retinal pigment epithelium


Summary: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.

Top Publications

  1. Uesugi K, Sakaguchi H, Hayashida Y, Hayashi R, Baba K, Suganuma Y, et al. A Self-Assembling Peptide Gel as a Vitreous Substitute: A Rabbit Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4068-4075 pubmed publisher
    ..Electroretinography and histology confirmed the gel's biocompatibility. This diluted self-assembling peptide gel could be provide a promising vitreous substitute. ..
  2. Mesmin B, Bigay J, Polidori J, Jamecna D, Lacas Gervais S, Antonny B. Sterol transfer, PI4P consumption, and control of membrane lipid order by endogenous OSBP. EMBO J. 2017;36:3156-3174 pubmed publisher
  3. Özyurt A, Kocak N, Akan P, Calan O, Ozturk T, Kaya M, et al. Comparison of macular pigment optical density in patients with dry and wet age-related macular degeneration. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:477-481 pubmed publisher
    ..Mean MPOD and maximum MPOD levels were similar in wet and dry AMD Groups. These results can be applied clinically keeping in mind that MPOD measurements with one wavelength reflectometry may not be completely reliable. ..
  4. Parameswaran S, Krishnakumar S. Pluripotent stem cells: A therapeutic source for age-related macular degeneration. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:177-183 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell replacement therapy has shown promise. This review discusses the opportunities in the various types of cell-based therapy, their limitations, and what is possible for India. ..
  5. Au E, Fernandez Godino R, Kaczynksi T, Sousa M, Farkas M. Characterization of lincRNA expression in the human retinal pigment epithelium and differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183939 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examine the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lincRNA transcriptome using RNA-Seq data generated from human fetal RPE (fRPE), RPE derived from ..
  6. Zhang Y, Wei W, Li L, Tu G, Zhang Y, Yang J, et al. Sirt1 and HMGB1 Regulate the AGE-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Human Retinal Cells. Clin Lab. 2015;61:999-1008 pubmed
    ..Sirt 1 was confirmed to regulate AGE-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via inhibiting the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation and release of HMGB1 in retinal ARPE-19 cells. ..
  7. Kuehlewein L, Dustin L, Sagong M, Hariri A, Mendes T, Rofagha S, et al. Predictors of Macular Atrophy Detected by Fundus Autofluorescence in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration After Long-Term Ranibizumab Treatment. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings from this study may guide hypothesis generation for future AMD trials. ..
  8. Liu Z, Kocaoglu O, Miller D. 3D Imaging of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in the Living Human Retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:OCT533-43 pubmed publisher
    Dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) underlies numerous retinal pathologies, but biomarkers sensitive to RPE change at the cellular level are limited...
  9. Zhou W, Wang L, Zhou L, Bin W, Bao T, Zhang Y, et al. All-trans retinoic acid upregulates the expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Cell Biochem Funct. 2017;35:202-208 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that ATRA administration upregulates CNTF expression in RPE cells. ..

More Information


  1. Xue Y, Shen S, Jui J, Rupp A, Byrne L, Hattar S, et al. CRALBP supports the mammalian retinal visual cycle and cone vision. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:727-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify Müller cell CRALBP as a key component of the retinal visual cycle and demonstrate that this pathway is important for maintaining normal cone-driven vision and accelerating cone dark adaptation. ..
  2. Fu H, Zhang B, Tong J, BEDELL H, Zhang H, Yang Y, et al. Relationships of orientation discrimination threshold and visual acuity with macular lesions in age-related macular degeneration. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185070 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation between BCVA and ODT varied among these groups, indicating that AMD lesions affect them differently. ODT and BCVA should be used concurrently for better monitoring of the disease. ..
  3. Zadlo A, Pilat A, Sarna M, Pawlak A, Sarna T. Redox Active Transition Metal ions Make Melanin Susceptible to Chemical Degradation Induced by Organic Peroxide. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2017;75:319-333 pubmed publisher
    With aging, retinal pigment epithelium melanosomes, by fusion with the age pigment lipofuscin, form complex granules called melanolipofuscin...
  4. Curcio C, Zanzottera E, Ach T, Balaratnasingam C, Freund K. Activated Retinal Pigment Epithelium, an Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarker for Progression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:BIO211-BIO226 pubmed publisher
    To summarize and contextualize recent histology and clinical imaging publications on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fate in advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD); to support RPE activation and migration as important precursors ..
  5. Krishnan S, Smits A, Vermeulen M, Reinberg D. Phospho-H1 Decorates the Inter-chromatid Axis and Is Evicted along with Shugoshin by SET during Mitosis. Mol Cell. 2017;67:579-593.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also elucidate the functional implications of the decades-old observation of mitotic linker histone phosphorylation, serving as a paradigm to explore the role of linker histones in bio-signaling processes. ..
  6. Caballero S, Kent D, Sengupta N, Li Calzi S, Shaw L, Beli E, et al. Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Recruitment to the Neurosensory Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Layer Following Subthreshold Retinal Phototherapy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5164-5176 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether subthreshold retinal phototherapy (SRPT) was associated with recruitment of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells to the neurosensory retina (NSR) and RPE layer...
  7. Kim J, Kim J, Chang Y, Kim J, Kim C, Lee D. Treatment of Bilateral Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation with Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: 12-Month Outcome. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:240-248 pubmed publisher
    ..However, equivalent baseline visual acuity in both eyes might not guarantee similar treatment outcomes. In addition, the absence of PED is predictive of better visual outcome. ..
  8. Greenstein V, Nunez J, Lee W, Schuerch K, Fortune B, Tsang S, et al. A Comparison of En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Fundus Autofluorescence in Stargardt Disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5227-5236 pubmed publisher
    ..The spatial locations of hyperreflective flecks on the en face preRPE(OS) slab image corresponded to those on the SW-AF images. Wide-field en face OCT imaging has the potential to be a clinically useful tool for the management of STGD1. ..
  9. FIELDS M, Bowrey H, Gong J, Moreira E, Cai H, Del Priore L. Extracellular matrix nitration alters growth factor release and activates bioactive complement in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177763 pubmed publisher
    ..This model demonstrates changes seen in the basement membrane can lead to alterations in the cell biology of the RPE cells that may be related to the development of age-related macular degeneration. ..
  10. Böni C, Thorne J, Spaide R, Ostheimer T, Sarraf D, Levinson R, et al. Fundus Autofluorescence Findings in Eyes With Birdshot Chorioretinitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4015-4025 pubmed publisher
    ..89, P = 0.003, respectively). In this large cohort, various FAF abnormalities were found, indicating that disorders of the retinal pigment epithelium are features of BSCR. Abnormal FAF is a marker of visual dysfunction in the disease.
  11. Gupta T, Saini N, Arora J, Sahni D. Age-Related Changes in the Chorioretinal Junction: An Immunohistochemical Study. J Histochem Cytochem. 2017;65:567-577 pubmed publisher
    The chorioretinal junction comprises the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane (BM), and adjacent choroidal capillaries. Its significance lies in its ability to support the retina mechanically and metabolically...
  12. Lu C, Lee B, Schottenhamml J, Maier A, Pugh E, Fujimoto J. Photoreceptor Layer Thickness Changes During Dark Adaptation Observed With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4632-4643 pubmed publisher
    ..segment/outer segment (EZ[IS/OS]), cone interdigitation zone (CIZ), rod interdigitation zone (RIZ), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Bruch's membrane (BM) axial positions and generated two-dimensional thickness maps of the EZ(..
  13. Bai H, Mao Y, Shen L, Xu X, Gao F, Zhang Z, et al. Bruch´s membrane thickness in relationship to axial length. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182080 pubmed publisher
    ..of Bruch´s membrane (BM) in the biomechanics of the eye, we measured its thickness and the density of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in various ocular regions in eyes of varying axial length...
  14. Viana K, Leão P, Fernandes L, Siqueira R, Ribeiro J, Jorge R. Multimodal assessment of patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2017;80:181-185 pubmed publisher
    ..Areas of discontinuation or attenuation of the hyporeflective layer of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) on OCT were observed at the same locations as hyperfluorescent angiography window defects on FA ..
  15. Pitaval A, Senger F, Letort G, Gidrol X, Guyon L, Sillibourne J, et al. Microtubule stabilization drives 3D centrosome migration to initiate primary ciliogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:3713-3728 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data elucidate the hitherto unexplored mechanism of centrosome migration and show that it is driven by the increase and clustering of mechanical forces to push the centrosome toward the cell apical pole. ..
  16. Schönbach E, Wolfson Y, Strauss R, Ibrahim M, Kong X, Munoz B, et al. Macular Sensitivity Measured With Microperimetry in Stargardt Disease in the Progression of Atrophy Secondary to Stargardt Disease (ProgStar) Study: Report No. 7. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:696-703 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest microperimetry testing provides a more comprehensive assessment of retinal function and will be an important outcome measure in future clinical trials. ..
  17. Dix C, Matthews H, Uroz M, McLaren S, Wolf L, Heatley N, et al. The Role of Mitotic Cell-Substrate Adhesion Re-modeling in Animal Cell Division. Dev Cell. 2018;45:132-145.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..In this way, regulated re-modeling of cell-substrate adhesions during mitotic rounding aids division in animal cells. ..
  18. Kiser P, Zhang J, Badiee M, Kinoshita J, Peachey N, Tochtrop G, et al. Rational Tuning of Visual Cycle Modulator Pharmacodynamics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;362:131-145 pubmed publisher
    ..These agents were designed to inhibit retinoid isomerase [retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein (RPE65)], the rate-limiting enzyme of the visual cycle, based on the idea that ..
  19. Freund K, Mukkamala S, Cooney M. Peripapillary choroidal thickening and cavitation. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:1096-7 pubmed publisher
  20. Matoba R, Morizane Y, Shiode Y, Hirano M, Doi S, Toshima S, et al. Suppressive effect of AMP-activated protein kinase on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in retinal pigment epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181481 pubmed publisher
    ..AMPK is a potential target molecule for the prevention and treatment of PVR, so AICAR may be a promising candidate for PVR therapy. ..
  21. Bennis A, ten Brink J, Moerland P, Heine V, Bergen A. Comparative gene expression study and pathway analysis of the human iris- and the retinal pigment epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182983 pubmed publisher
    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a neural monolayer lining the back of the eye...
  22. Yang P, Skiba N, Tewkesbury G, Treboschi V, Baciu P, Jaffe G. Complement-Mediated Regulation of Apolipoprotein E in Cultured Human RPE Cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3073-3085 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of the mechanisms by which complement affects RPE ApoE accumulation may help to better explain drusen composition, and provide insights into potential therapeutic targets. ..
  23. Subramanian P, Rapp M, Becerra S. Identification of pigment epithelium-derived factor receptor (PEDF-R) antibody epitopes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;723:799-805 pubmed publisher
  24. Strauss R, Munoz B, Ho A, Jha A, Michaelides M, Mohand Said S, et al. Incidence of Atrophic Lesions in Stargardt Disease in the Progression of Atrophy Secondary to Stargardt Disease (ProgStar) Study: Report No. 5. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:687-695 pubmed publisher
    ..Outcome measures that are sensitive to disease progression are needed as clinical end points for future treatment trials in Stargardt disease...
  25. Guber J, Praveen A, Saeed M. Higher incidence of retinal pigment epithelium tears after ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration with increasing pigment epithelium detachment height. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97:1486-7 pubmed publisher
  26. Marchese A, Carnevali A, Sacconi R, Centoducati T, Querques L, Bandello F, et al. Retinal Pigment Epithelium Humps in High Myopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;182:56-61 pubmed publisher
    To report on the presence of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) humps in high myopia, and to describe the distinctive features from pathologic RPE detachments and choroidal neovascularizations (CNVs). Retrospective cross-sectional study...
  27. Ryals R, Andrews M, Datta S, Coyner A, Fischer C, Wen Y, et al. Long-term Characterization of Retinal Degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons Rats Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:1378-1386 pubmed publisher
    ..Total retina (TR), outer nuclear layer+ (ONL+), inner nuclear layer (INL), and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) thicknesses were quantified...
  28. Hariri A, Velaga S, Girach A, Ip M, Le P, Lam B, et al. Measurement and Reproducibility of Preserved Ellipsoid Zone Area and Preserved Retinal Pigment Epithelium Area in Eyes With Choroideremia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;179:110-117 pubmed publisher
    ..446 mm2, respectively. ICC for these gradings was 0.991. Quantifying preserved retinal pigment epithelium and EZ areas on FAF and OCT images, respectively, in CHM patients is highly reproducible...
  29. Kasahara K, Aoki H, Kiyono T, Wang S, Kagiwada H, Yuge M, et al. EGF receptor kinase suppresses ciliogenesis through activation of USP8 deubiquitinase. Nat Commun. 2018;9:758 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that usp8 knockout zebrafish develops ciliopathy-related phenotypes including cystic kidney, suggesting that USP8 is a regulator of ciliogenesis in vertebrates. ..
  30. Yamashita T, Sakamoto T, Yoshihara N, Terasaki H, Tanaka M, Kii Y, et al. Correlations between local peripapillary choroidal thickness and axial length, optic disc tilt, and papillo-macular position in young healthy eyes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186453 pubmed publisher
    ..4 mm circle scan. The trajectory of the retinal pigment epithelium in the B-scan image was fitted to a sine curve using ImageJ, and the amplitude of the sine curve was ..
  31. Klimscha S, Waldstein S, Schlegl T, Bogunovic H, Sadeghipour A, Philip A, et al. Spatial Correspondence Between Intraretinal Fluid, Subretinal Fluid, and Pigment Epithelial Detachment in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4039-4048 pubmed publisher
    ..These morphological associations may contribute to our understanding of functional deficits in nAMD. ..
  32. Courtois Y. The role of CD36 receptor in the phagocytosis of oxidized lipids and AMD. Aging (Albany NY). 2010;2:888-9 pubmed
  33. Sasso P, Scupola A, Silvestri V, Amore F, Abed E, Calandriello L, et al. Morpho-functional analysis of Stargardt Disease for reading. Can J Ophthalmol. 2017;52:287-294 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of morpho-functional parameters is helpful for designing a customized rehabilitative program. ..
  34. Boya P, Codogno P. Cell biology: Recycling in sight. Nature. 2013;501:40-2 pubmed publisher
  35. Storch M, Hoerauf H. Case report of a secondary macular hole closure after intravitreal bevacizumab therapy in a patient with retinal pigment epithelial detachment. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:632-633 pubmed publisher
  36. Müllers E, Silva Cascales H, Burdova K, Macurek L, Lindqvist A. Residual Cdk1/2 activity after DNA damage promotes senescence. Aging Cell. 2017;16:575-584 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the same activity that triggers mitosis in an unperturbed cell cycle enforces senescence in the presence of DNA damage, ensuring a robust response when most needed. ..
  37. Wanek J, Blair N, Chau F, Lim J, Leiderman Y, Shahidi M. Alterations in Retinal Layer Thickness and Reflectance at Different Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy by En Face Optical Coherence Tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:OCT341-7 pubmed publisher
    ..outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptor outer segment layer (OSL), and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)...
  38. Vu K, Hulleman J. An inducible form of Nrf2 confers enhanced protection against acute oxidative stresses in RPE cells. Exp Eye Res. 2017;164:31-36 pubmed publisher
    ..retinal degeneration that includes the formation of drusen-like deposits, lipofuscin, and sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deposition of inflammatory proteins...
  39. Miller J. Beyond VEGF-The Weisenfeld Lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:6911-6918 pubmed publisher
    ..g., inflammation, complement, and inflammasomes) and lipid/lipoprotein accumulation. Finally, due to the heterogeneity of AMD, future progress in therapy will benefit from improved phenotyping and classification. ..
  40. FU X, Lin R, Qiu Y, Yu P, Lei B. Overexpression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Ameliorates Amyloid ?-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Primary Retinal Pigment Epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3018-3028 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may be a promising target for developing novel therapies for inflammation response in AMD. ..
  41. Yakovleva M, Feldman T, Arbukhanova P, Borzenok S, Kuzmin V, Ostrovsky M. Estimation of fluorescence lifetime of lipofuscin fluorophores contained in lipofuscin granules of retinal pigment epithelium of human cadaver eyes without signs of pathology. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2017;472:19-22 pubmed publisher
    The fluorescence lifetimes of lipofuscin fluorophores contained in chloroform extracts from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of human cadaver eyes without signs of pathology were evaluated by single photon counting...
  42. Pelkonen L, Sato K, Reinisalo M, Kidron H, Tachikawa M, Watanabe M, et al. LC-MS/MS Based Quantitation of ABC and SLC Transporter Proteins in Plasma Membranes of Cultured Primary Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells and Immortalized ARPE19 Cell Line. Mol Pharm. 2017;14:605-613 pubmed publisher
    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier between neural retina and choroid...
  43. Chou H, Wu W, Wang N, Chuang L, Chen K, Lai C. Short-term efficacy of intravitreal Aflibercept injections for retinal angiomatous proliferation. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:104 pubmed publisher
    ..Eyes with fibrovascular PED showed poorer responses, and the presence of fibrovascular PED at baseline was negatively correlated with visual outcomes. ..
  44. Yang L, Du L, Yue Y, Huang Y, Zhou Q, Cao S, et al. miRNA Copy Number Variants Confer Susceptibility to Acute Anterior Uveitis With or Without Ankylosing Spondylitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:1991-2001 pubmed publisher
    ..A low copy number of miR-146a and a high copy number of miR-23a and miR-205 were associated with AAU+AS-. ..
  45. Ma W, Zhao L, Wong W. Microglia in the outer retina and their relevance to pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;723:37-42 pubmed publisher
  46. Wood L, Larocque G, Clarke N, Sarkar S, Royle S. New tools for "hot-wiring" clathrin-mediated endocytosis with temporal and spatial precision. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:4351-4365 pubmed publisher
    ..Two distinct sites on the ?2 subunit, one on the hinge and the other on the appendage, are necessary and sufficient for functional clathrin engagement. ..
  47. Roberti N, Dias J, Novais E, Regatieri C, Belfort R. Large colloid drusen analyzed with structural en face optical coherence tomography. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2017;80:122-124 pubmed publisher
    Drusen are extracellular deposits between the basal lamina of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch's membrane...
  48. Wang Y, Kim H, Sparrow J. Quercetin and cyanidin-3-glucoside protect against photooxidation and photodegradation of A2E in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2017;160:45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, quercetin and cyanidin-3-glucoside can guard against photooxidative processes in retina. ..
  49. Sayegh R, Sacu S, Dunavölgyi R, Kroh M, Roberts P, Mitsch C, et al. Geographic Atrophy and Foveal-Sparing Changes Related to Visual Acuity in Patients With Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration Over Time. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;179:118-128 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, FS highly correlated with BCVA, while GA progression correlated with the central 3-mm FS regression, but not with BCVA. A threshold in GA and FS area could be determined for BCVA necessary for daily activity. ..
  50. Eldred M, Charlton Perkins M, Muresan L, Harris W. Self-organising aggregates of zebrafish retinal cells for investigating mechanisms of neural lamination. Development. 2017;144:1097-1106 pubmed publisher
    ..e. they became coarsely but clearly laminated. Retinal pigment epithelium cells were in the centre, photoreceptors and bipolar cells were next most central and amacrine cells and ..
  51. Ohno Matsui K, Fang Y, Uramoto K, Shinohara K, Yokoi T, Ishida T, et al. Peri-dome Choroidal Deepening in Highly Myopic Eyes With Dome-Shaped Maculas. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;183:134-140 pubmed publisher
  52. Nagai T, Mizuno K. Jasplakinolide induces primary cilium formation through cell rounding and YAP inactivation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183030 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that actin polymerization does not suppress ciliogenesis per se but rather that cell rounding and reduced cell adhesion are more crucially involved in Jasp-induced ciliogenesis. ..
  53. Courtney R, Pennesi M. Retinal dystrophy in 2 brothers with ?-Mannosidosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:799-802 pubmed publisher