelial cells using a feeder layer. Arch Oral Biol. 2006;51:282-90 pubmed
    ..These results show that the system is capable of sustaining the multiplication of odontogenic epithelial cells with the characteristics of ameloblasts...
  48. Liu B, Chen S, Cheng D, Jing W, Helms J. Primary cilia integrate hedgehog and Wnt signaling during tooth development. J Dent Res. 2014;93:475-82 pubmed publisher
    ..the Hedgehog and Wnt responses in the epithelia and leads to multiple attempts at invagination and an expanded enamel organ. Thus, the primary cilium integrates Hedgehog and Wnt signaling between dental epithelia and mesenchyme, and ..
  49. Laurenti P, Thaëron C, Allizard F, Huysseune A, Sire J. Cellular expression of eve1 suggests its requirement for the differentiation of the ameloblasts and for the initiation and morphogenesis of the first tooth in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Dev Dyn. 2004;230:727-33 pubmed
    ..Then, by 72 hpf, eve1 expression was restricted to the differentiating ameloblasts of the enamel organ during early differentiation stage, and this expression decreased as soon as matrix was deposited...
  50. Kim T, Bae C, Lee J, Ko S, Yang X, Jiang R, et al. ?-catenin is required in odontoblasts for tooth root formation. J Dent Res. 2013;92:215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The periodontal tissues extensively invaded the dental pulp. These results indicate that there is a cell-autonomous requirement for Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the dental mesenchyme for root formation...
  51. Hubbard M. Enamel cell biology. Towards a comprehensive biochemical understanding. Connect Tissue Res. 1998;38:17-32; discussion 35-41 pubmed
    ..e., proteome) and calcium-handling mechanisms. A perspective of the current status of enamel cell research, and where it might head, is also given...
  52. Diekwisch T, Wang X, Fan J, Ito Y, Luan X. Expression and characterization of a Rana pipiens amelogenin protein. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114 Suppl 1:86-92; discussion 93-5, 379-80 pubmed
    ..antisera resolved a major 19-kDa band on western blots of frog tooth extracts and revealed an enamel organ tissue-specific localization pattern using immunohistochemistry...
  53. Tanaka E, Hamaguchi M, Eguchi Y, Ishii S, Okauchi T, Aikawa T, et al. Influence of aging on tooth eruption: experimental canine mandibular allograft. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:353-60 pubmed
    ..Aging is clinically related to tooth eruption; however, there are no known studies that have elucidated the relationship. We examined whether tooth eruption would occur normally in a mature subject...
  54. Lesot H, Brook A. Epithelial histogenesis during tooth development. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54 Suppl 1:S25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..steps, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions regulate the plasticity/rigidity of particular domains of the enamel organ. This involves specifying in space the differential growth and influences the progressive tooth morphogenesis ..
  55. Boran T, Lesot H, Peterka M, Peterkova R. Increased apoptosis during morphogenesis of the lower cheek teeth in tabby/EDA mice. J Dent Res. 2005;84:228-33 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the present data suggests that the increased apoptosis in Ta mice is a consequence of impaired tooth development caused by a defect in segmentation of dental epithelium...
  56. D Souza R, Litz M. Analysis of tooth development in mice bearing a TGF-beta 1 null mutation. Connect Tissue Res. 1995;32:41-6 pubmed
    ..Using antibodies against TGF-beta 1, we observed immunoreactive TGF-beta 1 in tissues from null mice suggesting that maternally-derived TGF-beta 1 may be involved in the rescue of several developmental events in TGF-beta 1 knockout mice...
  57. Yan Q, Zhang Y, Li W, DenBesten P. Micromolar fluoride alters ameloblast lineage cells in vitro. J Dent Res. 2007;86:336-40 pubmed
    ..objective of this study was to determine whether epithelial ameloblast-lineage cells, derived from the human enamel organ, are directly affected by micromolar concentrations of fluoride...
  58. Saini T, Kimmes N, Westerman G. Aberrant root formation: review of root genesis and three case reports. Pediatr Dent. 2004;26:261-5 pubmed
    ..Prior to a tooth emerging into the oral cavity, root genesis is initiated by derivatives of the enamel organ. The dental follicle mediates an eruption pathway allowing for movement of the developing tooth in a coronal ..
  59. Sasagawa I. Fine structure of dental epithelial cells and the enameloid during the enameloid formation stages in an elasmobranch, Heterodontus japonicus. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1999;200:477-86 pubmed
    ..e., the mineralization and the maturation stages...
  60. Ide F, Obara K, Mishima K, Saito I, Horie N, Shimoyama T, et al. Peripheral odontogenic tumor: a clinicopathologic study of 30 cases. General features and hamartomatous lesions. J Oral Pathol Med. 2005;34:552-7 pubmed
  61. Papp T, Holló K, Meszar Katona E, Nagy Z, Polyak A, Miko E, et al. TLR signalling can modify the mineralization of tooth germ. Acta Odontol Scand. 2016;74:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, unlike these pathological functions of TLR4, little is known about the developmental function(s) of TLR4 during tooth development...
  62. Thesleff I, Aberg T. Tooth morphogenesis and the differentiation of ameloblasts. Ciba Found Symp. 1997;205:3-12; discussion 12-7 pubmed
    ..However, the molecular nature of the signals regulating the advancing specialization of the cells in the ameloblast cell lineage remains unknown...
  63. Tye C, Lorenz R, Bartlett J. Lysosomal protease expression in mature enamel. Cells Tissues Organs. 2009;189:111-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to identify lysosomal proteases that are present in maturation-stage enamel organ. RNA from first molars of 11-day-old mice was collected and expression was initially assessed by RT-PCR and ..
  64. Tucker R, Moiseiwitsch J, Lauder J. In situ localization of tenascin mRNA in developing mouse teeth. Arch Oral Biol. 1993;38:1025-9 pubmed
    ..with mTN2 in the subodontoblastic layer of the dental mesenchyme and in the inner enamel epithelium of the enamel organ. At postnatal day 1, a signal was detected over pre-odontoblasts and the strata intermedium and externum...
  65. Ritchie H, Berry J, Somerman M, Hanks C, Bronckers A, Hotton D, et al. Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) transcripts: developmentally-sustained expression in odontoblasts and transient expression in pre-ameloblasts. Eur J Oral Sci. 1997;105:405-13 pubmed
    ..No DSP transcripts were detected in dental pulp, enamel organ, ameloblasts, epithelial root sheath, Meckel's cartilage, alveolar bone or tibia...
  66. Kalibović Govorko D, Bečić T, Vukojevic K, Mardesic Brakus S, Biocina Lukenda D, Saraga Babic M. Spatial and temporal distribution of Ki-67 proliferation marker, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in the developing human tooth. Arch Oral Biol. 2010;55:1007-16 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the spatial and temporal expression of proliferation Ki-67 marker, pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins during early development of the human tooth...
  67. Lacruz R, Hilvo M, Kurtz I, Paine M. A survey of carbonic anhydrase mRNA expression in enamel cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;393:883-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have conducted a systematic screening by RT-PCR on the expression of all known CA isoforms in mouse enamel organ epithelium (EOE) cells dissected from new born, in secretory ameloblasts derived from 7-day-old animals, and in ..
  68. Matsunaga T, Yamamoto G, Tachikawa T. Expression of typical calpains in mouse molar. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:885-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Calpains have been detected in several studies during the embryonic and foetal stages. The aim of this study is to investigate the temporal transition of typical calpains and their inhibitor calpastatin during odontogenesis...
  69. Ida Yonemochi H, Satokata I, Ohshima H, Sato T, Yokoyama M, Yamada Y, et al. Morphogenetic roles of perlecan in the tooth enamel organ: an analysis of overexpression using transgenic mice. Matrix Biol. 2011;30:379-88 pubmed publisher
    Perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is enriched in the intercellular space of the enamel organ. To understand the role of perlecan in tooth morphogenesis, we used a keratin 5 promoter to generate transgenic (Tg) mice that over-..
  70. Chai Y, Zhao J, Mogharei A, Xu B, Bringas P, Shuler C, et al. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor signaling accelerates tooth formation in mouse first branchial arch explants. Mech Dev. 1999;86:63-74 pubmed
    ..for the first time, that abrogation of the TGF-beta IIR stimulates embryonic tooth morphogenesis in culture and reverses the negative regulation of endogenous TGF-beta signaling upon enamel organ epithelial cell proliferation.
  71. O Hara A, Collins T, Howell J. Gingival eruption cysts induced by cyclosporine administration to neonatal dogs. J Clin Periodontol. 2002;29:507-13 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this paper is to report the development of extensive, gingival eruption cyst formation in neonatal dogs during chronic administration of cyclosporine, which regressed after treatment ceased...
  72. Vandervennet E, Wautier K, Verheyen E, Huysseune A. From conical to spatulate: intra- and interspecific changes in tooth shape in closely related cichlids (Teleostei; Cichlidae: Eretmodini). J Morphol. 2006;267:516-25 pubmed
    ..To study how closely related cichlids can generate such divergent tooth shapes, we investigated how the enamel organ directs the development of spatulate teeth in Eretmodus cf...
  73. Brookes S, Lyngstadaas S, Robinson C, Shore R, Kirkham J. Intracellular nanosphere subunit assembly as revealed by amelogenin molecular cross-linking studies. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114 Suppl 1:280-4; discussion 285-6, 382 pubmed
    ..Once secreted, these prefabricated subunits assemble further to form the mature full-size nanospheres containing hundreds of individual amelogenins characteristic of enamel matrix...
  74. Chen X, Li Y, Alawi F, Bouchard J, Kulkarni A, Gibson C. An amelogenin mutation leads to disruption of the odontogenic apparatus and aberrant expression of Notch1. J Oral Pathol Med. 2011;40:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..As Notch proteins are thought to constitute the developmental switch that separates ameloblasts from stratum intermedium, these signaling proteins were evaluated in normal and proliferating tissues...
  75. Nait Lechguer A, Couble M, Labert N, Kuchler Bopp S, Keller L, Magloire H, et al. Cell differentiation and matrix organization in engineered teeth. J Dent Res. 2011;90:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The implantation of cultured dental cell re-associations allows for reproduction of complete functional differentiation at the cell, matrix, and mineral levels...
  76. Cox B. A multi-scale, discrete-cell simulation of organogenesis: Application to the effects of strain stimulus on collective cell behavior during ameloblast migration. J Theor Biol. 2010;262:58-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Widespread compressive strain is predicted late in the migration for both the human molar and mouse incisor, providing a possible signal for the termination of amelogenesis...
  77. Kim H, Jeon S, Kang J, Kim M, Ko H, Jung J, et al. Expression of DCC in differentiating ameloblasts from developing tooth germs in rats. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:563-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the expression pattern of the Deleted-in-colorectal-carcinoma (DCC) gene in developing rat tooth germs...
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    ..Thus, AMBN may regulate differentiation state of HERS derived cells. Moreover, our results suggest that the expression of AMBN in HERS functions as a trigger for normal root formation...
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    The ameloblast cell layer of the enamel organ is in contact with the forming enamel as it develops into the hardest substance in the body. Ameloblasts move in groups that slide by one another as the enamel layer thickens...
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    ..The injured part of the enamel organ was neither regenerated nor repaired, and a cement-like tissue, continuous with the true acellular cement, was ..
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    ..Recently, a novel serine proteinase named enamel matrix serine proteinase-1 (EMSP1) was cloned from enamel organ epithelia...
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    ..Immunolocalization and three-dimensional reconstruction results confirmed these mesenchymal cellular events, with higher proliferation in MRF in multi-rooted tooth formation. ..
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    b>Enamel organ epithelial cells grow in culture as two distinct cell populations--either stellate-shaped or polygonal-shaped cells...
  85. Feng X. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations of epithelial-mesenchymal interface of rat tooth germs using dithiothreitol separation. Arch Oral Biol. 2003;48:237-48 pubmed
    ..After dithiothreitol treatment, the enamel organ (EO) was mechanically separated from the dental papilla (DP)...
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    Tooth germ development is associated with morphological and biochemical changes of the dental papilla and enamel organ. Enzymes with gelatinolytic activities were studied by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction ..
  87. Handrigan G, Richman J. Unicuspid and bicuspid tooth crown formation in squamates. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2011;316:598-608 pubmed publisher
    ..express the gene Bmp2, which we suggest serves as a pro-differentiation signal for cells of the gecko enamel organ. In this regard, the enamel epithelial bulge of the gecko may be more functionally analogous to the secondary ..