Summary: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
- Santos A, Ribeiro L, Bandello F, Lattanzio R, Egan C, Frydkjaer Olsen U, et al. Functional and Structural Findings of Neurodegeneration in Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy: Cross-sectional Analyses of Baseline Data of the EUROCONDOR Project. Diabetes. 2017;66:2503-2510 pubmed publisher..We raise the hypothesis that neurodegeneration may play a role in the pathogenesis of DR in many but not in all patients with type 2 diabetes. ..
- Laprell L, Tochitsky I, Kaur K, Manookin M, Stein M, Barber D, et al. Photopharmacological control of bipolar cells restores visual function in blind mice. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2598-2611 pubmed publisher..the photoswitch to rapidly and effectively cross biological barriers and thereby access and photosensitize retinal neurons. Intravitreal injection of DAD restored retinal light responses and light-driven behavior to blind mice...
- Wang S, Hu T, Wang Z, Li N, Zhou L, Liao L, et al. Macroglia-derived thrombospondin 2 regulates alterations of presynaptic proteins of retinal neurons following elevated hydrostatic pressure. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185388 pubmed publisher..on retinal injury and repair following elevated intraocular pressure suggest that the survival ratio of retinal neurons has been improved by various measures. However, the visual function recovery is far lower than expected...
- Gauthier A, Liu J. Epigenetics and Signaling Pathways in Glaucoma. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:5712341 pubmed publisher..Novel therapeutic agents targeting these pathway members have shown preliminary success in animal models and even human trials, demonstrating that they may eventually be used to preserve retinal neurons and vision.
- Akopian A, Kumar S, Ramakrishnan H, Roy K, Viswanathan S, Bloomfield S. Targeting neuronal gap junctions in mouse retina offers neuroprotection in glaucoma. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2647-2661 pubmed publisher..blockade of GJs or genetic ablation of connexin 36 (Cx36) subunits, which are highly expressed by retinal neurons, markedly reduced loss of neurons and optic nerve axons in a mouse model of glaucoma...
- Neri P. Object segmentation controls image reconstruction from natural scenes. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e1002611 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results challenge compartmentalized notions of bottom-up/top-down perception and suggest instead that these two modes are best viewed as an integrated perceptual mechanism. ..
- Stellmann J, Cetin H, Young K, Hodecker S, Pöttgen J, Bittersohl D, et al. Pattern of gray matter volumes related to retinal thickness and its association with cognitive function in relapsing-remitting MS. Brain Behav. 2017;7:e00614 pubmed publisher..Thus, OCT should be further investigated as a marker for neurodegeneration in MS. ..
- Humplik J, Tkacik G. Probabilistic models for neural populations that naturally capture global coupling and criticality. PLoS Comput Biol. 2017;13:e1005763 pubmed publisher..Our method is independent of the underlying system's state space; hence, it can be applied to other systems such as natural scenes or amino acid sequences of proteins which are also known to exhibit criticality. ..
- Mukherjee N, McBurney Lin S, Kuo A, Bedlack R, TSENG H. Retinal thinning in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients without ophthalmic disease. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185242 pubmed publisher..To determine whether there are differences in retinal neurons in ALS patients utilizing spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...