fovea centralis

Summary

Summary: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Kawano H, Uemura A, Sakamoto T. Incidence of outer foveal defect after macular hole surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;151:318-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the incidence of outer foveal defects after macular hole surgery and to evaluate the relationship between the defect and visual outcome...
  2. Gramatikov B. Detecting fixation on a target using time-frequency distributions of a retinal birefringence scanning signal. Biomed Eng Online. 2013;12:41 pubmed publisher
    ..With very young patients who are not cooperative enough, this presents a problem, because central fixation may be present only during very short-lasting episodes, and can easily be missed by the FFT...
  3. Gramatikov B, Irsch K, Müllenbroich M, Frindt N, Qu Y, Gutmark R, et al. A device for continuous monitoring of true central fixation based on foveal birefringence. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013;41:1968-78 pubmed publisher
    ..A proof-of-concept has been obtained in a small study of ADHD patients and normal control subjects. ..
  4. Provis J, Dubis A, Maddess T, Carroll J. Adaptation of the central retina for high acuity vision: cones, the fovea and the avascular zone. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2013;35:63-81 pubmed publisher
    Presence of a fovea centralis is directly linked to molecular specification of an avascular area in central retina, before the fovea (or 'pit') begins to form...
  5. Ooto S, Hangai M, Takayama K, Ueda Arakawa N, Hanebuchi M, Yoshimura N. Photoreceptor damage and foveal sensitivity in surgically closed macular holes: an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154:174-186.e2 pubmed publisher
  6. Barker F, Snodderly D, Johnson E, Schalch W, Koepcke W, Gerss J, et al. Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, V: effects of lutein, zeaxanthin, and n-3 fatty acids on retinal sensitivity to blue-light-induced damage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:3934-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the effects of the lifelong absence of xanthophylls followed by L or Z supplementation, combined with the effects of n-3 fatty acid deficiency, on acute blue-light photochemical damage...
  7. Lammer J, Scholda C, Prünte C, Benesch T, Schmidt Erfurth U, Bolz M. Retinal thickness and volume measurements in diabetic macular edema: a comparison of four optical coherence tomography systems. Retina. 2011;31:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare different spectral domain optical coherence tomography devices regarding retinal thickness values in patients with diabetic macular edema and to correlate the results with conventional time domain Stratus OCT data...
  8. Le Tien V, Pierre Kahn V, Azan F, Renard G, Chauvaud D. Displacement of retained subfoveal perfluorocarbon liquid after vitreoretinal surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a novel surgical procedure to displace retained subfoveal perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL)...
  9. Ozdek S, Bahçeci U, Gurelik G, Hasanreisoglu B. Posterior subtenon and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema. J Diabetes Complications. 2006;20:246-51 pubmed
    ..To evaluate retroprospectively the clinical consequences of posterior subtenon (PSTT) and intravitreal (IVT) triamcinolone acetonide injections in diabetic macular edema (DME) refractory to conventional grid laser photocoagulation...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kokame G, Yeung L, Lai J. Continuous anti-VEGF treatment with ranibizumab for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: 6-month results. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:297-301 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and active exudation or haemorrhage...
  2. Van der Haegen L, Drieghe D, Brysbaert M. The Split Fovea Theory and the Leicester critique: what do the data say?. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48:96-106 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results we can conclude that although noise is present in classical SFT studies without eye-tracking, this does not change the OVP effect observed with left dominant individuals...
  3. Schira M, Tyler C, Breakspear M, Spehar B. The foveal confluence in human visual cortex. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9050-8 pubmed publisher
    ..75 degrees, the cortical representations for both V2 and V3 are larger than that of V1, indicating that more neuronal processing power is dedicated to second-level analysis in this small but important part of the visual field...
  4. Jordan T, Paterson K, Kurtev S, Xu M. Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: effects of fixation location within words. Cortex. 2010;46:298-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications of these findings for the role of fixation location in word recognition are discussed...
  5. Kotoula M, Chatzoulis D, Karabatsas C, Tsiloulis A, Tsironi E. Resolution of macular edema in idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis using PDT. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2009;40:65-7 pubmed
    ..Photodynamic therapy has long-term benefits for the patient with idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis, presumed type 1A, because it can improve visual acuity and macular edema...
  6. Charbel Issa P, Foerl M, Helb H, Scholl H, Holz F. Multimodal fundus imaging in foveal hypoplasia: combined scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1463-5 pubmed publisher
  7. Campochiaro P, Hafiz G, Shah S, Nguyen Q, Ying H, Do D, et al. Ranibizumab for macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions: implication of VEGF as a critical stimulator. Mol Ther. 2008;16:791-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Kanis M, Wisse R, Berendschot T, van de Kraats J, van Norren D. Foveal cone-photoreceptor integrity in aging macula disorder. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:2077-81 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish the relation between AMD stage and a quantitative measure for the integrity of foveal cone photoreceptors related to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect...
  9. Petrov Y, Popple A. Crowding is directed to the fovea and preserves only feature contrast. J Vis. 2007;7:8.1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, crowding appears to spare only the most salient peripheral information, which supports the hypothesis that crowding is caused by limitations of attentional resolution...
  10. Wakabayashi T, Fujiwara M, Sakaguchi H, Kusaka S, Oshima Y. Foveal microstructure and visual acuity in surgically closed macular holes: spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic analysis. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:1815-24 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate reconstructive changes in foveal microstructures and identify a correlation with visual outcomes in eyes with surgically closed macular holes (MHs)...
  11. Jordan T, Paterson K, Stachurski M. Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: effects of word length. Cortex. 2009;45:495-505 pubmed publisher
  12. Yamasaki M, Noma H, Funatsu H, Minamoto A, Mimura T, Shimada K, et al. Changes in foveal thickness after vitrectomy for macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor. Int Ophthalmol. 2009;29:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1996, P = 0.2578). Conclusion Vitrectomy appears effective for treatment of macular edema with BRVO. A higher VEGF level in the vitreous fluid may be associated with greater improvement of macular edema with BRVO...
  13. Barber H, Doñamayor N, Kutas M, Münte T. Parafoveal N400 effect during sentence reading. Neurosci Lett. 2010;479:152-6 pubmed publisher
  14. Elsner A, Weber A, Cheney M, VanNasdale D. Spatial distribution of macular birefringence associated with the Henle fibers. Vision Res. 2008;48:2578-85 pubmed publisher
    ..An increasingly eccentric peak with increasing age would indicate a relative decrease of cone axons in the central fovea, but the location of the peak was not associated with age for our sample, which did not include elderly subjects...
  15. Hunter Z, Brysbaert M, Knecht S. Foveal word reading requires interhemispheric communication. J Cogn Neurosci. 2007;19:1373-87 pubmed
    ..Consequently, asymmetric representations of language and processes of interhemispheric transfer should be taken into account in theoretical models of visual word recognition to ensure neurological plausibility...
  16. Lefevre F, Leroy K, Delrieu B, Lassale D, Pechereau A. [Study of the optic nerve head-fovea angle with retinophotography in healthy patients]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2007;30:598-606 pubmed
    ..Objective measures are now accessible in daily practice. This study determined the standards for ocular torsion in healthy patients with fundus photographs...
  17. Rossi E, Roorda A. The relationship between visual resolution and cone spacing in the human fovea. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:156-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Immediately outside of the center, resolution was worse than cone spacing predicted and better matched the sampling limit of midget retinal ganglion cells...
  18. Simola J, Holmqvist K, Lindgren M. Right visual field advantage in parafoveal processing: evidence from eye-fixation-related potentials. Brain Lang. 2009;111:101-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the extraction of parafoveal information is affected by attention, which is oriented as a function of reading direction...
  19. May K, Hess R. Ladder contours are undetectable in the periphery: a crowding effect?. J Vis. 2007;7:9.1-15 pubmed
    ..Our model showed several key properties of crowding: The critical spacing for crowding to occur was independent of the size of the target letter, scaled with eccentricity, and was greater on the peripheral side of the target...
  20. Jordan T, Paterson K, Stachurski M. Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: effects of retinal eccentricity on hemispheric dominance. Neuropsychology. 2008;22:738-45 pubmed publisher
  21. Asefzadeh B, Cavallerano A, Fisch B. Racial differences in macular thickness in healthy eyes. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:941-5 pubmed
    ..In this study, we compared macular thickness in healthy eyes of black and white subjects using optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT)...
  22. Nandy A, Tjan B. The nature of letter crowding as revealed by first- and second-order classification images. J Vis. 2007;7:5.1-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the feature-masking account and a front-end version of the spatial attention account of crowding are not supported by our data...
  23. Seo J, Yu Y, Kim J, Choung H, Heo J, Kim S. Correlation of visual acuity with foveal hypoplasia grading by optical coherence tomography in albinism. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1547-51 pubmed
  24. Jorge R, Costa R, Calucci D, Scott I. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) associated with the regression of subretinal neovascularization in idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;245:1045-8 pubmed
  25. Martin C, Thierry G, Demonet J, Roberts M, Nazir T. ERP evidence for the split fovea theory. Brain Res. 2007;1185:212-20 pubmed
    ..IHTT was marginally shorter in control participants as compared to participants with developmental dyslexia, and the faster transfer to the left hemisphere seen in the former was not found in the latter...
  26. Nurminen L, Peromaa T, Laurinen P. Surround suppression and facilitation in the fovea: very long-range spatial interactions in contrast perception. J Vis. 2010;10:9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, with the current knowledge, it seems that straightforward pooling of V1 neurons' responses cannot account for surround modulation of perceived contrast...
  27. Kang S, Lim J, Chung S, Yi C. Outer foveolar defect after surgery for idiopathic macular hole. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;150:551-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the clinical implications of outer foveolar defects on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in eyes treated surgically for macular hole (MH)...
  28. Eisner A, Toomey M. The color appearance of stimuli detected via short-wavelength-sensitive cones: comparisons with visual adaptation and visual field data for peri- or post-menopausal women under 70 years of age. Vision Res. 2008;48:2663-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence from other subject populations suggests that the choice of color name and the dynamics of visual response each can be affected by alterations (particularly reductions) of estrogen synthesis and response...
  29. VAN DER Veen R, Ostendorf S, Hendrikse F, Berendschot T. Macular pigment optical density relates to foveal thickness. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:836-41 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to investigate the suggested positive relationship between foveal macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and foveal retinal thickness...
  30. Matsumoto H, Sato T, Kishi S. Outer nuclear layer thickness at the fovea determines visual outcomes in resolved central serous chorioretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;148:105-10.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine a correlation between foveal morphologic changes and visual outcomes in patients with resolved central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC)...
  31. Jordan T, Paterson K, Kurtev S. Reevaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: hemispheric dominance, retinal location, and the word-nonword effect. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2009;9:113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that functional unilateral projections to contralateral hemispheres exist in extrafoveal locations but provide no evidence of a functional division in hemispheric processing at fixation...
  32. Marmor M, Choi S, Zawadzki R, Werner J. Visual insignificance of the foveal pit: reassessment of foveal hypoplasia as fovea plana. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:907-13 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the visual significance of the foveal pit by measuring foveal architecture and function and to reassess use of the term foveal hypoplasia (as visual acuity can vary among patients who lack a pit)...
  33. Danilova M, Bondarko V. Foveal contour interactions and crowding effects at the resolution limit of the visual system. J Vis. 2007;7:25.1-18 pubmed publisher
  34. Fang S, Guo X, Jia X, Xiao X, Li S, Zhang Q. Novel GPR143 mutations and clinical characteristics in six Chinese families with X-linked ocular albinism. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1974-82 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the mutation analysis of G protein-coupled receptor 143 gene (GPR143) and clinical characteristics were assessed in Chinese patients with OA1...
  35. Wakabayashi T, Oshima Y, Fujimoto H, Murakami Y, Sakaguchi H, Kusaka S, et al. Foveal microstructure and visual acuity after retinal detachment repair: imaging analysis by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:519-28 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate foveal microstructural changes in eyes with anatomically successful repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs)...
  36. van de Kraats J, van Norren D. Directional and nondirectional spectral reflection from the human fovea. J Biomed Opt. 2008;13:024010 pubmed publisher
  37. Van der Haegen L, Brysbaert M, Davis C. How does interhemispheric communication in visual word recognition work? Deciding between early and late integration accounts of the split fovea theory. Brain Lang. 2009;108:112-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Again, the lexical decision times did not vary as a function of hemifield competitors. These results are consistent with the early integration account, as presented in the SERIOL model of visual word recognition...
  38. Takahashi A, Nagaoka T, Ishiko S, Kameyama D, Yoshida A. Foveal anatomic changes in a progressing stage 1 macular hole documented by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:806-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the case of a stage 1 macular hole and the sequential intrafoveal changes with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...
  39. Marzi C, Mancini F, Sperandio I, Savazzi S. Evidence of midline retinal nasotemporal overlap in healthy humans: a model for foveal sparing in hemianopia?. Neuropsychologia. 2009;47:3007-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Both hemiretinae contribute to the overlap area which can be considered as responsible for foveal sparing in hemianopic patients...
  40. Kirby M, Galea M, Loane E, Stack J, Beatty S, Nolan J. Foveal anatomic associations with the secondary peak and the slope of the macular pigment spatial profile. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the reproducibility of the macular pigment (MP) spatial profile by using heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) and to relate the MP spatial profile to foveal architecture...
  41. Ellis A, Brysbaert M. Split fovea theory and the role of the two cerebral hemispheres in reading: a review of the evidence. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48:353-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that a split fovea affects the reading of words at fixation, something that must be recognised and accounted for by cognitive, computational and neural models of reading...
  42. Shimura M, Nakazawa T, Yasuda K, Kunikata H, Shiono T, Nishida K. Visual prognosis and vitreous cytokine levels after arteriovenous sheathotomy in branch retinal vein occlusion associated with macular oedema. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86:377-84 pubmed
  43. Jordan T, Paterson K. Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: a critical assessment of recent research. Neuropsychologia. 2009;47:2341-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The assessment reveals shortcomings and errors that are likely to impact on an accurate understanding of research in this area and, therefore, on an accurate understanding of the viability of SFT...
  44. Jordan T, Paterson K, Kurtev S, Xu M. Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: effects of word length during monocular viewing. Cortex. 2010;46:100-5 pubmed publisher
  45. Kitaguchi Y, Fujikado T, Bessho K, Sakaguchi H, Gomi F, Yamaguchi T, et al. Adaptive optics fundus camera to examine localized changes in the photoreceptor layer of the fovea. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1771-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine highly localized photoreceptor disruptions in the fovea by a high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) fundus camera combined with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD OCT)...
  46. Nolan J, Stringham J, Beatty S, Snodderly D. Spatial profile of macular pigment and its relationship to foveal architecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:2134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is an initial investigation of the relationship between the spatial profile of macular pigment and foveal architecture...
  47. Sieroff E, Lavidor M. Examination of the split fovea theory in a case of pure left hemialexia. Cogn Neuropsychol. 2007;24:243-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences in reading efficiency between the left and right halves of the foveal region militates in favour of the split fovea theory and cannot be explained by the bilateral projection theory...
  48. Querques G, Prascina F, Iaculli C, Delle Noci N. Isolated foveal hypoplasia. Int Ophthalmol. 2009;29:271-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe a patient with isolated foveal hypoplasia...
  49. Wu L, Evans T, Arevalo J, Berrocal M, Rodriguez F, Hsu M, et al. Long-term effect of intravitreal triamcinolone in the nonproliferative stage of type II idiopathic parafoveal telangiectasia. Retina. 2008;28:314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the visual outcomes and ocular complications of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in the treatment of the nonproliferative stage of type II idiopathic parafoveal telangiectasia (IPT)...
  50. Oishi A, Otani A, Sasahara M, Kojima H, Nakamura H, Kurimoto M, et al. Photoreceptor integrity and visual acuity in cystoid macular oedema associated with retinitis pigmentosa. Eye (Lond). 2009;23:1411-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the correlation between macular morphology and visual acuity in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients with cystoid macular oedema (CME)...
  51. Garcia Arumi J, Castillo P, Lopez M, Boixadera A, Martinez Castillo V, Pimentel L. Removal of retained subretinal perfluorocarbon liquid. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:1693-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a case series in which a modified technique was used to remove retained subretinal perfluorocarbon liquid...
  52. Maia O, Bonanomi M, Takahashi W, Nascimento V, Takahashi B. Intravitreal bevacizumab for foveal detachment in idiopathic perifoveal telangiectasia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:296-9 pubmed
    ..To report the use of intravitreal bevacizumab injection for the treatment of foveal detachment in idiopathic perifoveal telangiectasia (IPT)...
  53. Biro Z, Balla Z, Kovacs B. Change of foveal and perifoveal thickness measured by OCT after phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Eye (Lond). 2008;22:8-12 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study was to measure the foveal and perifoveal thickness of the retina after uneventful phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation...