pupil

Summary

Summary: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.

Top Publications

  1. de Gee J, Knapen T, Donner T. Decision-related pupil dilation reflects upcoming choice and individual bias. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E618-25 pubmed publisher
    A number of studies have shown that pupil size increases transiently during effortful decisions...
  2. Nyström M, Hooge I, Holmqvist K. Post-saccadic oscillations in eye movement data recorded with pupil-based eye trackers reflect motion of the pupil inside the iris. Vision Res. 2013;92:59-66 pubmed publisher
    Current video eye trackers use information about the pupil center to estimate orientation and movement of the eye...
  3. ROECKLEIN K, Wong P, Ernecoff N, Miller M, Donofry S, Kamarck M, et al. The post illumination pupil response is reduced in seasonal affective disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2013;210:150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the post illumination pupil response (PIPR) among individuals with SAD and healthy controls to identify possible differences in the melanopsin ..
  4. Casuccio A, Cillino G, Pavone C, Spitale E, Cillino S. Pharmacologic pupil dilation as a predictive test for the risk for intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011;37:1447-54 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effect of ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonists (?1-ARAs) on pupil diameter and determine whether the diameter predicts intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome (IFIS).
  5. Higuchi S, Hida A, Tsujimura S, Mishima K, Yasukouchi A, Lee S, et al. Melanopsin gene polymorphism I394T is associated with pupillary light responses in a dose-dependent manner. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60310 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we examined the associations of melanopsin gene polymorphisms with pupillary light response...
  6. Wang C, Boehnke S, White B, Munoz D. Microstimulation of the monkey superior colliculus induces pupil dilation without evoking saccades. J Neurosci. 2012;32:3629-36 pubmed publisher
    ..of the eyes, head, and attention and other physiological responses such as changes in heart rate and transient pupil dilation...
  7. Takeuchi T, Puntous T, Tuladhar A, Yoshimoto S, Shirama A. Estimation of mental effort in learning visual search by measuring pupil response. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21973 pubmed publisher
    ..search for a target, defined by a combination of orientation and spatial frequency, while we monitored their pupil size. It is well known that pupil size reflects the strength of mental effort invested in a task...
  8. Nassar M, Rumsey K, Wilson R, Parikh K, Heasly B, Gold J. Rational regulation of learning dynamics by pupil-linked arousal systems. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1040-6 pubmed publisher
    ..found that these assessments, as defined by a normative model, were reflected in nonluminance-mediated changes in pupil diameter of human subjects performing a predictive-inference task...
  9. Rieger G, Savin Williams R. The eyes have it: sex and sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation patterns. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40256 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Katsuura T, Ochiai Y, Senoo T, Lee S, Takahashi Y, Shimomura Y. Effects of blue pulsed light on human physiological functions and subjective evaluation. J Physiol Anthropol. 2012;31:23 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the non-visual physiological effects of blue pulsed light, and determined whether it is sensed visually as being blue...
  2. Patwari P, Stewart T, Rand C, Carroll M, Kuntz N, Kenny A, et al. Pupillometry in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS): quantitative evidence of autonomic nervous system dysregulation. Pediatr Res. 2012;71:280-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that quantitative pupil measures, obtained using pupillometry, would vary between cases with CCHS and controls and within those with CCHS ..
  3. Park J, Moura A, Raza A, Rhee D, Kardon R, Hood D. Toward a clinical protocol for assessing rod, cone, and melanopsin contributions to the human pupil response. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6624-35 pubmed publisher
    ..RESULTS. The duration for producing the optimal melanopsin-driven sustained pupil response after termination of an intense blue stimulus was 1 second...
  4. Matouskova O, Slanar O, Chytil L, Perlik F. Pupillometry in healthy volunteers as a biomarker of tramadol efficacy. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2011;36:513-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to evaluate the effects of tramadol using different parameters of pupillometry as biomarkers...
  5. Daneault V, Vandewalle G, Hébert M, Teikari P, Mure L, Doyon J, et al. Does pupil constriction under blue and green monochromatic light exposure change with age?. J Biol Rhythms. 2012;27:257-64 pubmed publisher
    ..However, age-related modification in the impact of light on steady-state pupil constriction, which regulates the amount of light reaching the retina, is not demonstrated...
  6. Kim J, Park K, Han S, Kim K, Kim D, Kim T, et al. Changes in intraocular pressure after pharmacologic pupil dilation. BMC Ophthalmol. 2012;12:53 pubmed publisher
    Intraocular pressure (IOP) may vary according to the change of ocular conditions. In this study, we want to assess the effect and mechanism of pupil dilation on IOP in normal subjects.
  7. Gooley J, Ho Mien I, St Hilaire M, Yeo S, Chua E, van Reen E, et al. Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptors play different roles in mediating pupillary light responses during exposure to continuous light in humans. J Neurosci. 2012;32:14242-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our results suggest that it might be possible to enhance nonvisual light responses to low-irradiance exposures by using intermittent light to activate cone photoreceptors repeatedly in humans...
  8. van Rijn H, Dalenberg J, Borst J, Sprenger S. Pupil dilation co-varies with memory strength of individual traces in a delayed response paired-associate task. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51134 pubmed publisher
    Studies on cognitive effort have shown that pupil dilation is a reliable indicator of memory load. However, it is conceivable that there are other sources of effort involved in memory that also affect pupil dilation...
  9. Watson A, Yellott J. A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size. J Vis. 2012;12:12 pubmed publisher
    The size of the pupil has a large effect on visual function, and pupil size depends mainly on the adapting luminance, modulated by other factors. Over the last century, a number of formulas have been proposed to describe this dependence...
  10. Laeng B, Endestad T. Bright illusions reduce the eye's pupil. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:2162-7 pubmed publisher
    We recorded by use of an infrared eye-tracker the pupil diameters of participants while they observed visual illusions of lightness or brightness. Four original illusions {based on Gaetano Kanisza's [Kanizsa G (1976) Subjective contours...
  11. Kawasaki A, Collomb S, Léon L, Munch M. Pupil responses derived from outer and inner retinal photoreception are normal in patients with hereditary optic neuropathy. Exp Eye Res. 2014;120:161-6 pubmed publisher
    We compared the pupil responses originating from outer versus inner retinal photoreception between patients with isolated hereditary optic neuropathy (HON, n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 8)...
  12. Wierda S, van Rijn H, Taatgen N, Martens S. Pupil dilation deconvolution reveals the dynamics of attention at high temporal resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8456-60 pubmed publisher
    The size of the human pupil increases as a function of mental effort...
  13. Gredeback G, Melinder A. Teleological reasoning in 4-month-old infants: pupil dilations and contextual constraints. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26487 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrates that teleological processes are online at 4 months of age and illustrates the usefulness of pupil dilations as a measure of social cognitive processes early in infancy.
  14. Naber M, Frässle S, Rutishauser U, Einhäuser W. Pupil size signals novelty and predicts later retrieval success for declarative memories of natural scenes. J Vis. 2013;13:11 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether the pupil, an accessible physiological measure, can be utilized to probe memories for complex natural visual scenes...
  15. Liu Y, Yeh P, Huang J, Wang I, Chen W, Hu F, et al. Pupil centroid shift and cyclotorsion in bilateral wavefront-guided laser refractive surgery and the correlation between both eyes. J Formos Med Assoc. 2013;112:64-71 pubmed publisher
    Accuracy of ocular alignments is emphasized in laser refractive surgery. We evaluate pupil centroid shift and cyclotorsion and the correlation between both eyes in bilateral wavefront-guided laser refractive surgery.
  16. Binda P, Pereverzeva M, Murray S. Attention to bright surfaces enhances the pupillary light reflex. J Neurosci. 2013;33:2199-204 pubmed publisher
  17. Linke S, Baviera J, Munzer G, Fricke O, Richard G, Katz T. Mesopic pupil size in a refractive surgery population (13,959 eyes). Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89:1156-64 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate factors that may affect mesopic pupil size in refractive surgery candidates.
  18. Hickenbotham A, Tiruveedhula P, Roorda A. Comparison of spherical aberration and small-pupil profiles in improving depth of focus for presbyopic corrections. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012;38:2071-9 pubmed publisher
    ..for expanding depth of focus to correct for presbyopia; that is, induction of spherical aberration and small-pupil apertures. University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. Comparative case series...
  19. Anderson C, Colombo J, Unruh K. Pupil and salivary indicators of autonomic dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder. Dev Psychobiol. 2013;55:465-82 pubmed publisher
    Dysregulated tonic pupil size has been reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Among the possible sources of this dysregulation are disruptions in the feedback loop between norepinephrine (NE) and hypothalamic systems...
  20. Alarcón A, Rubiño M, Pééérez Ocón F, Jiménez J. Theoretical analysis of the effect of pupil size, initial myopic level, and optical zone on quality of vision after corneal refractive surgery. J Refract Surg. 2012;28:901-6 pubmed
    To analyze the theoretical effect that pupil size, optical zone, and initial myopic level have on the final retinal image after corneal refractive surgery.
  21. Leknes S, Wessberg J, Ellingsen D, Chelnokova O, Olausson H, Laeng B. Oxytocin enhances pupil dilation and sensitivity to 'hidden' emotional expressions. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2013;8:741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These participants also showed larger task-related pupil dilation, suggesting that they also allocated the most attentional resources to the task...
  22. Brown T, Allen A, Al Enezi J, Wynne J, Schlangen L, Hommes V, et al. The melanopic sensitivity function accounts for melanopsin-driven responses in mice under diverse lighting conditions. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53583 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data establish V(Z)? as an important new approach for light measurement with widespread practical utility...
  23. Munch M, Léon L, Crippa S, Kawasaki A. Circadian and wake-dependent effects on the pupil light reflex in response to narrow-bandwidth light pulses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:4546-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to identify the effects of circadian phase and sleepiness across 24 hours on various aspects of the pupil response to light stimulation.
  24. Kafkas A, Montaldi D. Familiarity and recollection produce distinct eye movement, pupil and medial temporal lobe responses when memory strength is matched. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:3080-93 pubmed publisher
    Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection...
  25. Prehn K, Kazzer P, Lischke A, Heinrichs M, Herpertz S, Domes G. Effects of intranasal oxytocin on pupil dilation indicate increased salience of socioaffective stimuli. Psychophysiology. 2013;50:528-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved performance was accompanied by increased task-related pupil dilation, indicating an increased recruitment of attentional resources...
  26. Milkie D, Betzig E, Ji N. Pupil-segmentation-based adaptive optical microscopy with full-pupil illumination. Opt Lett. 2011;36:4206-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Adaptive optics can be used to improve imaging performance via wavefront shaping. Here, we demonstrate a pupil-segmentation based adaptive optical approach with full-pupil illumination...
  27. Schwarz C, Prieto P, Fernandez E, Artal P. Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions. Opt Lett. 2011;36:4779-81 pubmed publisher
    ..binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer fully capable of controlling both amplitude and phase of the two complex pupil functions in each eye of the subject. A special feature of the instrument is its comparatively simple setup...
  28. Verster J, Veldhuijzen D, Volkerts E. Effects of an opioid (oxycodone/paracetamol) and an NSAID (bromfenac) on driving ability, memory functioning, psychomotor performance, pupil size, and mood. Clin J Pain. 2006;22:499-504 pubmed
    ..effects of a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (bromfenac 25 mg and 50 mg) and an opioid (oxycodone/paracetamol 5/325 mg and 10/650 mg), and placebo on driving ability, memory functioning, psychomotor performance, pupil size, and mood.
  29. Wolffsohn J, Ukai K, Gilmartin B. Dynamic measurement of accommodation and pupil size using the portable Grand Seiko FR-5000 autorefractor. Optom Vis Sci. 2006;83:306-10 pubmed
    ..Grand Seiko FR-5000 autorefractor to allow objective, continuous, open-field measurement of accommodation and pupil size for the investigation of the visual response to real-world environments and changes in the optical components ..
  30. Chadha V, Borooah S, Tey A, Styles C, Singh J. Floppy iris behaviour during cataract surgery: associations and variations. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:40-2 pubmed
    ..To assess the association of floppy iris behaviour during cataract surgery with use of alpha-1-antagonists and diabetes mellitus...
  31. Siam G, de Barros D, Gheith M, Da Silva R, Lankaranian D, Tittler E, et al. The amount of intraocular pressure rise during pharmacological pupillary dilatation is an indicator of the likelihood of future progression of glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:1170-2 pubmed
    ..To determine if there is a relationship between the amount of increase in IOP following dilatation with a cycloplegic agent and the future course of glaucoma...
  32. Liu D, Pang Z, Lloyd S. A neural network method for detection of obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy based on pupil size and EEG. IEEE Trans Neural Netw. 2008;19:308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pupil behavior can also provide information regarding alertness...
  33. Koudas V, Nikolaou A, Hourdaki E, Giakoumaki S, Roussos P, Bitsios P. Comparison of ketanserin, buspirone and propranolol on arousal, pupil size and autonomic function in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;205:1-9 pubmed publisher
    The human pupil may be a suitable physiological test system for the assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), but pupillometric assessment could be confounded by medication for comorbid hypertension and mood disorders.
  34. Tsujimura S, Ukai K, Ohama D, Nuruki A, Yunokuchi K. Contribution of human melanopsin retinal ganglion cells to steady-state pupil responses. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:2485-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed a significant change in steady-state pupil diameter when we varied the excitation of mRGC alone, with no change in luminance and colour...
  35. Kamiya K, Kobashi H, Shimizu K, Kawamorita T, Uozato H. Effect of pupil size on uncorrected visual acuity in astigmatic eyes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:267-70 pubmed publisher
    To determine the effects of pupil size on uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) in astigmatic eyes.
  36. Kawamorita T, Uozato H, Handa T, Ito M, Shimizu K. Effect of pupil size on visual acuity in a laboratory model of pseudophakic monovision. J Refract Surg. 2010;26:378-80 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of pupil size on visual acuity in pseudophakic monovision.
  37. Jackson I, Sirois S. Infant cognition: going full factorial with pupil dilation. Dev Sci. 2009;12:670-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It also introduces pupil dilation as a viable and complementary dependent measure to study infant cognition...
  38. He M, Wang D, Console J, Zhang J, Zheng Y, Huang W. Distribution and heritability of iris thickness and pupil size in Chinese: the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1593-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the distribution and heritability of iris thickness and pupil diameter measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) in a classic twin study.
  39. Harrison N, Gray M, Critchley H. Dynamic pupillary exchange engages brain regions encoding social salience. Soc Neurosci. 2009;4:233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined how, independent of facial emotional expression, dynamic coherence between one's own and another's pupil size modulates regional brain activity. Fourteen subjects viewed pairs of eye stimuli while undergoing fMRI...
  40. Cheng C, Natividad M, Earnest A, Yong V, Lim B, Wong H, et al. Comparison of the influence of cataract and pupil size on retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurements with time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011;39:215-21 pubmed publisher
    To investigate and compare the effect of cataract and pupil size on retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness measurements using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Cirrus OCT) and time-domain OCT (Stratus OCT).
  41. Kuchinke L, Võ M, Hofmann M, Jacobs A. Pupillary responses during lexical decisions vary with word frequency but not emotional valence. Int J Psychophysiol. 2007;65:132-40 pubmed
    ..In addition, a difference between high and low frequency words was observed in the pupil data as reflected by higher peak pupil dilations for low frequency words, whereas pupillary responses to ..
  42. Alfonso J, Ferrer Blasco T, Gonzalez Meijome J, García Manjarres M, Peixoto de Matos S, Montes Mico R. Pupil size, white-to-white corneal diameter, and anterior chamber depth in patients with myopia. J Refract Surg. 2010;26:891-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate anatomical parameters in a population of patients with myopia...
  43. Graham R, Hoover A, Ceballos N, Komogortsev O. Body mass index moderates gaze orienting biases and pupil diameter to high and low calorie food images. Appetite. 2011;56:577-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Eye-tracking methods were used to examine gaze and pupil responses while normal weight and overweight women freely viewed pairs of different food images: high calorie ..
  44. Hachol A, Szczepanowska Nowak W, Kasprzak H, Zawojska I, Dudzinski A, Kinasz R, et al. Measurement of pupil reactivity using fast pupillometry. Physiol Meas. 2007;28:61-72 pubmed
    Analysis of human eye pupil reactivity is a very valuable diagnostic method used mainly for evaluation of the condition of the autonomic nervous system and the visual system...
  45. Moresi S, Adam J, Rijcken J, Van Gerven P, Kuipers H, Jolles J. Pupil dilation in response preparation. Int J Psychophysiol. 2008;67:124-30 pubmed
    This study examined changes in pupil size during response preparation in a finger-cuing task. Based on the Grouping Model of finger preparation [Adam, J.J., Hommel, B. and Umiltà, C., 2003b...
  46. Odergren A, Algvere P, Seregard S, Libert C, Kvanta A. Vision-related function after low-dose transpupillary thermotherapy versus photodynamic therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmol. 2010;88:426-30 pubmed publisher
  47. Gislén A, Gustafsson J, Kröger R. The accommodative pupil responses of children and young adults at low and intermediate levels of ambient illumination. Vision Res. 2008;48:989-93 pubmed publisher
    Accommodative pupil constrictions were compared between 27 children (9-10 years) and 13 young adults (22-26 years) in order to clarify the issue whether or not children have such a response...
  48. Torricelli D, Conforto S, Schmid M, D Alessio T. A neural-based remote eye gaze tracker under natural head motion. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2008;92:66-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The system is able to classify the gaze direction of the user over a 15-zone graphical interface, with a success rate of 95% and a global accuracy of around 2 degrees , comparable with the vast majority of existing remote gaze trackers...
  49. Lind O, Kelber A, Kröger R. Multifocal optical systems and pupil dynamics in birds. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2752-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Since a constricting circular pupil blocks peripheral zones, eyes with multifocal optical systems often have slit pupils that allow light to pass ..
  50. Einhäuser W, Stout J, Koch C, Carter O. Pupil dilation reflects perceptual selection and predicts subsequent stability in perceptual rivalry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1704-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we measured pupil diameter while subjects viewed different ambiguous visual and auditory stimuli...
  51. Arbelaez M, Vidal C, Arba Mosquera S. Clinical outcomes of corneal vertex versus central pupil references with aberration-free ablation strategies and LASIK. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:5287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..compare the clinical outcomes of aberration-free ablation profiles based on the normal corneal vertex (CV) and the pupil center (PC) in relation to laser in situ keratomileusis...
  52. Chang D, Braga Mele R, Mamalis N, Masket S, Miller K, Nichamin L, et al. ASCRS White Paper: clinical review of intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008;34:2153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, sphincterotomies and pupil stretching are ineffective...
  53. Tabernero J, Atchison D, Markwell E. Aberrations and Pupil location under corneal topography and Hartmann-Shack illumination conditions. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1964-70 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to determine the magnitude of pupil center shift between the illumination conditions provided by corneal topography measurement (photopic illuminance) and by Hartmann-Shack aberrometry (mesopic illuminance) and ..