tooth germ


Summary: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

Top Publications

  1. Jiménez Farfán D, Guevara J, Zenteno E, Hernández Guerrero J. Alteration of the sialylation pattern of the murine tooth germ after ethanol exposure. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005;73:980-8 pubmed
    ..5 murine tooth germs exposed to ethanol...
  2. Abrahão I, Martins M, Katayama E, Antoniazzi J, Segmentilli A, Marques M. Collagen analysis in human tooth germ papillae. Braz Dent J. 2006;17:208-12 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that type III collagen is a regular component of the papillae of human tooth germs whereas type I collagen is present in a significantly lesser amount...
  3. Jiang B, Yokohama Tamaki T, Wang Z, Obara N, Shibata S. Expression, localisation and synthesis of versican by the enamel organ of developing mouse molar tooth germ: an in vivo and in vitro study. Arch Oral Biol. 2010;55:995-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..In dental tissue, versican expression occurs primarily in mesenchymal tissue but rarely in epithelial tissue. We investigated the expression, localisation and synthesis of versican in the enamel organ of the developing tooth germ.
  4. Kawano S, Saito M, Handa K, Morotomi T, Toyono T, Seta Y, et al. Characterization of dental epithelial progenitor cells derived from cervical-loop epithelium in a rat lower incisor. J Dent Res. 2004;83:129-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that fibroblast growth factor 10 plays a role in coupling mitogenesis of the cervical-loop cells and the production of stratum intermedium cells in rat incisors...
  5. Tsuboi T, Mizutani S, Nakano M, Hirukawa K, Togari A. Fgf-2 regulates enamel and dentine formation in mouse tooth germ. Calcif Tissue Int. 2003;73:496-501 pubmed
    We examined the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on cultured lower molar tooth germ at the differentiative (bell) stage...
  6. Wu N, Iwamoto T, Sugawara Y, Futaki M, Yoshizaki K, Yamamoto S, et al. PDGFs regulate tooth germ proliferation and ameloblast differentiation. Arch Oral Biol. 2010;55:426-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) during tooth development, as well as the mechanisms underlying the interactions of growth factors with PDGF signalling during odontogenesis...
  7. Li T, Yuan J, Chen Y, Pan L, Song C, Bi L, et al. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord tissue into odontoblast-like cells using the conditioned medium of tooth germ cells in vitro. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:218543 pubmed publisher
    ..The third-passage hUCMSCs induced by conditioned medium from developing tooth germ cells (TGC-CM) displayed high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels (P < 0...
  8. Biz M, Marques M, Crema V, Moriscot A, dos Santos M. GTPases RhoA and Rac1 are important for amelogenin and DSPP expression during differentiation of ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;340:459-70 pubmed publisher
    ..odontoblasts, Rac1 and its effector Pak3 were observed in ameloblasts; and Cdc42 was present in all cells of the tooth germ and mesenchyme...
  9. Yang Z, Zhang X, Dang N, Ma Z, Xu L, Wu J, et al. Apical tooth germ cell-conditioned medium enhances the differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into cementum/periodontal ligament-like tissues. J Periodontal Res. 2009;44:199-210 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effect of conditioned medium from developing apical tooth germ cells (APTG-CM) on the differentiation and cementogenesis of PDLSCs both in vitro and in vivo.

More Information


  1. Khan Q, Press C, Sehic A, Landin M, Risnes S, Osmundsen H. Expression of prion gene and presence of prion protein during development of mouse molar tooth germ. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:559-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Prnp in the mouse first molar tooth germ was highly dynamic, increasing several-fold during the secretory phase of odontogenesis, exhibiting a time-..
  2. Honda J, Kobayashi I, Kiyoshima T, Nagata K, Wada H, Ookuma Y, et al. In situ expression of the mitochondrial ATPase6 gene in the developing tooth germ of the mouse lower first molar. J Mol Histol. 2011;42:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to E18.0 to determine the precise expression patterns of Atpase6 mRNA in the developing tooth germ. Atpase6 mRNA was strongly expressed in the presumptive dental epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme at E10...
  3. Ohshima H, Nakasone N, Hashimoto E, Sakai H, Nakakura Ohshima K, Harada H. The eternal tooth germ is formed at the apical end of continuously growing teeth. Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50:153-7 pubmed
    ..transverse sections of the apical end toward the incisal direction is likely to reflect the development of the tooth germ in the prenatal stage...
  4. Li A, Song T, Wang F, Liu D, Fan Z, Zhang C, et al. MicroRNAome and expression profile of developing tooth germ in miniature pigs. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52256 pubmed publisher
  5. Akhter M, Kobayashi I, Kiyoshima T, Nagata K, Wada H, Ookuma Y, et al. In situ expression of 15 kDa interferon alpha responsive gene in the developing tooth germ of the mouse lower first molar. J Mol Histol. 2010;41:185-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of Ifrg15 mRNA was coincidently observed in various craniofacial organs as well as in the tooth germ. These results suggest that Ifrg15 is closely related to odontogenesis, especially the differentiation of the ..
  6. Kitahara Y, Suda N, Terashima T, Baba O, Mekaapiruk K, Hammond V, et al. Accelerated bone formation and increased osteoblast number contribute to the abnormal tooth germ development in parathyroid hormone-related protein knockout mice. Bone. 2004;35:1100-6 pubmed
    ..In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the development of the tooth germ proper is not disturbed, but insufficient alveolar bone resorption, due to the decreased number and hypofunction ..
  7. Yalvac M, Ramazanoglu M, Rizvanov A, Sahin F, Bayrak O, Salli U, et al. Isolation and characterization of stem cells derived from human third molar tooth germs of young adults: implications in neo-vascularization, osteo-, adipo- and neurogenesis. Pharmacogenomics J. 2010;10:105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we isolated and characterized human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) from third molars and assessed the expression of developmentally important transcription ..
  8. Nakasone N, Yoshie H, Ohshima H. The relationship between the termination of cell proliferation and expression of heat-shock protein-25 in the rat developing tooth germ. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114:302-9 pubmed
    ..Numerous proliferating cells in developing molars were distributed throughout the tooth germ and HSP-25 immunoreactivity was recognizable in the dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells after they completed ..
  9. Xie M, Kobayashi I, Kiyoshima T, Nagata K, Ookuma Y, Fujiwara H, et al. In situ expression of ribosomal protein L21 in developing tooth germ of the mouse lower first molar. J Mol Histol. 2009;40:361-7 pubmed publisher the synthesis of various polypeptides which might be related to the initiation and the development of such tooth germ, and also in the synthesis of enamel components in the presecretory stage of the ameloblast...
  10. Kobayashi I, Kiyoshima T, Wada H, Matsuo K, Nonaka K, Honda J, et al. Type II/III Runx2/Cbfa1 is required for tooth germ development. Bone. 2006;38:836-44 pubmed
    ..Runx2/Cbfa1 knockout mice showed both a complete lack of ossification and the developmental arrest of tooth germ. We here report Runx2/Cbfa1 isoform-type specific functional roles in the development of tooth germ by the ..
  11. Zustin J, Scheuer H, Friedrich R. Podoplanin expression in human tooth germ tissues and cystic odontogenic lesions: an immunohistochemical study. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010;39:115-20 pubmed publisher
    Podoplanin expression was described in mouse tooth germ and apical bud cells. The aim of this study was to analyse the podoplanin expression of human tooth germ tissues, adult teeth and odontogenic lesions immunohistochemically.
  12. Lin D, Huang Y, He F, Gu S, Zhang G, Chen Y, et al. Expression survey of genes critical for tooth development in the human embryonic tooth germ. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1307-12 pubmed
    ..Our results show that these genes exhibit basically similar expression patterns in the human tooth germ compared with that in the mouse...
  13. Matalova E, Fleischmannova J, Sharpe P, Tucker A. Tooth agenesis: from molecular genetics to molecular dentistry. J Dent Res. 2008;87:617-23 pubmed
    ..In this paper, the genetic and molecular bases of non-syndromic and syndromic hypodontia are reviewed, and the advantages and disadvantages of tissue engineering in the clinical treatment of tooth agenesis are discussed...
  14. Bhushan B, Garg S, Sharma D, Jain M. Esthetic and endosurgical management of Turner's hypoplasia; a sequlae of trauma to developing tooth germ. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2008;26 Suppl 3:S121-4 pubmed
  15. Tompkins K, Alvares K, George A, Veis A. Two related low molecular mass polypeptide isoforms of amelogenin have distinct activities in mouse tooth germ differentiation in vitro. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:341-9 pubmed
    ..Our results show that these individual proteins have specific but quite different effects on epithelial-derived ameloblasts versus mesenchymal-derived odontoblasts...
  16. Guven E, Yalvac M, Sahin F, Yazici M, Rizvanov A, Bayirli G. Effect of dental materials calcium hydroxide-containing cement, mineral trioxide aggregate, and enamel matrix derivative on proliferation and differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells. J Endod. 2011;37:650-6 pubmed publisher
    ..trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium hydroxide-containing cement (DYCAL) on proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) in which cells belonging to both pulp tissue and dental follicle exist.
  17. Akhter M, Kobayashi I, Kiyoshima T, Matsuo K, Yamaza H, Wada H, et al. Possible functional involvement of thymosin beta 4 in developing tooth germ of mouse lower first molar. Histochem Cell Biol. 2005;124:207-13 pubmed
    ..We herein report for the first time that Tbeta4 is distinctly expressed in developing tooth germ, and it may also play functional roles in the initiation, growth and differentiation of tooth germ.
  18. Fong H, Chu E, Tompkins K, Foster B, Sitara D, Lanske B, et al. Aberrant cementum phenotype associated with the hypophosphatemic hyp mouse. J Periodontol. 2009;80:1348-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a developmental study of tooth root formation in Hyp mouse molars, focusing on dentin and cementum...
  19. da Fonseca M, Hoge C. Extraction of "killer" teeth: the case of two Somali siblings. J Dent Child (Chic). 2007;74:143-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this manuscript was to discuss the case of two Somali siblings who had tooth buds enucleated at a young age, leading to significant dental problems...
  20. Jevnaker A, Osmundsen H. MicroRNA expression profiling of the developing murine molar tooth germ and the developing murine submandibular salivary gland. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53:629-45 pubmed publisher
    ..5, P0 and P5) of the murine first molar mandibular tooth germ and the right submandibular salivary gland (E15.5, P0, P5 and P25)...
  21. Ikeda E, Yagi K, Kojima M, Yagyuu T, Ohshima A, Sobajima S, et al. Multipotent cells from the human third molar: feasibility of cell-based therapy for liver disease. Differentiation. 2008;76:495-505 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we identified a novel stem cell, which we named tooth germ progenitor cells (TGPCs), from discarded third molar, commonly called as wisdom teeth...
  22. Kettunen P, Spencer Dene B, Furmanek T, Kvinnsland I, Dickson C, Thesleff I, et al. Fgfr2b mediated epithelial-mesenchymal interactions coordinate tooth morphogenesis and dental trigeminal axon patterning. Mech Dev. 2007;124:868-83 pubmed
    ..Tgfbeta1, which controls Sema3A was absent from the Fgfr2b(-/-) tooth germ, and Sema3A was specifically downregulated in the dental mesenchyme at the bud and cap stage...
  23. Buchtová M, Stembírek J, Glocová K, Matalova E, Tucker A. Early regression of the dental lamina underlies the development of diphyodont dentitions. J Dent Res. 2012;91:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The uncovering of the processes behind lamina degradation allows us to clarify the evolution of diphyodonty, and provides a mechanism for future manipulation of the number of tooth generations...
  24. Stembírek J, Buchtová M, Král T, Matalova E, Lozanoff S, Misek I. Early morphogenesis of heterodont dentition in minipigs. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:547-58 pubmed publisher
    ..After the primary tooth germ reached the late bell stage, the dental lamina began to disintegrate and fragmentize...
  25. Yu J, Deng Z, Shi J, Zhai H, Nie X, Zhuang H, et al. Differentiation of dental pulp stem cells into regular-shaped dentin-pulp complex induced by tooth germ cell conditioned medium. Tissue Eng. 2006;12:3097-105 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the effect of conditioned medium from developing tooth germ cells (TGCs) on the differentiation and dentinogenesis of DPSCs both in vitro and in vivo...
  26. Osmundsen H, Landin M, From S, Kolltveit K, Risnes S. Changes in gene-expression during development of the murine molar tooth germ. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:803-13 pubmed
    In a matter of a few days the murine tooth germ develops into a complex, mineralized, structure. Murine 30K microarrays were used to examine gene expression in the mandibular first molar tooth germs isolated at 15.5dpc and at 2DPN...
  27. Honda J, Kobayashi I, Kiyoshima T, Yamaza H, Xie M, Takahashi K, et al. Glycolytic enzyme Pgk1 is strongly expressed in the developing tooth germ of the mouse lower first molar. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:423-32 pubmed publisher
    ..expression patterns and possible functional roles of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1) gene in the developing tooth germ of the mouse lower first molar...
  28. Duailibi M, Duailibi S, Young C, Bartlett J, Vacanti J, Yelick P. Bioengineered teeth from cultured rat tooth bud cells. J Dent Res. 2004;83:523-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our ability to bioengineer tooth structures from cultured tooth bud cells suggests that dental epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells can be maintained in vitro for at least 6 days...
  29. Sehic A, Risnes S, Khuu C, Khan Q, Osmundsen H. Effects of in vivo transfection with anti-miR-214 on gene expression in murine molar tooth germ. Physiol Genomics. 2011;43:488-98 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-214), encoded by the polycistronic Dnm30os gene, is highly expressed during development of molar tooth germ and was selected as a target for silencing with anti-miR-214...
  30. Yalvac M, Ramazanoglu M, Tekguc M, Bayrak O, Shafigullina A, Salafutdinov I, et al. Human tooth germ stem cells preserve neuro-protective effects after long-term cryo-preservation. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2010;7:49-58 pubmed
    ..In this report, we isolated human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) with MSC characteristics from third molar tooth germs, cryo-preserved them at -80( degrees )..
  31. Oshima M, Ogawa M, Yasukawa M, Tsuji T. Generation of a bioengineered tooth by using a three-dimensional cell manipulation method (organ germ method). Methods Mol Biol. 2012;887:149-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe protocols for tooth germ reconstitution using the organ germ method and methods for analyzing tooth development in vitro and in vivo.
  32. Huo N, Tang L, Yang Z, Qian H, Wang Y, Han C, et al. Differentiation of dermal multipotent cells into odontogenic lineage induced by embryonic and neonatal tooth germ cell-conditioned medium. Stem Cells Dev. 2010;19:93-104 pubmed publisher
    ..By exposure to conditioned medium of embryonic and neonatal tooth germ cells in culture, the proliferation and mineralization activity of DMCs was elevated, while the embryonic tooth ..
  33. Taniguchi K, Okamura K, Hayashi M, Funakoshi T, Motokawa W. The effect of mechanical trauma on the tooth germ of rat molars at various developmental stages: a histopathological study. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1999;15:17-25 pubmed
    Intrusive trauma was experimentally applied to the tooth germ at different developmental stages in the rat first molar...
  34. Tabata M, Fujii T, Liu J, Ohmori T, Abe M, Wakisaka S, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is involved in cusp formation in molar tooth germ of mice. Eur J Oral Sci. 2002;110:114-20 pubmed
    ..5-d-old mice. In the tooth germ explants incubated for 14 d with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) against Bmp4 (a) cusps were not formed, ..
  35. Kettunen P, Thesleff I. Expression and function of FGFs-4, -8, and -9 suggest functional redundancy and repetitive use as epithelial signals during tooth morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1998;211:256-68 pubmed
    ..The coexpression of Fgfs with other signaling molecules including Shh and several Bmps and their partly similar effects suggest that the FGFs participate in the signaling networks during odontogenesis...
  36. Wakida K, Amizuka N, Murakami C, Satoda T, Fukae M, Simmer J, et al. Maturation ameloblasts of the porcine tooth germ do not express amelogenin. Histochem Cell Biol. 1999;111:297-303 pubmed
  37. Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Zhao X, Yu X, Hu Y, Geronimo B, et al. A new function of BMP4: dual role for BMP4 in regulation of Sonic hedgehog expression in the mouse tooth germ. Development. 2000;127:1431-43 pubmed
    ..Multiple signaling molecules are expressed in the developing tooth germ and interact each other to mediate the inductive tissue interactions...
  38. Wada H, Kobayashi I, Yamaza H, Matsuo K, Kiyoshima T, Akhtar M, et al. In situ expression of heat shock proteins, Hsc73, Hsj2 and Hsp86 in the developing tooth germ of mouse lower first molar. Histochem J. 2002;34:105-9 pubmed
    ..5, and then were slightly localized at E12 in an area where the tooth germ of the lower first molar is estimated to be formed...
  39. Tompkins K, Veis A. Polypeptides translated from alternatively spliced transcripts of the amelogenin gene, devoid of the exon 6a, b, c region, have specific effects on tooth germ development in culture. Connect Tissue Res. 2002;43:224-31 pubmed
    ..Since the recombinant peptides are active, their corresponding tissue forms may be important in the stimulation of mesenchymal tissue differentiation. Thus, these specific amelogenin proteins may be involved in tooth morphogenesis...
  40. Hardcastle Z, Mo R, Hui C, Sharpe P. The Shh signalling pathway in tooth development: defects in Gli2 and Gli3 mutants. Development. 1998;125:2803-11 pubmed
    ..expressed in temporal and spatial patterns during early murine tooth development, suggestive of a role in early tooth germ initiation and subsequent epithelial-mesenchymal interactions...
  41. Zhang Y, Zhao X, Hu Y, St Amand T, Zhang M, Ramamurthy R, et al. Msx1 is required for the induction of Patched by Sonic hedgehog in the mammalian tooth germ. Dev Dyn. 1999;215:45-53 pubmed
    We have used the mouse developing tooth germ as a model system to explore the transmission of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal in the induction of Patched (Ptc)...
  42. Cobourne M, Hardcastle Z, Sharpe P. Sonic hedgehog regulates epithelial proliferation and cell survival in the developing tooth germ. J Dent Res. 2001;80:1974-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, Shh has dual roles in early odontogenesis, first in bud formation by stimulating epithelial proliferation, and second in the development of cap-stage tooth germs by increasing epithelial cell survival...
  43. Heikinheimo K, Jee K, Niini T, Aalto Y, Happonen R, Leivo I, et al. Gene expression profiling of ameloblastoma and human tooth germ by means of a cDNA microarray. J Dent Res. 2002;81:525-30 pubmed
    ..The gene expression profile identifies candidate genes that may be involved in the origination of ameloblastoma and several genes previously unidentified in relation to human tooth development...
  44. Solares R, Romero M. Supernumerary premolars: a literature review. Pediatr Dent. 2004;26:450-8 pubmed
    ..Early diagnosis and appropriate follow-up with panoramic radiographs is extremely important. Various treatment recommendations are also discussed. ..
  45. Nakahara T, Tominaga N, Toyomura J, Tachibana T, Ide Y, Ishikawa H. Isolation and characterization of embryonic ameloblast lineage cells derived from tooth buds of fetal miniature swine. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2016;52:445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, analysis of in vitro enamel formation will be important for engineering "bio-enamel" as a new dental therapy to restore enamel defects. ..
  46. Ide S, Tokuyama R, Davaadorj P, Shimozuma M, Kumasaka S, Tatehara S, et al. Leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor regulate angiogenesis in tooth germs. Histochem Cell Biol. 2011;135:281-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings strongly suggest that ameloblasts, odontoblasts and dental papilla cells induce the angiogenesis in tooth germs by secretion of leptin as well as VEGF. ..
  47. Berdal A, Mesbah M, Papagerakis P, Nemere I. Putative membrane receptor for 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 in human mineralized tissues during prenatal development. Connect Tissue Res. 2003;44 Suppl 1:136-40 pubmed
    ..Differential 1,25D3-MARRS protein levels were observed in distinct developmental stages and anatomical sites of tooth and bone, suggesting the existence of cross-talk between local factors and 1,25D3-MARRS protein expression. ..
  48. Kwon H, Jia S, Lan Y, Liu H, Jiang R. Activin and Bmp4 Signaling Converge on Wnt Activation during Odontogenesis. J Dent Res. 2017;96:1145-1152 pubmed publisher
  49. Tomazelli K, Modolo F, Trentin A, Garcez R, Biz M. Temporo-spatial analysis of Osterix, HNK1 and Sox10 during odontogenesis and maxillaries osteogenesis. Tissue Cell. 2015;47:465-70 pubmed publisher
    ..during osteogenesis and odontogenesis, it had shown important results not yet described: the presence of HNK1 and Sox10 in osteoblasts and odontoblasts in late development stages and in the tooth germ epithelial cells and ameloblasts.
  50. Yamamoto H, Cho S, Song S, Hwang H, Lee M, Kim J, et al. Characteristic tissue interaction of the diastema region in mice. Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50:189-98 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, it is suggested that the condensed mesenchyme may be the key to tooth development...
  51. Wen Y, Wang F, Zhang W, Li Y, Yu M, Nan X, et al. Application of induced pluripotent stem cells in generation of a tissue-engineered tooth-like structure. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:1677-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We then established a tooth germ model and transplanted the recombinant tooth germ into a mouse subrenal capsule for 4 weeks to reproduce early-..
  52. Matsuishi Y, Kato H, Masuda K, Yamaza H, Hirofuji Y, Sato H, et al. Accelerated dentinogenesis by inhibiting the mitochondrial fission factor, dynamin related protein 1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:1655-1660 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to clarify this role. We used mouse tooth germ organ cultures and a mouse dental papilla cell line with the ability to differentiate into odontoblasts, in ..
  53. Xue H, Li Y, Everett E, Ryan K, Peng L, Porecha R, et al. Ameloblasts require active RhoA to generate normal dental enamel. Eur J Oral Sci. 2013;121:293-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these findings reveal deficits in molar ameloblast function when RhoA activity is inhibited. ..
  54. Oda M, Miyamoto I, Nishida I, Tanaka T, Kito S, Seta Y, et al. A spatial association between odontomas and the gubernaculum tracts. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;121:91-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Development of odontomas may be associated with the gubernaculum tract or dental sac of unerupted permanent teeth. ..
  55. Csete K, Beer Z, Varga T. Prenatal and newborn paternity testing with DNA analysis. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;147 Suppl:S57-60 pubmed
    ..Due to our result we suggest that not only placenta but also bloody vernix caseosa is useful tissue for identifying the putative mother because vernix caseosa can be the carrier of the mother's blood...
  56. Kumamoto H, Ohki K, Ooya K. Expression of p63 and p73 in ameloblastomas. J Oral Pathol Med. 2005;34:220-6 pubmed
    ..To clarify the role of p53 homologs in oncogenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic tumors, expression of p63 and p73 was analyzed in ameloblastomas as well as tooth germs...
  57. Kumamoto H, Ooya K. Detection of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signaling molecules in ameloblastomas. J Oral Pathol Med. 2005;34:565-72 pubmed
  58. Honda M, Shimodaira T, Ogaeri T, Shinohara Y, Hata K, Ueda M. A novel culture system for porcine odontogenic epithelial cells using a feeder layer. Arch Oral Biol. 2006;51:282-90 pubmed
    ..These results show that the system is capable of sustaining the multiplication of odontogenic epithelial cells with the characteristics of ameloblasts...
  59. Honda M, Shinohara Y, Sumita Y, Tonomura A, Kagami H, Ueda M. Shear stress facilitates tissue-engineered odontogenesis. Bone. 2006;39:125-33 pubmed
    ..Such was not the case in controls. We concluded that shear stress facilitates odontogenic cell differentiation in vitro as well as the process of tooth tissue engineering in vivo...
  60. Iwamoto T, Nakamura T, Ishikawa M, Yoshizaki K, Sugimoto A, Ida Yonemochi H, et al. Pannexin 3 regulates proliferation and differentiation of odontoblasts via its hemichannel activities. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177557 pubmed publisher
  61. Chen R, Chen M, Young T. Induction of differentiation and mineralization in rat tooth germ cells on PVA through inhibition of ERK1/2. Biomaterials. 2009;30:541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, the role of PVA in tooth germ (TG) cell differentiation and mineralization has seldom been explored...
  62. Maurin J, Couble M, Staquet M, Carrouel F, About I, Avila J, et al. Microtubule-associated protein 1b, a neuronal marker involved in odontoblast differentiation. J Endod. 2009;35:992-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this work was to identify the MAP-1B expression in in vitro and in vivo human odontoblasts during development and carious processes. The expression of MAP2 and tau was also studied...