Summary: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.

Top Publications

  1. Salman A. Intrasilicone bevacizumab injection for iris neovascularization after vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmic Res. 2013;49:20-4 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intrasilicone injection of bevacizumab for the treatment of iris neovascularization after vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
  2. Foo L, Nongpiur M, Allen J, Perera S, Friedman D, He M, et al. Determinants of angle width in Chinese Singaporeans. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:278-82 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate determinants of angle width and derive mathematic models to best predict angle width...
  3. Sun J, Sung K, Yun S, Cheon M, Tchah H, Kim M, et al. Factors associated with anterior chamber narrowing with age: an optical coherence tomography study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:2607-10 pubmed publisher
  4. Hara S, Borkenstein A, Ehmer A, Auffarth G. Retropupillary fixation of iris-claw intraocular lens versus transscleral suturing fixation for aphakic eyes without capsular support. J Refract Surg. 2011;27:729-35 pubmed publisher
    Retropupillary fixation of an iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) (Verisyse, Abbott Medical Optics) was performed for aphakic eyes without sufficient capsular support, and safety and recovery of the procedure were compared with transscleral ..
  5. Sousounis K, Michel C, Bruckskotten M, Maki N, Borchardt T, Braun T, et al. A microarray analysis of gene expression patterns during early phases of newt lens regeneration. Mol Vis. 2013;19:135-45 pubmed
    ..can regenerate, the lens is regenerated via transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelial cells of the dorsal iris, following complete removal (lentectomy)...
  6. Guttal S, Joshi S, Pillai L, Nadiger R. Ocular prosthesis for a geriatric patient with customised iris: a report of two cases. Gerodontology. 2011;28:152-6 pubmed publisher
  7. Chen Y, Kardon R. Studying the effect of iris mechanics on the pupillary light reflex using brimonidine-induced anisocoria. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:2951-8 pubmed publisher
    To study and correct for the limiting effect of iris mechanics on the amplitude of light-evoked pupil contractions in order to derive a more clinically accurate assessment of afferent input to the visual system.
  8. van Doorn W, Celikel F, Pak C, Harkema H. Delay of iris flower senescence by cytokinins and jasmonates. Physiol Plant. 2013;148:105-20 pubmed publisher
    It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris × hollandica cv. Blue Magic...
  9. Cleary C, Lanigan B, O Keeffe M. Artisan iris-claw lenses for the correction of aphakia in children following lensectomy for ectopia lentis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:419-21 pubmed publisher
    To describe the results of Artisan iris-claw lens implants in children with aphakia following lensectomy for ectopia lentis.

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Sarenac T, Janicijevic Petrovic M, Srećković S, Radovanović M, Vulovic D, Janicijevic K. Prostatic carcinoma bilateral iris metastases. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2012;12:134-6 pubmed
    We described a patient with bilateral iris metastases resulted from prostatic cancer...
  2. Mak H, Xu G, Leung C. Imaging the iris with swept-source optical coherence tomography: relationship between iris volume and primary angle closure. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:2517-2524 pubmed publisher
    To measure iris volume and anterior segment parameters using a swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) and investigate factors associated with iris volume and iris volume change after pupil dilation in eyes with ..
  3. Patil K, Meleth P, Shanker M. Pars plana vitrectomy with posterior iris claw implantation for posteriorly dislocated nucleus and intraocular lens. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2011;59:497-500 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with primary posterior iris claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in cases of posterior dislocation of nucleus and IOL without capsular support...
  4. Edwards M, Gozdzik A, Ross K, Miles J, Parra E. Technical note: quantitative measures of iris color using high resolution photographs. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012;147:141-9 pubmed publisher
    Our understanding of the genetic architecture of iris color is still limited. This is partly related to difficulties associated with obtaining quantitative measurements of eye color...
  5. Nyström M, Hooge I, Holmqvist K. Post-saccadic oscillations in eye movement data recorded with pupil-based eye trackers reflect motion of the pupil inside the iris. Vision Res. 2013;92:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..from participants making repetitive, horizontal saccades and compared the movement in the data with pupil- and iris movements extracted from the eye images...
  6. Quillen E, Guiltinan J, Beleza S, Rocha J, Pereira R, Shriver M. Iris texture traits show associations with iris color and genomic ancestry. Am J Hum Biol. 2011;23:567-9 pubmed publisher
    This study seeks to identify associations among genomic biogeographic ancestry (BGA), quantitative iris color, and iris texture traits contributing to population-level variation in these phenotypes.
  7. Venters S, Cuenca P, Hyer J. Retinal and anterior eye compartments derive from a common progenitor pool in the avian optic cup. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3347-63 pubmed is thought to be sub-divided into separate lineages: i) pigmented epithelium in the outer layer; ii) presumptive iris and ciliary body at the most anterior aspect of the inner layer; and iii) presumptive neural retina in the ..
  8. Larsson M, Duffy D, Zhu G, Liu J, Macgregor S, McRae A, et al. GWAS findings for human iris patterns: associations with variants in genes that influence normal neuronal pattern development. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;89:334-43 pubmed publisher
    Human iris patterns are highly variable...
  9. Ayliffe W, Groth S, Sponsel W. Small-incision insertion of artificial iris prostheses. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012;38:362-7 pubmed publisher
    In this interventional case series, a flexible iris prosthesis was implanted in consecutive patients with sight-compromising iris defects...
  10. Seko Y, Azuma N, Kaneda M, Nakatani K, Miyagawa Y, Noshiro Y, et al. Derivation of human differential photoreceptor-like cells from the iris by defined combinations of CRX, RX and NEUROD. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35611 pubmed publisher
    ..In the human visual system, there are four kinds of photoreceptors in the retina. Neural retina and iris-pigmented epithelium (IPE) share a common developmental origin, leading us to test whether human iris cells could ..
  11. Jasty S, Srinivasan P, Pasricha G, Chatterjee N, Subramanian K. Gene expression profiles and retinal potential of stem/progenitor cells derived from human iris and ciliary pigment epithelium. Stem Cell Rev. 2012;8:1163-77 pubmed publisher
    ..was to isolate and characterize the properties of neurospheres and differentiated cellular progeny derived from iris and ciliary pigment epithelial (IPE and CPE) cells of human cadaveric eyes...
  12. Gonnermann J, Klamann M, Maier A, Rjasanow J, Joussen A, Bertelmann E, et al. Visual outcome and complications after posterior iris-claw aphakic intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012;38:2139-43 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the indications, visual outcomes, and complication rate after implantation of a posterior chamber iris-claw aphakic intraocular lens (IOL).
  13. Wang J, Wang A, Gao J, Cao S, Samad I, Zhang D, et al. Technical brief: isolation of total DNA from postmortem human eye tissues and quality comparison between iris and retina. Mol Vis. 2012;18:3049-56 pubmed
    ..tissues for AMD-related SNPs, our group became interested in isolating and comparing the quality of DNA from the iris and retina of postmortem donor eyes...
  14. Xue T, Do M, Riccio A, Jiang Z, Hsieh J, Wang H, et al. Melanopsin signalling in mammalian iris and retina. Nature. 2011;479:67-73 pubmed publisher
    Non-mammalian vertebrates have an intrinsically photosensitive iris and thus a local pupillary light reflex (PLR). In contrast, it is thought that the PLR in mammals generally requires neuronal circuitry connecting the eye and the brain...
  15. Alio J, Rodriguez A, Toffaha B, Pinero D, Moreno L. Femtosecond-assisted keratopigmentation for functional and cosmetic restoration in essential iris atrophy. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011;37:1744-7 pubmed publisher
    ..keratopigmentation (KTP) in a 23-year-old woman with severe visual dysfunction secondary to unilateral essential iris atrophy due to the presence of iridocorneal endothelial syndrome in her left eye...
  16. Frøen R, Johnsen E, Petrovski G, Berényi E, Facsko A, Berta A, et al. Pigment epithelial cells isolated from human peripheral iridectomies have limited properties of retinal stem cells. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89:e635-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In the human CM, only the iris pigment epithelium (IPE) is easily obtained by a minimally invasive procedure...
  17. Whitcomb J, Amini R, Simha N, Barocas V. Anterior-posterior asymmetry in iris mechanics measured by indentation. Exp Eye Res. 2011;93:475-81 pubmed publisher
    Indentation and histological analysis of the porcine iris were done to assess the relative stiffness of the anterior (stroma) and posterior (dilator and sphincter) layers...
  18. Cagini C, Fiore T, Leontiadis A, Biondi L, Leaci R, Delfini E, et al. Simultaneous Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty and aphakic iris-fixated intraocular lens implantation: a case series. Cornea. 2011;30:1167-9 pubmed publisher
    To report 3 cases of simultaneous Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and aphakic iris-fixated intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with aphakia and bullous keratopathy.
  19. Sminia M, Odenthal M, Prick L, Mourits M, Völker Dieben H. Long-term follow-up of the corneal endothelium after aphakic iris-fixated IOL implantation for bilateral cataract in children. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011;37:866-72 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the long-term corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) and outcomes after iris-fixated aphakic intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in children after bilateral congenital or juvenile cataract extraction and to compare the ..
  20. Etter J, Affel E, Rhee D. High prevalence of plateau iris configuration in family members of patients with plateau iris syndrome. J Glaucoma. 2006;15:394-8 pubmed
    The purpose of the study was to ascertain the prevalence of plateau iris syndrome in the first-degree relatives of those patients affected with plateau iris syndrome.
  21. Settas G, Fitt A. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome in a patient taking alfuzosin for benign prostatic hypertrophy. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:1431-2 pubmed
  22. Nakamura K, Maki N, Trinh A, Trask H, Gui J, Tomlinson C, et al. miRNAs in newt lens regeneration: specific control of proliferation and evidence for miRNA networking. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12058 pubmed publisher
    ..Lens regeneration in adult newts occurs via transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelial cells (PECs) of the dorsal iris. The same source of cells from the ventral iris is not able to undergo this process...
  23. Mohamed E, Muftuoglu O, Bowman W, Cavanagh H, Mootha V, Radwan G, et al. Wavefront-guided ablation retreatment using Iris registration. Eye Contact Lens. 2010;36:54-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy, predictability, safety, and intraoperative and postoperative complications of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) retreatment in myopic eyes using wavefront-guided ablation with iris registration (IR).
  24. Baykara M, Ozcetin H, Yilmaz S, Timucin O. Posterior iris fixation of the iris-claw intraocular lens implantation through a scleral tunnel incision. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:586-91 pubmed
    To evaluate the technique, efficacy, and safety of posterior iris fixation of iris-claw intraocular lens (IOLs) implantation through a scleral tunnel incision for aphakia correction.
  25. He Z, Tan T, Sun Z, Qiu X. Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell. 2009;31:1670-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Iris segmentation is an essential module in iris recognition because it defines the effective image region used for subsequent processing such as feature extraction...
  26. Kutzbach B, Mendelsohn N, Rath P, Summers C. Sectoral iris heterochromia and retinal pigment variation in 13q-syndrome. J AAPOS. 2007;11:513-5 pubmed
    ..Typical ocular associations include retinoblastoma, microphthalmia, and colobomas. We report a case of bilateral iris heterochromia and retinal pigment abnormalities in a child with 13q-syndrome.
  27. Schmidt Pokrzywniak A, Jöckel K, Bornfeld N, Sauerwein W, Stang A. Positive interaction between light iris color and ultraviolet radiation in relation to the risk of uveal melanoma: a case-control study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:340-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the association among phenotypic characteristics, chronic and intermittent ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and the risk of uveal melanoma...
  28. He M, Wang D, Console J, Zhang J, Zheng Y, Huang W. Distribution and heritability of iris thickness and pupil size in Chinese: the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1593-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the distribution and heritability of iris thickness and pupil diameter measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) in a classic twin study.
  29. Shields C, Manquez M, Ehya H, Mashayekhi A, Danzig C, Shields J. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of iris tumors in 100 consecutive cases: technique and complications. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:2080-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the technique and complications of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for iris tumors.
  30. He M, Friedman D, Ge J, Huang W, Jin C, Cai X, et al. Laser peripheral iridotomy in eyes with narrow drainage angles: ultrasound biomicroscopy outcomes. The Liwan Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1513-9 pubmed
    ..To assess the short-term effect of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) on anterior segment anatomy in angle-closure suspects using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM)...
  31. Ugarte M, Leong T, Rassam S, Kon C. Intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome, alpha1-adrenergic antagonists, and chronic intake of mianserin: is there an association?. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:170 pubmed
  32. Honkanen R, Alward W, Cossari A. Progressive iris changes in a case of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:1793 pubmed
  33. Ang M, Baskaran M, Kumar R, Chew P, Oen F, Wong H, et al. National survey of ophthalmologists in Singapore for the assessment and management of asymptomatic angle closure. J Glaucoma. 2008;17:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes and practices of ophthalmologists in Singapore regarding the management of these patients...
  34. Chalam K, Gupta S, Grover S, Brar V, Agarwal S. Intracameral Avastin dramatically resolves iris neovascularization and reverses neovascular glaucoma. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2008;18:255-62 pubmed
    To report the biologic effect of intracameral bevacizumab in patients with iris neovascularization secondary to proliferative retinal vasculopathies.
  35. Chadha V, Borooah S, Tey A, Styles C, Singh J. Floppy iris behaviour during cataract surgery: associations and variations. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:40-2 pubmed
    To assess the association of floppy iris behaviour during cataract surgery with use of alpha-1-antagonists and diabetes mellitus.
  36. Miot H, Pivotto D, Jorge E, Mazeto G. [Evaluation of oculometric parameters by facial digital photography: use of iris diameter as a reference]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2008;71:679-83 pubmed
    To evaluate reproducibility and precision of ocular measurements by digital photograph analysis, in addition to the transformation of the measures according to the individual iris diameter as an oculometric reference.
  37. Chun Y, Park I, Lee H, Lee J, Kim J. Iris and trabecular meshwork pigment changes after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:1452-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the changes in laser iridotomies, intraocular pressure (IOP), angle structures, and pupil diameter after implantable contact lens (ICL) (Version 4 Staar Surgical) implantation in myopic Asian eyes...
  38. Kleinmann G, Apple D, Mackool R. Recurrent iritis after implantation of an iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens for the correction of myopia Case report and clinicopathologic correlation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:1385-7 pubmed
    The iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the correction of refractive disorders. Previous reports are not uniform regarding its potential to induce inflammatory reaction...
  39. Dureau P, De Laage De Meux P, Edelson C, Caputo G. Iris fixation of foldable intraocular lenses for ectopia lentis in children. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:1109-14 pubmed
    To describe a technique for iris fixation of acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) in ectopia lentis and evaluate the medium-term anatomical and functional results in children.
  40. Sugimoto Y, Mochizuki H, Okumichi H, Takumida M, Takamatsu M, Kawamata S, et al. Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on iris vessels in neovascular glaucoma patients. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;248:1601-9 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to investigate the effects of a single 1-mg injection of intravitreal bevacizumab on iris vessels in neovascular glaucoma (NVG) patients.
  41. Yoshioka Y, Abe T, Wakusawa R, Moriya T, Mochizuki S, Saigo Y, et al. Recombinant AAV-transduced iris pigment epithelial cell transplantation may transfer vector to native RPE but suppress systemic dissemination. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:745-52 pubmed
    To determine whether adenoassociated virus (AAV) vectors transduced into iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells and transplanted into the subretinal space of rats will transfer the AAV genome to the host cells and whether the vectors are ..
  42. Sugita S, Futagami Y, Horie S, Mochizuki M. Transforming growth factor beta-producing Foxp3(+)CD8(+)CD25(+) T cells induced by iris pigment epithelial cells display regulatory phenotype and acquire regulatory functions. Exp Eye Res. 2007;85:626-36 pubmed
    ..The PE-induced Tregs fully suppress activation of bystander responder T cells. Iris PE (IPE) cells from anterior segment in the eye produce costimulatory molecules and transforming growth factor beta ..
  43. Wong H, Lim M, Sakata L, Aung H, Amerasinghe N, Friedman D, et al. High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging of the iridocorneal angle of the eye. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:256-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the ability of high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) to image the anterior chamber angle...
  44. Kikuchi M, Hayashi R, Kanakubo S, Ogasawara A, Yamato M, Osumi N, et al. Neural crest-derived multipotent cells in the adult mouse iris stroma. Genes Cells. 2011;16:273-81 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to characterize neural crest-derived cells within the adult murine iris. The iris was isolated from P0-Cre/Floxed-EGFP transgenic (TG) mice...
  45. Espana E, Mora R, Liebmann J, Ritch R. Bilateral prominent schwalbe ring in the anterior chamber in a patient with axenfeld-rieger syndrome and megalocornea. Cornea. 2007;26:379-81 pubmed
    ..To report the unusual presentation of bilateral Schwalbe rings suspended in the anterior chambers of a patient with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome...
  46. Pandav S, Kaushik S, Jain R, Bansal R, Gupta A. Laser peripheral iridotomy across the spectrum of primary angle closure. Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42:233-7 pubmed
    ..To study the effectiveness of Nd:YAG laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) for primary angle closure in Asian Indian patients...
  47. Yoo C, Hwang W, Hong S, Lee H, Jeong H, Kim S, et al. Relationship between iris constitution analysis and TNF-alpha gene polymorphism in hypertensives. Am J Chin Med. 2007;35:621-9 pubmed
    ..medicine that involves the diagnosis of medical conditions by noting irregularities of the pigmentation in the iris. Iris constitution has a strong hereditary component...
  48. Aoki H, Hara A, Motohashi T, Chem H, Kunisada T. Iris as a recipient tissue for pigment cells: organized in vivo differentiation of melanocytes and pigmented epithelium derived from embryonic stem cells in vitro. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2394-404 pubmed publisher
    ..the in vivo differentiation of these two pigment cell types derived from ES cells after their transfer into the iris. Melanocytes derived from ES cells efficiently integrated into the iris and expanded to fill the stromal layer of ..
  49. Topalkara A, Karadas B, Toker M, Kaya T, Durmus N, Turgut B. Relaxant effects of beta-adrenoceptor agonist formoterol and BRL 37344 on bovine iris sphincter and ciliary muscle. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;548:144-9 pubmed
    ..the relaxant effect of beta2-adrenoceptor agonist formoterol and beta3-adrenoceptor agonist BRL 37344 on bovine iris sphincter and ciliary muscle and measured cAMP and cGMP levels...
  50. Abouzeid H, Meire F, Osman I, ElShakankiri N, Bolay S, Munier F, et al. A new locus for congenital cataract, microcornea, microphthalmia, and atypical iris coloboma maps to chromosome 2. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:154-162.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..dominant atypical congenital cataract associated with variable expression of microcornea, microphthalmia, and iris coloboma linked to chromosome 2...
  51. Makarev E, Spence J, Del Rio Tsonis K, Tsonis P. Identification of microRNAs and other small RNAs from the adult newt eye. Mol Vis. 2006;12:1386-91 pubmed
    ..miRNAs have been found in all animals from Drosophila to human and they are highly conserved. This work was undertaken in order to identify such RNAs in the newt eye...
  52. van Eijden R, de Vries N, Cruysberg L, Webers C, Berenschot T, Nuijts R. Case of late-onset corneal decompensation after iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009;35:774-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cell density (ECD) of 2525 cells/mm(2) and 2638 cells/mm(2) preoperatively had bilateral implantation of an Artisan iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens (pIOL)...
  53. Chen W, Hu X, Zhao L, Li S, Lu H. Expression of toll-like receptor 4 in uvea-resident tissue macrophages during endotoxin-induced uveitis. Mol Vis. 2009;15:619-28 pubmed
    ..To investigate the dynamics and distribution of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive cells and resident tissue macrophages in the uvea during endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in Wistar rats...