forehead

Summary

Summary: The part of the face above the eyes.

Top Publications

  1. Spiegel J. Facial determinants of female gender and feminizing forehead cranioplasty. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:250-61 pubmed publisher
    ..most significant in identifying female gender, 2) determine if individuals with gender-confirming surgery of the face are identified as male or female, 3) review the efficacy and safety of a series of feminizing forehead cranioplasties.
  2. Kheradmand A, Garajei A, Motamedi M. Nasal reconstruction: experience using tissue expansion and forehead flap. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69:1478-84 pubmed publisher
    The forehead is acknowledged to be one of the best, if not the best, donor sites for reconstruction of postoperative nasal defects after ablation in cancer patients...
  3. Staudinger T, Pipal A, Redl B. Molecular analysis of the prevalent microbiota of human male and female forehead skin compared to forearm skin and the influence of make-up. J Appl Microbiol. 2011;110:1381-9 pubmed publisher
    To compare the bacterial diversity of two different ecological regions including human forehead, human forearm and to estimate the influence of make-up.
  4. Quetz J, Ambrosch P. Total nasal reconstruction: a 6-year experience with the three-stage forehead flap combined with the septal pivot flap. Facial Plast Surg. 2011;27:266-75 pubmed publisher
    ..SPF), of the intranasal lining (INL), and the cover being established by elevating a full-thickness paramedian forehead flap (PMFF)...
  5. Tieghi R, Consorti G, Clauser L. Contouring of the forehead irregularities (washboard effect) with bone biomaterial. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:932-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Four years after the surgery, the patient had recovered with satisfactory morphology of the forehead as well as disappearance of the frowning look in the frontal region.
  6. Quilichini J, Benjoar M, Hivelin M, Lantieri L. Split-thickness skin graft harvested from the scalp for the coverage of extensive temple or forehead defects in elderly patients. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2012;14:137-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To review our experience of facial reconstruction with split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) harvested from the scalp...
  7. Tseng C, Wang S, Young Y. Comparison of bone-conducted vibration for eliciting ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials: forehead versus mastoid tapping. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;146:289-94 pubmed publisher
    This study compared bone-conducted vibration (BCV) stimuli at forehead (Fz) and mastoid sites for eliciting ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs).
  8. Myllymaa S, Lepola P, Toyras J, Hukkanen T, Mervaala E, Lappalainen R, et al. New disposable forehead electrode set with excellent signal quality and imaging compatibility. J Neurosci Methods. 2013;215:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and simple-to-use disposable forehead EEG electrode set for routine use that is also suitable for long-term monitoring...
  9. Manzari L, Burgess A, Curthoys I. Effect of bone-conducted vibration of the midline forehead (Fz) in unilateral vestibular loss (uVL). Evidence for a new indicator of unilateral otolithic function. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2010;30:175 pubmed
    ..by surface electrodes on the skin beneath the eyes in response to bone-conducted vibration (BCV) delivered to the forehead at the hairline in the midline (Fz)...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Hafezi F, Naghibzadeh B, Nouhi A, Naghibzadeh G. Eliminating frown lines with an endoscopic forehead lift procedure (corrugator muscle disinsertion). Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2011;35:516-21 pubmed publisher
    In certain cases of endoscopic forehead lift without muscle resection, patients were incidentally noted to develop weakness or loss of their ability to frown during the postoperative period despite intact musculature...
  2. Takahashi T, Takikawa Y, Kawagoe R, Shibuya S, Iwano T, Kitazawa S. Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task. Neuroimage. 2011;57:991-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..This led us to hypothesize that changes in the NIRS signals measured in the forehead during VFT were due to changes in skin blood flow...
  3. Zöllner A, Buganza Tepole A, Gosain A, Kuhl E. Growing skin: tissue expansion in pediatric forehead reconstruction. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012;11:855-67 pubmed publisher
    ..and predict stress, strain, and area gain at three expanded locations in a pediatric skull: in the scalp, in the forehead, and in the cheek...
  4. Fudem G, Montilla R, Vaughn C. Single-stage forehead flap in nasal reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 2010;64:645-8 pubmed publisher
    The paramedian forehead flap has become the standard of care for major nasal reconstruction. The classic procedure involves a second-stage operation to divide and inset the external pedicle...
  5. Fried S, Legatt A. The utility of a forehead-to-inion derivation in recording the subcortical far-field potential (P14) during median nerve somatosensory-evoked potential testing. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2012;43:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..J Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;23(2):168-179). We investigated the utility of a forehead (Fpz)-to-inion derivation for recording P14...
  6. Flynn T, Carruthers A, Carruthers J, Geister T, Görtelmeyer R, Hardas B, et al. Validated assessment scales for the upper face. Dermatol Surg. 2012;38:309-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of globally accepted tools to assess these changes objectively is an essential contribution to aesthetic research and routine clinical medicine...
  7. Oliveira de Morais O, Matos Reis Filho E, Vilela Pereira L, Martins Gomes C, Alves G. Comparison of four botulinum neurotoxin type A preparations in the treatment of hyperdynamic forehead lines in men: a pilot study. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11:216-9 pubmed
    ..However, few comparative studies about the efficacy of the different BTXA preparations in this emerging group of patients are available...
  8. Woodard C, Most S. Intraoperative angiography using laser-assisted indocyanine green imaging to map perfusion of forehead flaps. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2012;14:263-9 pubmed publisher
    To quantify the perfusion of forehead flaps and compare blood flow from the supratrochlear artery with vascular in-growth at the recipient bed.
  9. van Driel A, Mureau M, Goldstein D, Gilbert R, Irish J, Gullane P, et al. Aesthetic and oncologic outcome after microsurgical reconstruction of complex scalp and forehead defects after malignant tumor resection: an algorithm for treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126:460-70 pubmed publisher
    Limited follow-up data on aesthetic outcome and survival after microsurgical reconstruction of complex scalp and forehead defects are available. These data are important to improve reconstruction quality and patient counseling...
  10. Trajkovic I, Scholkmann F, Wolf M. Estimating and validating the interbeat intervals of the heart using near-infrared spectroscopy on the human forehead. J Biomed Opt. 2011;16:087002 pubmed publisher
    ..8 ± 8.1 yr), that the interbeat intervals (and the consequential pulse rate variability measures), estimated using the proposed approaches, are in high agreement with their correspondents from electrocardiography...
  11. Sattler G, Callander M, Grablowitz D, Walker T, Bee E, Rzany B, et al. Noninferiority of incobotulinumtoxinA, free from complexing proteins, compared with another botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of glabellar frown lines. Dermatol Surg. 2010;36 Suppl 4:2146-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Use of botulinum toxin for esthetic purposes has rapidly expanded over the last 20 years. IncobotulinumtoxinA, also known as NT 201, is a new botulinum toxin type A (150 kDa) that is free from complexing proteins...
  12. Knudsen L, Drummond P. Cutaneous limb inflammation produces analgesia to pressure pain in the ipsilateral forehead of healthy volunteers. J Pain. 2011;12:451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Pressure-pain thresholds and sensitivity to sharpness were assessed on each side of the forehead twice per day during 48 hours of capsaicin treatment, and in the treated and contralateral forearm before and at ..
  13. Park S, Woo S, Park K, Huh J, Jung C, Kwon O. Iatrogenic retinal artery occlusion caused by cosmetic facial filler injections. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154:653-662.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the clinical manifestations and visual prognosis of retinal artery occlusion resulting from cosmetic facial filler injections...
  14. Barati Z, Shewokis P, Izzetoglu M, Polikar R, Mychaskiw G, Pourrezaei K. Hemodynamic response to repeated noxious cold pressor tests measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy on forehead. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013;41:223-37 pubmed publisher
    ..exploration, we used functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure the hemodynamic response on the forehead during three trials of a cold pressor test (CPT) in 20 adults...
  15. Dempf R, Eckert A. Contouring the forehead and rhinoplasty in the feminization of the face in male-to-female transsexuals. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2010;38:416-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The male forehead has extensive supraorbital bossing, and above this there is often a flat area before the convex curvature of the ..
  16. Rzany B, Flynn T, Schlöbe A, Heinz M, Harrington L. Long-term results for incobotulinumtoxinA in the treatment of glabellar frown lines. Dermatol Surg. 2013;39:95-103 pubmed publisher
  17. Ng D, Chan C, Chan E, Kwok K, Chow P, Lau W, et al. A brief report on the normal range of forehead temperature as determined by noncontact, handheld, infrared thermometer. Am J Infect Control. 2005;33:227-9 pubmed
    Noncontact forehead temperature measurement by handheld infrared thermometer was used as a screening tool for fever. However, the accuracy data and normal range of forehead temperature determined by this method were not available...
  18. Beasley N, Gilbert R, Gullane P, Brown D, Irish J, Neligan P. Scalp and forehead reconstruction using free revascularized tissue transfer. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2004;6:16-20 pubmed
    To examine the indications for, and the success of, free flap reconstruction in patients with forehead and scalp defects. Case series. Two tertiary referral university teaching hospitals...
  19. Firat Y, Kizilay A, Akarcay M, Miman M. Second primary cancer occurrence on forehead flap after reconstruction of nasal carcinoma. J Craniofac Surg. 2008;19:1549-51 pubmed publisher
    ..case of basal cell carcinoma on the flap which was initially treated with excision of squamous cell carcinoma and forehead flap reconstruction of nasal dorsum...
  20. Drummond P, Finch P. Sensory changes in the forehead of patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Pain. 2006;123:83-9 pubmed
    ..In particular, we wished to determine whether hyperalgesia extends ipsilaterally from the affected limb to the forehead. The heat-pain threshold, pressure-pain threshold, and ratings of cold and sharpness were investigated on each ..
  21. Iwasaki S, Smulders Y, Burgess A, McGarvie L, MacDougall H, Halmagyi G, et al. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to bone-conducted vibration of the midline forehead at Fz. A new indicator of unilateral otolithic loss. Audiol Neurootol. 2008;13:396-404 pubmed publisher
    If a patient, who is lying supine and looking upward, is given bone-conducted vibration (BCV) of the forehead at the hairline in the midline (Fz) with a clinical reflex hammer or a powerful bone conduction vibrator, short-latency surface ..
  22. Handa Y, Asai T, Tomita Y. Nodular fasciitis of the forehead in a pediatric patient. Dermatol Surg. 2003;29:867-8 pubmed
    ..Most patients are middle aged, and the upper extremity is the most common localization. Nodular fasciitis is rarely diagnosed in childhood but appears in the head and neck region more commonly in children than in adults...
  23. Carruthers J, Lowe N, Menter M, Gibson J, Nordquist M, Mordaunt J, et al. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of glabellar lines. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46:840-9 pubmed
    ..022). The effect was maintained for many patients through day 120. There was a low occurrence (5.4%) of mostly mild blepharoptosis in the BTX-A group. BTX-A injections are safe and effective in reducing the severity of glabellar lines. ..
  24. Seitz I, Gottlieb L. Reconstruction of scalp and forehead defects. Clin Plast Surg. 2009;36:355-77 pubmed publisher
    Reconstruction of scalp and forehead defects is a complex field with a broad variety of reconstructive options. The thought process and techniques used for reconstruction of scalp and forehead defects are the subject of this article.
  25. Boswell J, Davis M. Violaceous plaque on the forehead clinically resembling angiosarcoma: cutaneous metastasis in a patient with prostatic adenocarcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;53:744-5 pubmed
  26. Tan C, Yong V, Yip L, Amrith S. An unusual presentation of a giant frontal sinus mucocele manifesting with a subcutaneous forehead mass. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005;34:397-8 pubmed
    ..To describe the unusual manifestation of a giant frontal sinus mucocele...
  27. Zelickson B, Ross V, Kist D, Counters J, Davenport S, Spooner G. Ultrastructural effects of an infrared handpiece on forehead and abdominal skin. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:897-901 pubmed
    ..Transmission electron microscopy has proven to be an effective method for characterizing collagen contraction delivered by ablative and nonablative devices used on human skin...
  28. Bruschi S, Marchesi S, Boriani F, Kefalas N, Bocchiotti M, Fraccalvieri M. Galea-including forehead flap for lower one-third nasal reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 2009;63:67-70 pubmed publisher
    The first choice for internal mucosal restoration of the nose is a septal mucosal or vestibular local flap. The forehead flap, raised including the galeal layer, is an alternative option for large nasal defects...
  29. Botzel K, Feise P, Kolev O, Krafczyk S, Brandt T. Postural reflexes evoked by tapping forehead and chest. Exp Brain Res. 2001;138:446-51 pubmed
    We investigated whether a tap with a reflex hammer to the forehead can elicit responses in the leg muscles and whether vestibular stimulation is the crucial prerequisite for eliciting these responses...
  30. De Cordier B, de la Torre J, Al Hakeem M, Rosenberg L, Gardner P, Costa Ferreira A, et al. Endoscopic forehead lift: review of technique, cases, and complications. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;110:1558-68; discussion 1569-70 pubmed
    ..The standard minimal access forehead endoscopic procedure consists of a subperiosteal undermining through three small triangular prehairline incisions...
  31. Logan H, Gedney J. Sex differences in the long-term stability of forehead cold pressor pain. J Pain. 2004;5:406-12 pubmed
    ..Stability was assessed by using 2 forehead cold pressor applications separated by 9 months...
  32. Nishimoto S, Oyama T, Nagashima T, Shimizu F, Tsugawa T, Takeda M, et al. Gradual distraction fronto-orbital advancement with 'floating forehead' for patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:497-505 pubmed
    ..syndromic craniosynostosis were treated with gradual distraction fronto-orbital advancement using "floating forehead." The frontal and supraorbital area was cut and remolded. Bony orbits were widened in three patients...
  33. Lancioni G, O Reilly M, Singh N, Sigafoos J, Didden R, Oliva D, et al. Persons with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior using small forehead movements and new microswitch technology to control environmental stimuli. Percept Mot Skills. 2007;104:870-8 pubmed
    ..In the present study, a small movement of the forehead skin was selected as the response for two participants (ages 6.5 and 14...
  34. Kondoh S, Matsuo K, Kikuchi N, Yuzuriha S. Pathogenesis and surgical correction of involuntary contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle that causes forehead wrinkles. Ann Plast Surg. 2006;57:142-8 pubmed
    ..Bilateral aponeurotic fixation bilaterally reduced the eyebrow height, with fewer forehead wrinkles...
  35. Lockshin B, Billings S, Tan S, Swofford M, El Gamal H. Fungating forehead plaque: angiosarcoma. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:1059-64 pubmed
  36. Kistemaker J, den Hartog E, Daanen H. Reliability of an infrared forehead skin thermometer for core temperature measurements. J Med Eng Technol. 2006;30:252-61 pubmed
    ..The SensorTouch did not provide reliable values of the body temperature during periods of increasing body temperature, but the SensorTouch might work under stable conditions...
  37. Van Wijk E, Ackerman J, Van Wijk R. Effect of meditation on ultraweak photon emission from hands and forehead. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005;12:107-12 pubmed
    ..Ultraweak photon emission (UPE, biophoton emission) is a constituent of the metabolic processes in a living system. Spectral analysis showed the characteristics of radical reactions...
  38. Bauer B, Few J, Chavez C, Galiano R. The role of tissue expansion in the management of large congenital pigmented nevi of the forehead in the pediatric patient. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;107:668-75 pubmed
    ..present a cohort of 21 consecutive patients who had congenital pigmented nevi covering 15 to 65 percent of the forehead and adjacent scalp and who were treated at their institution within the last 12 years...
  39. Shelley K, Tamai D, Jablonka D, Gesquiere M, Stout R, Silverman D. The effect of venous pulsation on the forehead pulse oximeter wave form as a possible source of error in Spo2 calculation. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:743-7, table of contents pubmed
    Reflective forehead pulse oximeter sensors have recently been introduced into clinical practice. They reportedly have the advantage of faster response times and immunity to the effects of vasoconstriction...
  40. Carruthers A, Carruthers J, Said S. Dose-ranging study of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of glabellar rhytids in females. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:414-22; discussion 422 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy, safety, and duration of effect of four doses of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of glabellar rhytids in females...
  41. Comelli D, Bassi A, Pifferi A, Taroni P, Torricelli A, Cubeddu R, et al. In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead. Appl Opt. 2007;46:1717-25 pubmed
    We present an in vivo broadband spectroscopic characterization of the human forehead. Absorption and scattering properties are measured on five healthy volunteers at five different interfiber distances, using time-resolved diffuse ..
  42. Cascone P, Piero C, Gennaro P, Paolo G, Ramieri V, Valerio R, et al. Forehead trauma outcomes: restoration of brain, soft tissues, and bone defects: a 3-step treatment. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:498-501 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors here present a case of forehead trauma outcome after a severe injury in growing age...
  43. Knudsen L, Drummond P. Cold-induced limb pain decreases sensitivity to pressure-pain sensations in the ipsilateral forehead. Eur J Pain. 2009;13:1023-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to investigate the effect of unilateral limb pain on sensitivity to pain on each side of the forehead. In the first experiment, pressure-pain thresholds and sharpness sensations were assessed on each side of the ..
  44. Kruse Losler B, Presser D, Meyer U, Schul C, Luger T, Joos U. Reconstruction of large defects on the scalp and forehead as an interdisciplinary challenge: experience in the management of 39 cases. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2006;32:1006-14 pubmed
  45. Romo T, Jacono A, Sclafani A. Endoscopic forehead lifting and contouring. Facial Plast Surg. 2001;17:3-10 pubmed
    ..A significant limitation of this procedure appears to be the ability to predict the long-term forehead and brow elevation...
  46. Sforza C, Laino A, D Alessio R, Grandi G, Tartaglia G, Ferrario V. Soft-tissue facial characteristics of attractive and normal adolescent boys and girls. Angle Orthod. 2008;78:799-807 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify possible esthetic canons in facial size and shape of Italian adolescent boys and girls...
  47. Weinelt W, Sattler R, Mebs D. Persistent paresis of the facialis muscle after European adder (Vipera berus) bite on the forehead. Toxicon. 2002;40:1627-9 pubmed
    A case of Vipera berus (European adder) snake bite to the forehead is reported, which caused extensive oedema of the head and trunk and petechial haemorrhages...
  48. Flynn T, Clark R. Botulinum toxin type B (MYOBLOC) versus botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) frontalis study: rate of onset and radius of diffusion. Dermatol Surg. 2003;29:519-22; discussion 522 pubmed
    ..Botulinum toxin types A and B can improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. Differences in the time until onset and the degree of diffusion have been observed anecdotally, but no direct comparative studies have been done...
  49. Lee J, Zimbler M. Paramedian forehead flap for the reconstruction of large nasal defects. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004;83:322 pubmed
  50. Ascher B, Zakine B, Kestemont P, Baspeyras M, Bougara A, Santini J. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety of 3 doses of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of glabellar lines. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;51:223-33 pubmed
    ..Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is used to treat glabellar lines but the rigorous demonstration of its efficacy in a well-designed study had never been reported...
  51. Branson R, Mannheimer P. Forehead oximetry in critically ill patients: the case for a new monitoring site. Respir Care Clin N Am. 2004;10:359-67, vi-vii pubmed
    ..Another site and sensor are necessary to monitor these patients effectively. This article describes the search for this site, the choice of the forehead, and preliminary data regarding the use of this sensor site.
  52. Reece E, Schaverien M, Rohrich R. The paramedian forehead flap: a dynamic anatomical vascular study verifying safety and clinical implications. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:1956-63 pubmed publisher
    Nasal reconstruction with use of the forehead flap has been performed for hundreds of years. Forehead vasculature has been studied; however, anatomical relationships to the forehead flap have not been adequately examined...
  53. Rzany B, Ascher B, Fratila A, Monheit G, Talarico S, Sterry W. Efficacy and safety of 3- and 5-injection patterns (30 and 50 U) of botulinum toxin A (Dysport) for the treatment of wrinkles in the glabella and the central forehead region. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:320-6 pubmed
    To investigate the efficacy and safety of 2 injection site patterns (3- and 5-injection patterns [30 and 50 U]) of botulinum toxin A (Dysport; Ipsen Pharma, Ettlingen, Germany), in the treatment of glabellar and central forehead wrinkles.
  54. Kuramochi R, Kimura T, Nakazawa K, Akai M, Torii S, Suzuki S. Anticipatory modulation of neck muscle reflex responses induced by mechanical perturbations of the human forehead. Neurosci Lett. 2004;366:206-10 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the gain of the stretch reflex pathway is modulated by anticipatory information of upcoming mechanical event...
  55. Viano D, Bir C, Walilko T, Sherman D. Ballistic impact to the forehead, zygoma, and mandible: comparison of human and frangible dummy face biomechanics. J Trauma. 2004;56:1305-11 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to establish blunt ballistic response corridors for high-speed, low-mass facial impacts to the forehead, zygoma, and mandible, and to determine how these responses compare with those of the frangible Hybrid III ..
  56. Sand M, Boorboor P, Sand D, Altmeyer P, Mann B, Bechara F. Bilateral cheek-to-nose advancement flap: an alternative to the paramedian forehead flap for reconstruction of the nose. Acta Chir Plast. 2007;49:67-70 pubmed
    ..The surgeon is faced with many reconstructive options. The paramedian forehead flap is one commonly used technique...
  57. Smith H, Elliot T, Vinciullo C. Repair of nasal tip and alar defects using cheek-based 2-stage flaps: an alternative to the median forehead flap. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139:1033-6 pubmed
    ..To describe our use of cheek-based 2-stage transposition flaps for repairing Mohs surgery defects of the lower third of the nose...
  58. Levaillant J, Touboul C, Sinico M, Vergnaud A, Serero S, Druart L, et al. Prenatal forehead edema in 4p- deletion: the 'Greek warrior helmet' profile revisited. Prenat Diagn. 2005;25:1150-5 pubmed
    ..Deletion of short arm of chromosome 4 is difficult to ascertain prenatally, and can be missed...
  59. Zhao H, Tanikawa Y, Gao F, Onodera Y, Sassaroli A, Tanaka K, et al. Maps of optical differential pathlength factor of human adult forehead, somatosensory motor and occipital regions at multi-wavelengths in NIR. Phys Med Biol. 2002;47:2075-93 pubmed
    ..measurement using near infrared spectroscopy, but for the human adult head it has been available only for the forehead. Here we report measured DPF results for the forehead, somatosensory motor and occipital regions from ..
  60. Zhu Z, Tsiamyrtzis P, Pavlidis I. Forehead thermal signature extraction in lie detection. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:243-6 pubmed
    ..In the present paper a new source of psycho-physiological information is proposed: the forehead. We found that the corrugator muscle in the forehead is more active than usual, when the individual experiences ..
  61. Carruthers A, Carruthers J, Hardas B, Kaur M, Goertelmeyer R, Jones D, et al. A validated grading scale for forehead lines. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34 Suppl 2:S155-60 pubmed publisher
    As with other facial wrinkles, the gradual loss and disorganization of collagen fibers and elastin, connective tissues that provide underlying support for skin, cause horizontal forehead rhytides in large part.