trabecular meshwork


Summary: A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.

Top Publications

  1. Yu M, Sun J, Peng W, Chen Z, Lin X, Liu X, et al. Protein expression in human trabecular meshwork: downregulation of RhoGDI by dexamethasone in vitro. Mol Vis. 2010;16:213-23 pubmed
    The characterization of the human trabecular meshwork (TM) proteome is a valuable step toward understanding its role under normal and glaucomatous conditions...
  2. Stamer W, Acott T. Current understanding of conventional outflow dysfunction in glaucoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2012;23:135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In the context of established knowledge, this review summarizes recent investigations of conventional outflow function, with the goal of identifying areas for future inquiry and therapeutic targeting...
  3. Li G, Luna C, Qiu J, Epstein D, Gonzalez P. Role of miR-204 in the regulation of apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and inflammation in human trabecular meshwork cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2999-3007 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the biological functions of miR-204 in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells.
  4. Mao W, Tovar Vidales T, Yorio T, Wordinger R, Clark A. Perfusion-cultured bovine anterior segments as an ex vivo model for studying glucocorticoid-induced ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:8068-75 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether perfusion-cultured bovine anterior segments would be a suitable model for glaucoma research...
  5. Hamanaka T, Kasahara K, Takemura T. Histopathology of the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal in primary angle-closure glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:8849-61 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the detailed histopathology of trabecular meshwork changes associated with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG).
  6. Wei H, Liu J, Lv B, Xing L, Fu S. SPARC modulates expression of extracellular matrix genes in human trabecular meshwork cells. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90:e138-43 pubmed publisher cysteine (SPARC) on the expression of components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells...
  7. Junglas B, Kuespert S, Seleem A, Struller T, Ullmann S, Bösl M, et al. Connective tissue growth factor causes glaucoma by modifying the actin cytoskeleton of the trabecular meshwork. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:2386-403 pubmed publisher
    ..POAG) is an increased intraocular pressure (IOP) caused by a resistance to aqueous humor outflow in the trabecular meshwork (TM)...
  8. Chai F, Luo R, Li Y, Bai Y, He Y, Wei Y, et al. Down-regulation of GRP78 in human glaucomatous trabecular meshwork cells. Mol Vis. 2010;16:1122-31 pubmed
    ..marker of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, we investigated and analyzed GRP78 expression levels in the trabecular meshwork (TM) by eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal eyes to understand the role of GRP78 in ..
  9. Inoue T, Pecen P, Maddala R, Skiba N, Pattabiraman P, Epstein D, et al. Characterization of cytoskeleton-enriched protein fraction of the trabecular meshwork and ciliary muscle cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6461-71 pubmed publisher
    To understand the molecular basis for the known distinct contractile characteristics of trabecular meshwork (TM) and ciliary muscle (CM) cells, the cytoskeleton-enriched protein fractions of the TM and CM cells were isolated and ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Keller K, Sun Y, Yang Y, Bradley J, Acott T. Perturbation of hyaluronan synthesis in the trabecular meshwork and the effects on outflow facility. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:4616-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Three HA synthase genes (HAS1-3) have been identified. Here, we evaluate the contribution of each of the HAS proteins to outflow facility in anterior segment perfusion culture...
  2. Leung C, Weinreb R. Anterior chamber angle imaging with optical coherence tomography. Eye (Lond). 2011;25:261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes the development and application of OCT for anterior chamber angle measurement, detection of angle closure, and investigation of the pathophysiology of primary angle closure...
  3. Mochizuki H, Murphy C, Brandt J, Kiuchi Y, Russell P. Altered stability of mRNAs associated with glaucoma progression in human trabecular meshwork cells following oxidative stress. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:1734-41 pubmed publisher
    The goals of this study were to determine if oxidative stress on human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells influences the stability of key mRNAs containing AU rich elements (AREs) known to be associated with glaucoma progression, and if the ..
  4. Jain A, Wordinger R, Yorio T, Clark A. Spliceosome protein (SRp) regulation of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms and glucocorticoid response in human trabecular meshwork cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:857-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy causes morphologic and biochemical changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM), an ocular tissue involved in regulating IOP, which can lead to the development of glaucoma in ..
  5. Hudson B, Kelly M. Identification of novel competing ?2AR phospho-extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways in human trabecular meshwork cells. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2012;28:17-25 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (?AR) agonists reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing aqueous outflow through the trabecular meshwork (TM)...
  6. Izzotti A, Saccà S, Longobardi M, Cartiglia C. Mitochondrial damage in the trabecular meshwork of patients with glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:724-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxidative damage plays a major role in glaucoma pathogenesis. Since no environmental risk factor for glaucoma is recognized, we focused our attention on mitochondria, the main endogenous source of reactive oxygen species...
  7. Kagemann L, Wollstein G, Ishikawa H, Sigal I, Folio L, Xu J, et al. 3D visualization of aqueous humor outflow structures in-situ in humans. Exp Eye Res. 2011;93:308-15 pubmed publisher
    Aqueous humor (AH) exiting the eye via the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal (SC) passes through the deep and intrascleral venous plexus (ISVP) or directly through aqueous veins...
  8. Li P, Reif R, Zhi Z, Martin E, Shen T, Johnstone M, et al. Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography characterization of pulse-induced trabecular meshwork displacement in ex vivo nonhuman primate eyes. J Biomed Opt. 2012;17:076026 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean IOP is regulated through the aqueous outflow system, which contains the trabecular meshwork (TM)...
  9. Ramer R, Hinz B. Cyclooxygenase-2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 confer the antimigratory effect of cannabinoids on human trabecular meshwork cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:846-57 pubmed publisher
    ..the factors conferring the development of glaucoma, depletion of the aqueous humor outflow-regulating trabecular meshwork (TM) cells elicited by migration from the outflow system is considered to play a pivotal role...
  10. Goel M, Sienkiewicz A, Picciani R, Wang J, Lee R, Bhattacharya S. Cochlin, intraocular pressure regulation and mechanosensing. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34309 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together with previous studies, we show cochlin is involved in regulation of intraocular pressure in DBA/2J potentially through mechanosensing of the shear stress...
  11. Kang M, Oh D, Kang J, Rhee D. Regulation of SPARC by transforming growth factor ?2 in human trabecular meshwork. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:2523-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanistic relationship between SPARC and TGF-?2 in trabecular meshwork (TM) is unknown. We hypothesized that TGF-?2 upregulates SPARC expression in TM.
  12. Sethi A, Mao W, Wordinger R, Clark A. Transforming growth factor-beta induces extracellular matrix protein cross-linking lysyl oxidase (LOX) genes in human trabecular meshwork cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:5240-50 pubmed publisher
    ..with glaucoma and plays an important role in the regulation of extracellular matrix metabolism in the trabecular meshwork (TM)...
  13. Liu Y, Munro D, Layfield D, Dellinger A, Walter J, Peterson K, et al. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in normal human trabecular meshwork. Mol Vis. 2011;17:885-93 pubmed
    To identify the genes expressed in normal human trabecular meshwork tissue, a tissue critical to the pathogenesis of glaucoma.
  14. Comes N, Buie L, BORRAS T. Evidence for a role of angiopoietin-like 7 (ANGPTL7) in extracellular matrix formation of the human trabecular meshwork: implications for glaucoma. Genes Cells. 2011;16:243-59 pubmed publisher
    The trabecular meshwork tissue controls the drainage of the aqueous humor of the eye. A dysfunctional trabecular meshwork leads to an altered fluid resistance, which results in increased intraocular pressure (IOP)...
  15. Ammar D, Lei T, Masihzadeh O, Gibson E, Kahook M. Trans-scleral imaging of the human trabecular meshwork by two-photon microscopy. Mol Vis. 2011;17:583-90 pubmed
    To image the native (unfixed) human trabecular meshwork (TM) through the overlying sclera using a non-invasive, non-destructive technique.
  16. Ramachandran C, Patil R, Sharif N, Srinivas S. Effect of elevated intracellular cAMP levels on actomyosin contraction in bovine trabecular meshwork cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:1474-85 pubmed publisher
    Elevated cAMP in the trabecular meshwork (TM) cells increases the aqueous humor outflow facility...
  17. Tourtas T, Birke M, Kruse F, Welge Lüssen U, Birke K. Preventive effects of omega-3 and omega-6 Fatty acids on peroxide mediated oxidative stress responses in primary human trabecular meshwork cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31340 pubmed publisher
    Pathologic processes in glaucoma include increased apoptosis, accumulation of extracellular material in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve, condensations of the cytoskeleton and precocious cellular senescence...
  18. Gonzalez J, Heur M, Tan J. Two-photon immunofluorescence characterization of the trabecular meshwork in situ. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3395-404 pubmed publisher
    To develop an in situ model to study biological responses and glaucoma pathology in the human trabecular meshwork (TM)...
  19. Iyer P, Maddala R, Pattabiraman P, Rao P. Connective tissue growth factor-mediated upregulation of neuromedin U expression in trabecular meshwork cells and its role in homeostasis of aqueous humor outflow. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:4952-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effects of Rho GTPase-dependent actin cytoskeletal integrity on CTGF expression and CTGF-induced changes in gene expression profile in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells.
  20. Ramachandran C, Patil R, Combrink K, Sharif N, Srinivas S. Rho-Rho kinase pathway in the actomyosin contraction and cell-matrix adhesion in immortalized human trabecular meshwork cells. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1877-90 pubmed
    The outflow facility for aqueous humor across the trabecular meshwork (TM) is enhanced by agents that oppose the actomyosin contraction of its resident cells...
  21. Du Y, Yun H, Yang E, Schuman J. Stem cells from trabecular meshwork home to TM tissue in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:1450-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the potential of human trabecular meshwork stem cells (TMSCs) for homing to mouse TM tissue and survival in vivo.
  22. Pattabiraman P, Pecen P, Rao P. MRP4-mediated regulation of intracellular cAMP and cGMP levels in trabecular meshwork cells and homeostasis of intraocular pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:1636-49 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the expression and distribution of MRP4 in the trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and its role in homeostasis of IOP.
  23. Lei T, Masihzadeh O, Kahook M, Ammar D. Imaging the effects of prostaglandin analogues on cultured trabecular meshwork cells by coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:5972-80 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to nondestructively monitor morphological changes to the lipid membranes of primary cultures of living human trabecular meshwork cells (hTMC) without the application of exogenous label.
  24. Yu W, Sheridan C, Grierson I, Mason S, Kearns V, Lo A, et al. Progenitors for the corneal endothelium and trabecular meshwork: a potential source for personalized stem cell therapy in corneal endothelial diseases and glaucoma. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:412743 pubmed publisher
    ..area between the peripheral corneal endothelium (CE) and the anterior nonfiltering portion of the trabecular meshwork (TM), which is known as the Schwalbe's Ring region...
  25. Izzotti A, Longobardi M, Cartiglia C, Saccà S. Mitochondrial damage in the trabecular meshwork occurs only in primary open-angle glaucoma and in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14567 pubmed publisher
    Open-angle glaucoma appears to be induced by the malfunction of the trabecular meshwork cells due to injury induced by oxidative damage and mitochondrial impairment...
  26. Villarreal G, Oh D, Kang M, Rhee D. Coordinated regulation of extracellular matrix synthesis by the microRNA-29 family in the trabecular meshwork. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:3391-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the authors investigate the role of the miR-29 family in the regulation of ECM synthesis in the trabecular meshwork (TM) under basal and TGF-?2 stimulatory conditions.
  27. Joe M, Sohn S, Kim T, Im J, Choi Y, Kee C. Analysis of glucocorticoid-induced MYOC expression in human trabecular meshwork cells. Vision Res. 2011;51:1033-8 pubmed publisher
    To understand the regulatory mechanisms governing glucocorticoid-mediated MYOC induction in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells, the expression and degradation of MYOC mRNA were quantified in HTM cells by Northern blot analysis, and ..
  28. Von Zee C, Stubbs E. Geranylgeranylation facilitates proteasomal degradation of rho G-proteins in human trabecular meshwork cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:1676-83 pubmed publisher
    To determine the role of posttranslational isoprenylation in regulating Rho G-protein activation and stability in human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells.
  29. Webb J, Yang X, Crosson C. Bradykinin activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in human trabecular meshwork cells. Exp Eye Res. 2011;92:495-501 pubmed publisher
    ..of B(2) kinin receptors has been shown to promote matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP) secretion from trabecular meshwork cells and to increase conventional outflow facility...
  30. Du Y, Roh D, Mann M, Funderburgh M, Funderburgh J, Schuman J. Multipotent stem cells from trabecular meshwork become phagocytic TM cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:1566-75 pubmed publisher
    To isolate and characterize stem cells from human trabecular meshwork (TM) and to investigate the potential of these stem cells to differentiate into TM cells.
  31. Thomasy S, Wood J, Kass P, Murphy C, Russell P. Substratum stiffness and latrunculin B regulate matrix gene and protein expression in human trabecular meshwork cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:952-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the impact of substratum stiffness and latrunculin-B (Lat-B), on the expression of several matrix proteins that are associated with glaucoma...
  32. Masihzadeh O, Ammar D, Lei T, Gibson E, Kahook M. Real-time measurements of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in live human trabecular meshwork cells: effects of acute oxidative stress. Exp Eye Res. 2011;93:316-20 pubmed publisher
    The trabecular meshwork (TM) region of the eye is exposed to a constant low-level of oxidative insult. The cumulative damage may be the reason behind age-dependent risk for developing primary open angle glaucoma...
  33. Pasutto F, Keller K, Weisschuh N, Sticht H, Samples J, Yang Y, et al. Variants in ASB10 are associated with open-angle glaucoma. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1336-49 pubmed publisher
    ..ASB10 mRNA and protein were found to be strongly expressed in trabecular meshwork, retinal ganglion cells and ciliary body...
  34. Kuchtey J, Olson L, Rinkoski T, Mackay E, Iverson T, Gelatt K, et al. Mapping of the disease locus and identification of ADAMTS10 as a candidate gene in a canine model of primary open angle glaucoma. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001306 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased resistance to outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork causes elevated intraocular pressure, but the specific mechanisms are unknown...
  35. Thakur A, Kadam R, Kompella U. Trabecular meshwork and lens partitioning of corticosteroids: implications for elevated intraocular pressure and cataracts. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:914-20 pubmed publisher
    ..are lower with dexamethasone when compared with fluocinolone acetonide or triamcinolone acetonide, may be explained in part by the differences in drug lipophilicity and partitioning of these drugs into the trabecular meshwork and lens.
  36. Izzotti A, Longobardi M, Cartiglia C, Rathschuler F, Saccà S. Trabecular meshwork gene expression after selective laser trabeculoplasty. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20110 pubmed publisher
    b>Trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal are the tissues appointed to modulate the aqueous humour outflow from the anterior chamber. The impairment of their functions drives to an intraocular pressure increase...
  37. Ting J, Damji K, Stiles M. Ab interno trabeculectomy: outcomes in exfoliation versus primary open-angle glaucoma. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012;38:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare outcomes in exfoliation glaucoma versus primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) after ab interno trabeculectomy alone (Trabectome) or in combination with cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation...
  38. Pattabiraman P, Maddala R, Rao P. Regulation of plasticity and fibrogenic activity of trabecular meshwork cells by Rho GTPase signaling. J Cell Physiol. 2014;229:927-42 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with increased intraocular pressure due to impaired aqueous humor (AH) drainage through the trabecular meshwork (TM)...
  39. De Groef L, Van Hove I, Dekeyster E, Stalmans I, Moons L. MMPs in the trabecular meshwork: promising targets for future glaucoma therapies?. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:7756-63 pubmed publisher
    ..changes in the expression and activity of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the aqueous humor and trabecular meshwork, in response to elevated IOP...
  40. Wallace D, Clark A, Lipson K, Andrews D, Crean J, O Brien C. Anti-connective tissue growth factor antibody treatment reduces extracellular matrix production in trabecular meshwork and lamina cribrosa cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:7836-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, there is a significant trabecular meshwork (TM) and lamina cribrosa (LC) fibrotic phenotype associated with glaucoma, possibly driven by CTGF...
  41. Ammar D, Kahook M. Effects of glaucoma medications and preservatives on cultured human trabecular meshwork and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cell lines. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95:1466-9 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the potential cytotoxicity of various topical ophthalmic glaucoma formulations containing different preservatives in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (NPCE) cell lines.
  42. Wierzbowska J, Robaszkiewicz J, Figurska M, Stankiewicz A. Future possibilities in glaucoma therapy. Med Sci Monit. 2010;16:RA252-9 pubmed
    ..rho-kinase inhibitors, latrunculin, cytochalasin), new drugs that enhance aqueous outflow via the trabecular meshwork (statins, steroid antagonists) and via the uveoscleral route (EP2 agonists, 5-HT2 agonists), as well as new ..
  43. Nadri S, Yazdani S, Arefian E, Gohari Z, Eslaminejad M, Kazemi B, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells from trabecular meshwork become photoreceptor-like cells on amniotic membrane. Neurosci Lett. 2013;541:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from the trabecular meshwork (TM), the major functional tissue of the anterior chamber angle in the eye, were characterized and ..
  44. Grant J, Tran V, Bhattacharya S, Bianchi L. Ionic currents of human trabecular meshwork cells from control and glaucoma subjects. J Membr Biol. 2013;246:167-75 pubmed publisher
    Increasing evidence suggests that trabecular meshwork (TM) cells participate in the regulation of intraocular pressure by controlling the rate of filtration of the aqueous humor...
  45. Li A, Leung C, Peterson Yantorno K, Stamer W, Mitchell C, Civan M. Mechanisms of ATP release by human trabecular meshwork cells, the enabling step in purinergic regulation of aqueous humor outflow. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured similar ATP release from human explant-derived primary trabecular meshwork (TM) cells (HTM) and a human TM cell line (TM5)...
  46. Lei T, Ammar D, Masihzadeh O, Gibson E, Kahook M. Label-free imaging of trabecular meshwork cells using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2628-33 pubmed
    To image the human trabecular meshwork (TM) using a non-invasive, non-destructive technique without the application of exogenous label.
  47. Bahler C, Hann C, Fjield T, HAFFNER D, Heitzmann H, Fautsch M. Second-generation trabecular meshwork bypass stent (iStent inject) increases outflow facility in cultured human anterior segments. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153:1206-13 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether a second-generation trabecular meshwork (TM) bypass stent (iStent inject) influences outflow facility in cultured human anterior segments.
  48. Wu R, Ma N. Expression of nitric oxide synthase and guanylate cyclase in the human ciliary body and trabecular meshwork. Chin Med J (Engl). 2012;125:129-33 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to investigate the expression and distribution of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and guanylate cyclase (GC) in human ciliary body, trabecular meshwork and the Schlemm's canal.
  49. O Reilly S, Pollock N, Currie L, Paraoan L, Clark A, Grierson I. Inducers of cross-linked actin networks in trabecular meshwork cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..actin arrangements known as cross-linked actin networks (CLANs) can be induced by dexamethasone (DEX) in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells...
  50. Aribindi K, Guerra Y, Lee R, Bhattacharya S. Comparative phospholipid profiles of control and glaucomatous human trabecular meshwork. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:3037-44 pubmed publisher
    We compared phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol) profiles of control and glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) derived from human donors.
  51. Sethi A, Wordinger R, Clark A. Gremlin utilizes canonical and non-canonical TGF? signaling to induce lysyl oxidase (LOX) genes in human trabecular meshwork cells. Exp Eye Res. 2013;113:117-27 pubmed publisher
    The TGF?/BMP signaling pathways are involved in glaucomatous damage to the trabecular meshwork (TM) leading to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which is a major risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma...
  52. Aribindi K, Guerra Y, Piqueras M, Banta J, Lee R, Bhattacharya S. Cholesterol and glycosphingolipids of human trabecular meshwork and aqueous humor: comparative profiles from control and glaucomatous donors. Curr Eye Res. 2013;38:1017-26 pubmed publisher
    To determine the differential profiles of cholesterol and glycosphingolipid species and their quantitative differences between control and glaucomatous aqueous humor (AQH) and the trabecular meshwork (TM) derived from human donors.
  53. Han H, Kampik D, Grehn F, Schlunck G. TGF-?2-induced invadosomes in human trabecular meshwork cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70595 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of TGF-?2, aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and increased outflow resistance in the trabecular meshwork (TM). The mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood...