ciliary body


Summary: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.

Top Publications

  1. Coca Prados M, Escribano J. New perspectives in aqueous humor secretion and in glaucoma: the ciliary body as a multifunctional neuroendocrine gland. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2007;26:239-62 pubmed
    The discovery in the human ocular ciliary body of glaucoma-associated genes (i.e...
  2. Mei H, Xing Y, Yang A, Wang J, Xu Y, Wang Z, et al. Astrocytoma of the ciliary body. Ophthalmologica. 2009;223:72-4 pubmed publisher
    To report the occurrence of an astrocytoma of the ciliary body.
  3. Kulkarni K, Monjok E, Zeyssig R, Kouamou G, Bongmba O, Opere C, et al. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on sympathetic neurotransmission and catecholamine levels in isolated porcine iris-ciliary body. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:400-6 pubmed publisher
    ..and Na2S caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of electrically evoked [3H]NE release from porcine iris-ciliary body without affecting basal [3H]NE efflux...
  4. Wu R, Ma N. Expression of nitric oxide synthase and guanylate cyclase in the human ciliary body and trabecular meshwork. Chin Med J (Engl). 2012;125:129-33 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to investigate the expression and distribution of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and guanylate cyclase (GC) in human ciliary body, trabecular meshwork and the Schlemm's canal.
  5. Ioannidis A, Barton K. Cyclodialysis cleft: causes and repair. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010;21:150-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the most recent developments in the diagnosis and management of cyclodialysis clefts...
  6. Kaliki S, Shields C, Eagle R, Vemuganti G, Almeida A, Manjandavida F, et al. Ciliary body medulloepithelioma: analysis of 41 cases. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:2552-2559 pubmed publisher
    To describe the clinical features, histopathology, treatment, and outcomes of ciliary body medulloepithelioma. Retrospective study. Forty-one patients with medulloepithelioma...
  7. Yildirim N, Yalvac I, Sahin A, Ozer A, Bozca T. A comparative study between diode laser cyclophotocoagulation and the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant in neovascular glaucoma: a long-term follow-up. J Glaucoma. 2009;18:192-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the efficacy, safety, and long-term results of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction by diode laser contact cyclophotocoagulation (DCPC) and Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implant in cases of neovascular glaucoma...
  8. Hwang J, Ahn K, Kim C, Park K, Kee C. Ultrasonic biomicroscopic evaluation of cyclodialysis before and after direct cyclopexy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1222-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the clinical manifestations and surgical prognoses after direct cyclopexy in patients with traumatic cyclodialysis according to the cleft extent as determined by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM)...
  9. Kymionis G, Diakonis V, Charisis S, Pallikaris A, Bouzoukis D, Yoo S, et al. Effects of topical mitomycin C on the ciliary body and intraocular pressure after PRK: an experimental study. J Refract Surg. 2008;24:633-8 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of the application of mitomycin C (MMC) after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on the ciliary body and intraocular pressure (IOP) in an experimental model.

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Croft M, McDonald J, Nadkarni N, Lin T, Kaufman P. Age-related changes in centripetal ciliary body movement relative to centripetal lens movement in monkeys. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:824-32 pubmed publisher
    The goal was to determine the age-related changes in accommodative movements of the lens and ciliary body in rhesus monkeys...
  2. Zhang Y, Patil R, Marmorstein A. Bestrophin 2 is expressed in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelium but not retinal pigment epithelium. Mol Vis. 2010;16:200-6 pubmed
    ..Best2 encodes a putative anion channel localized uniquely to the basolateral plasma membrane of non-pigmented epithelium cells in mice. In this study, we examine the localization of Best2 in the human eye...
  3. Rosa N, Lanza M, Borrelli M, De Bernardo M, Palladino A, Di Gregorio M, et al. Low intraocular pressure resulting from ciliary body detachment in patients with myotonic dystrophy. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:260-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate why myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) patients have low intraocular pressure (IOP)...
  4. Li B, Umapathy A, Tran L, Donaldson P, Lim J. Molecular identification and cellular localisation of GSH synthesis, uptake, efflux and degradation pathways in the rat ciliary body. Histochem Cell Biol. 2013;139:559-71 pubmed publisher glutathione (GSH) levels in the aqueous by mapping GSH metabolism and transport pathways in the rat ciliary body. Using a combination of molecular and immunohistochemical techniques, we screened and localised enzymes and ..
  5. Venters S, Cuenca P, Hyer J. Retinal and anterior eye compartments derive from a common progenitor pool in the avian optic cup. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3347-63 pubmed be sub-divided into separate lineages: i) pigmented epithelium in the outer layer; ii) presumptive iris and ciliary body at the most anterior aspect of the inner layer; and iii) presumptive neural retina in the remainder of the ..
  6. van Koolwijk L, Ramdas W, Ikram M, Jansonius N, Pasutto F, Hysi P, et al. Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002611 pubmed publisher
    ..4×10(-2) for rs11656696 and p=9.1×10(-4) for rs7555523). GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina...
  7. Johnsen E, Frøen R, Albert R, Omdal B, Sarang Z, Berta A, et al. Activation of neural progenitor cells in human eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Exp Eye Res. 2012;98:28-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells expressing markers of NSCs are also present in the ciliary body epithelium (CE) and in Müller glia in the peripheral retina (PR) of the adult human eye...
  8. Schultz K, Sinnott L, Mutti D, Bailey M. Accommodative fluctuations, lens tension, and ciliary body thickness in children. Optom Vis Sci. 2009;86:677-84 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the relationship among microfluctuations in accommodation, resting tension on the crystalline lens, ciliary body thickness, and refractive error in children.
  9. Pelis R, Shahidullah M, Ghosh S, Coca Prados M, Wright S, Delamere N. Localization of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 in the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium of the eye. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;329:479-85 pubmed publisher
    The nonpigmented epithelium (NPE) of the ciliary body represents an important component of the blood-aqueous barrier of the eye. Many therapeutic drugs penetrate poorly across the NPE into the aqueous humor of the eye interior...
  10. Webb J, Yang X, Crosson C. Expression of the kallikrein/kinin system in human anterior segment. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Intense KK immunofluorescence was observed in the epithelial lining of the ciliary body and KK protein was also detected in the ciliary muscle...
  11. Janssen S, Gorgels T, Bossers K, ten Brink J, Essing A, Nagtegaal M, et al. Gene expression and functional annotation of the human ciliary body epithelia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44973 pubmed publisher
    The ciliary body (CB) of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) neuro-epithelia...
  12. Ali M, McKibbin M, Booth A, Parry D, Jain P, Riazuddin S, et al. Null mutations in LTBP2 cause primary congenital glaucoma. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;84:664-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed localization of LTBP2 in the anterior segment of the eye, at the ciliary body, and particularly the ciliary process...
  13. Bhatia B, Singhal S, Lawrence J, Khaw P, Limb G. Distribution of Müller stem cells within the neural retina: evidence for the existence of a ciliary margin-like zone in the adult human eye. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:373-82 pubmed publisher
    Much interest has been generated by the identification of neural stem cells in the human neural retina and ciliary body. However, it is not clear whether stem cells identified in these ocular compartments are of the same origin or whether ..
  14. Locker M, El Yakoubi W, Mazurier N, Dullin J, Perron M. A decade of mammalian retinal stem cell research. Arch Ital Biol. 2010;148:59-72 pubmed
    ..We will also highlight advances made in animal models capable of stem cell-mediated retinal regeneration...
  15. Ooi Y, Oh D, Rhee D. Effect of bimatoprost, latanoprost, and unoprostone on matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in human ciliary body smooth muscle cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:5259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis was that a differential effect on MMPs and TIMPs in ciliary body smooth muscle (CBSM) cells would relate to the relative intraocular pressure-lowering effectiveness of the ..
  16. Trimarchi J, Cho S, Cepko C. Identification of genes expressed preferentially in the developing peripheral margin of the optic cup. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2327-9 pubmed publisher
    Specification of the peripheral optic cup by Wnt signaling is critical for formation of the ciliary body/iris. Identification of marker genes for this region during development provides a starting point for functional analyses...
  17. Heindl L, Hofmann T, Adler W, Knorr H, Holbach L, Naumann G, et al. Intraocular tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis a novel prognostic factor for ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension?. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:334-42 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate whether intraocular tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis contributes to prognosis of ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension and to study its association with other tumor characteristics.
  18. Lee Y, Tresguerres M, Hess K, Marmorstein L, Levin L, Buck J, et al. Regulation of anterior chamber drainage by bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase in the ciliary body. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41353-8 pubmed publisher
    ..IOP results from the resistance to drainage of aqueous humor (AH) produced by the ciliary body in a process requiring bicarbonate...
  19. Frøen R, Johnsen E, Petrovski G, Berényi E, Facsko A, Berta A, et al. Pigment epithelial cells isolated from human peripheral iridectomies have limited properties of retinal stem cells. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89:e635-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In the light of recent studies questioning the existence of RPCs in the adult mammalian CM, we wanted to assess the potential of the adult human IPE as source of RPCs...
  20. Inoue T, Pecen P, Maddala R, Skiba N, Pattabiraman P, Epstein D, et al. Characterization of cytoskeleton-enriched protein fraction of the trabecular meshwork and ciliary muscle cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6461-71 pubmed publisher
  21. Wei W, Yang W, Hu S, Li B. Local excision of ciliary body tumors: a long-term prospective cohort study in China. Chin Med J (Engl). 2008;121:2152-6 pubmed
    b>Ciliary body tumors are usually difficult to diagnose and treat in early stages. However, treatment of such tumors has trended toward ocular conservation instead of enucleation...
  22. Moe M, Kolberg R, Sandberg C, Vik Mo E, Olstorn H, Varghese M, et al. A comparison of epithelial and neural properties in progenitor cells derived from the adult human ciliary body and brain. Exp Eye Res. 2009;88:30-8 pubmed publisher
    Cells isolated from the ciliary body (CB) of the adult human eye possess properties of retinal stem/progenitor cells and can be propagated as spheres in culture...
  23. Bailey M, Sinnott L, Mutti D. Ciliary body thickness and refractive error in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:4353-60 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether ciliary body thickness (CBT) is related to refractive error in school-age children.
  24. Calera M, Wang Z, Sanchez Olea R, Paul D, Civan M, Goodenough D. Depression of intraocular pressure following inactivation of connexin43 in the nonpigmented epithelium of the ciliary body. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..It was proposed that gap junctions between pigmented and nonpigmented epithelia of the ciliary body are critical for the production of the aqueous humor...
  25. Zhou Y, Tanzie C, Yan Z, Chen S, Duncan M, Gaudenz K, et al. Notch2 regulates BMP signaling and epithelial morphogenesis in the ciliary body of the mouse eye. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8966-71 pubmed publisher
    The ciliary body (CB) of the mammalian eye is responsible for secreting aqueous humor to maintain intraocular pressure, which is elevated in the eyes of glaucoma patients...
  26. Ooi Y, Oh D, Rhee D. Analysis of alpha2-adrenergic receptors and effect of brimonidine on matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in human ciliary body. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4237-43 pubmed publisher
    To ascertain the expression pattern of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors in the ciliary body (CB) and determine the effect of brimonidine on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in ciliary body ..
  27. Cicero S, Johnson D, Reyntjens S, Frase S, Connell S, Chow L, et al. Cells previously identified as retinal stem cells are pigmented ciliary epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6685-90 pubmed publisher
  28. Ni A, Wu M, Nakanishi Y, Chavala S. Facile and efficient reprogramming of ciliary body epithelial cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22:2543-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify ciliary body epithelial cells (CECs) as a new cell type for iPS cell generation that has higher reprogramming efficiency ..
  29. Ford K, Saint Geniez M, Walshe T, D Amore P. Expression and role of VEGF--a in the ciliary body. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7520-7 pubmed publisher
    The role of VEGF-A in the normal ciliary body is largely unexplored...
  30. Wohl S, Schmeer C, Isenmann S. Neurogenic potential of stem/progenitor-like cells in the adult mammalian eye. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012;31:213-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These neuronal progenitor-like cells include the pigmented cells of the ciliary body (CB), as well as the pigmented cells of the iris and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)...
  31. Davis N, Yoffe C, Raviv S, Antes R, Berger J, Holzmann S, et al. Pax6 dosage requirements in iris and ciliary body differentiation. Dev Biol. 2009;333:132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the Tyrp2-Cre line, active in iris and ciliary body (CB) primordium, enabled us to investigate the effect of varying dosages of Pax6 on the development of these ..
  32. Heindl L, Hofmann T, Schrödl F, Holbach L, Kruse F, Cursiefen C. Intraocular lymphatics in ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension: functional for lymphatic spread?. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:1001-8 pubmed publisher
    To assess the functional significance of intraocular tumor-associated lymphatic vessels in ciliary body melanomas with extraocular extension.
  33. Heindl L, Hofmann T, Knorr H, Rummelt C, Schrödl F, Schlötzer Schrehardt U, et al. Intraocular lymphangiogenesis in malignant melanomas of the ciliary body with extraocular extension. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1988-95 pubmed publisher
    ..analyze whether lymphatic vessels can invade the normally alymphatic eye (lymphangiogenesis) in patients with malignant melanoma of the ciliary body with extraocular extension and to correlate these findings with metastasis-free survival.
  34. Doshi M, Marcus C, Bejjani B, Edward D. Immunolocalization of CYP1B1 in normal, human, fetal and adult eyes. Exp Eye Res. 2006;82:24-32 pubmed
    ..Previously, investigators have reported detection of Cyp1b1 mRNA in the ciliary body and epithelium and neuroepithelium in the developing mouse eye, employing in situ hybridization techniques...
  35. Camelo S, Voon A, Bunt S, McMenamin P. Local retention of soluble antigen by potential antigen-presenting cells in the anterior segment of the eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:5212-9 pubmed
    ..To determine the capacity of bone marrow-derived cells in the anterior segment of the eye to capture a fluorescence-labeled antigen (Ag) injected into the anterior chamber (AC)...
  36. Mansoor S, Qureshi A. Ciliary body adenoma of non-pigmented epithelium. J Clin Pathol. 2004;57:997-8 pubmed
    Adenomas of the non-pigmented epithelium of the ciliary body are rare neoplasms and most of the studies are in the form of case reports...
  37. Gerdes J, Liu Y, Zaghloul N, Leitch C, Lawson S, Kato M, et al. Disruption of the basal body compromises proteasomal function and perturbs intracellular Wnt response. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1350-60 pubmed
  38. Salvador Silva M, Ghosh S, Bertazolli Filho R, Boatright J, Nickerson J, Garwin G, et al. Retinoid processing proteins in the ocular ciliary epithelium. Mol Vis. 2005;11:356-65 pubmed
  39. Das A, James J, Rahnenführer J, Thoreson W, Bhattacharya S, Zhao X, et al. Retinal properties and potential of the adult mammalian ciliary epithelium stem cells. Vision Res. 2005;45:1653-66 pubmed
    ..Both proliferative/differential potential and transcription profiles suggest that CE stem cells may be a residual population of stem cells of optic neuroepithelium, representing a stage antecedent to retinal progenitors...
  40. Aminlari A, Callahan C. Medical, laser, and surgical management of inadvertent cyclodialysis cleft with hypotony. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:399-404 pubmed
  41. Krohn J, Arnes J, Rødahl E. Ciliary body melanoma simulating multiple iris cysts. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:428-9 pubmed
  42. Ohta K, Kikuchi T, Arai S, Yoshida N, Sato A, Yoshimura N. Protective role of heme oxygenase-1 against endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats. Exp Eye Res. 2003;77:665-73 pubmed
    ..HO-1 and HO-2 expression in the iris-ciliary body (ICB) was studied by real time PCR and Western blot analysis...
  43. Ishida K, Panjwani N, Cao Z, Streilein J. Participation of pigment epithelium in ocular immune privilege. 3. Epithelia cultured from iris, ciliary body, and retina suppress T-cell activation by partially non-overlapping mechanisms. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2003;11:91-105 pubmed
    ..ocular pigmented epithelia contribute to this microenvironment, we studied the relative capacities of pigment epithelial (PE) cells cultured from the iris, ciliary body, and retina of mouse eyes to suppress T-cell activation in vitro.
  44. Macneil A, Pearson R, MacLaren R, Smith A, Sowden J, Ali R. Comparative analysis of progenitor cells isolated from the iris, pars plana, and ciliary body of the adult porcine eye. Stem Cells. 2007;25:2430-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a population of cells derived from the adult iris, pars plana, and ciliary body of a large mammalian species, the pig, has progenitor properties and neurogenic potential, thereby providing ..
  45. Rouberol F, Roy P, Kodjikian L, Gerard J, Jean Louis B, Grange J. Survival, anatomic, and functional long-term results in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma after ruthenium brachytherapy (15 years' experience with beta-rays). Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:893-900 pubmed
    ..To analyze survival, radiation-related complications, local recurrence, enucleation, and visual acuity after ruthenium-106 irradiation of malignant uveal melanoma...
  46. Spence J, Madhavan M, Ewing J, Jones D, Lehman B, Del Rio Tsonis K. The hedgehog pathway is a modulator of retina regeneration. Development. 2004;131:4607-21 pubmed
    ..The second type of retinal regeneration occurs from the anterior margin of the eye, near the ciliary body (CB) and ciliary marginal zone (CMZ)...
  47. Napier H, Kidson S. Proliferation and cell shape changes during ciliary body morphogenesis in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:213-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, in the mouse, the temporal correlation between mitotic and cell height changes during ciliary body morphogenesis suggests that these processes play an integral role in the shaping of ciliary processes.
  48. Yanagi Y, Inoue Y, Kawase Y, Uchida S, Tamaki Y, Araie M, et al. Properties of growth and molecular profiles of rat progenitor cells from ciliary epithelium. Exp Eye Res. 2006;82:471-8 pubmed
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that CE-derived progenitor cells may have intrinsic limitations in the production of cell types...
  49. Zenkel M, Poschl E, von der Mark K, Hofmann Rummelt C, Naumann G, Kruse F, et al. Differential gene expression in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:3742-52 pubmed
    ..To identify and characterize genes differentially expressed in anterior segment tissues of eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome and glaucoma...
  50. Yoshida K, Nakayama K, Kase S, Nagahama H, Harada T, Ikeda H, et al. Involvement of p27(KIP1) in proliferation of the retinal pigment epithelium and ciliary body. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2004;208:145-50 pubmed
    ..On embryonic days 14 and 18, p27(KIP1) was detected in the ciliary body. This protein also was detected in the nuclei of the many cells of the retinal pigment epithelium on embryonic ..
  51. Garcia Feijoo J, Encinas J, Mendez Hernandez C, Ronco I, Martínez de la Casa J, Garcia Sanchez J. Medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body: ultrasonographic biomicroscopic findings. J Ultrasound Med. 2005;24:247-50 pubmed
  52. Furino C, Guerriero S, Boscia F, Ferrari T, Cardascia N, Nicola C, et al. In vivo evidence of hypotrophic ciliary body in ocular ischemic syndrome by ultrasound biomicroscopy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2007;38:505-7 pubmed
    ..Chronic hypoxia affects even the iris and ciliary body. The hypoperfusion of the ciliary body leads to a relative hypotony, presumably related to decreased aqueous ..
  53. Yeung B, Ng P, Chiu T, Tsang C, Li F, Chi C, et al. Prevalence and mechanism of appositional angle closure in acute primary angle closure after iridotomy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;33:478-82 pubmed