chin

Summary

Summary: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.

Top Publications

  1. Ferri R, Fulda S, Cosentino F, Pizza F, Plazzi G. A preliminary quantitative analysis of REM sleep chin EMG in Parkinson's disease with or without REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2012;13:707-13 pubmed publisher
    To compare REM sleep chin EMG quantitative features between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with or without REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).
  2. McCulloch T, Hoffman M, Ciucci M. High-resolution manometry of pharyngeal swallow pressure events associated with head turn and chin tuck. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2010;119:369-76 pubmed
    ..We quantified the effect of swallowing maneuvers on pharyngeal pressure events using high-resolution manometry...
  3. Thayer Z, Dobson S. Sexual dimorphism in chin shape: implications for adaptive hypotheses. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010;143:417-25 pubmed publisher
    The chin, or mentum osseum, is one of the most distinctive anatomical traits of modern humans...
  4. Kaplan I, Levin T, Papoiu A, Patel N, Patel T, Calderon S, et al. Thermal sensory and pain thresholds in the tongue and chin change with age, but are not altered in burning mouth syndrome. Skin Res Technol. 2011;17:196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been suggested previously that BMS is a small-fiber neuropathy...
  5. Gröning F, Liu J, Fagan M, O Higgins P. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011;144:593-606 pubmed publisher
    ..human mandibular symphysis differs from those of all other primates in being vertically orientated and possessing a chin, but the functional significance of this unique morphology is not well understood...
  6. Orhan K, Bayndr H, Aksoy S, Seker B, Berberoğlu A, Ozan O. Numb chin syndrome as a manifestation of possible breast cancer metastasis around dental implants. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:942-5 pubmed publisher
    Numb chin syndrome, sometimes called numb lip syndrome, is an uncommon but well-recognized symptom in medical oncology. It may be a metastatic neurologic manifestation of malignancy, often with no clinically visible pathologic finding...
  7. White J, Dufresne C. Management and avoidance of complications in chin augmentation. Aesthet Surg J. 2011;31:634-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Chin augmentation is an extremely rewarding cosmetic operation, particularly when performed as an adjunct to rhinoplasty and rhytidectomy...
  8. Vignolini S, Thomas M, Kolle M, Wenzel T, Rowland A, Rudall P, et al. Directional scattering from the glossy flower of Ranunculus: how the buttercup lights up your chin. J R Soc Interface. 2012;9:1295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..This directionality of the light reflections causes the unusually intense gloss of the buttercup flower and the strong yellow reflection evident when holding the flower under the chin.
  9. Garvin H, Ruff C. Sexual dimorphism in skeletal browridge and chin morphologies determined using a new quantitative method. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012;147:661-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This article presents a method to quantify morphological variation in the skeletal browridge and chin using 3D surface laser scans...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Kim E, Palomo J, Kim S, Lim H, Lee K, Hwang H. Maxillofacial characteristics affecting chin deviation between mandibular retrusion and prognathism patients. Angle Orthod. 2011;81:988-93 pubmed publisher
    To examine and compare the maxillofacial characteristics affecting chin deviation three-dimensionally in facial asymmetry patients with mandibular retrusion and mandibular prognathism.
  2. Zhang Z, Tang R, Tang X, Yu B, Niu F, Gui L. The oblique mandibular chin-body osteotomy for the correction of broad chin. Ann Plast Surg. 2010;65:541-5 pubmed publisher
    The position and contour of the chin are important components in facial harmony and balance. In the aesthetic facial contouring of the lower face, the mandibular angle, body, and chin should be considered as 1 aesthetic unit...
  3. Steele C, Hung D, Sejdic E, Chau T, Fraser S. Variability in execution of the chin-down maneuver by healthy adults. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2011;63:36-42 pubmed publisher
    The chin-down maneuver is commonly used in dysphagia management to facilitate greater airway protection. However, the literature suggests that variation in maneuver execution may threaten the effectiveness of the intervention...
  4. Yañez Vico R, Iglesias Linares A, Torres Lagares D, Gutierrez Perez J, Solano Reina E. Three-dimensional evaluation of craniofacial asymmetry: an analysis using computed tomography. Clin Oral Investig. 2011;15:729-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The angulation of the mandibular ramus, on both frontal and lateral planes, determines apparent facial asymmetry, as well as conditioning the surgical treatment plan for patients with craniofacial asymmetry...
  5. Ryba F, Rice S, Hutchison I. Numb chin syndrome: an ominous clinical sign. Br Dent J. 2010;208:283-5 pubmed publisher
    Numb chin syndrome (NCS) is a rare but important clinical symptom and sign. It describes a condition presenting as anaesthesia or paraesthesia over the chin, which is usually unilateral...
  6. Raghoebar G, Louwerse C, Kalk W, Vissink A. Morbidity of chin bone harvesting. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2001;12:503-7 pubmed
    The chin is a very common donor site for autogenous bone grafts. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate long-term morbidity of the donor site following chin bone graft harvesting...
  7. Bulow M, Olsson R, Ekberg O. Videomanometric analysis of supraglottic swallow, effortful swallow, and chin tuck in patients with pharyngeal dysfunction. Dysphagia. 2001;16:190-5 pubmed
    ..Three different swallowing techniques were used: supraglottic swallow, effortful swallow, and chin tuck. Ten video radiographic variables and six manometric variables were analyzed...
  8. Seixas D, Lobo A, Farinha N, Cavadas L, Campos M, Ayres Basto M, et al. Burkitt leukemia with numb chin syndrome and cavernous sinus involvement. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2006;10:145-7 pubmed
  9. Romo T, Yalamanchili H, Sclafani A. Chin and prejowl augmentation in the management of the aging jawline. Facial Plast Surg. 2005;21:38-46 pubmed
    ..Soft tissue atrophy, the formation of jowls, and retrusion of the chin are all age-associated changes that contrast starkly with the smooth harmony of a young lower face...
  10. Ichim I, Swain M, Kieser J. Mandibular stiffness in humans: numerical predictions. J Biomech. 2006;39:1903-13 pubmed
    The chin is a feature unique to humans...
  11. Lee J, Jang Y, Oh S. Esthetic and functional reconstruction for burn deformities of the lower lip and chin with free radial forearm flap. Ann Plast Surg. 2006;56:384-6 pubmed
    ..Flaps did not look completely normal, but those were compatible with the adjacent skin. We could have an adequate functional resurfacing and optimal esthetic outcomes while minimizing recurrent contractures...
  12. Okada S, Saitoh E, Palmer J, Matsuo K, Yokoyama M, Shigeta R, et al. What is the chin-down posture? A questionnaire survey of speech language pathologists in Japan and the United States. Dysphagia. 2007;22:204-9 pubmed
    The "chin-down" or "chin-tuck" maneuver is a postural technique widely used in dysphagia treatment. The posture, however, does not have a precise anatomical definition...
  13. Stubinger S, Nuss K, Landes C, von Rechenberg B, Sader R. Harvesting of intraoral autogenous block grafts from the chin and ramus region: preliminary results with a variable square pulse Er:YAG laser. Lasers Surg Med. 2008;40:312-8 pubmed publisher
    It was the aim of this pilot study to evaluate the feasibility, benefits and limitations of a variable square pulse (VSP) Er:YAG laser for harvesting intraoral bone grafts from either the chin or ramus region.
  14. Anic Milosevic S, Mestrovic S, Prlić A, Slaj M. Proportions in the upper lip-lower lip-chin area of the lower face as determined by photogrammetric method. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2010;38:90-5 pubmed publisher
    This study is concentrated on the lower face profile, the emphasis being given to the lips and chin area which have been analysed by various proportions...
  15. Pancherz H, Ruf S, Kohlhas P. "Effective condylar growth" and chin position changes in Herbst treatment: a cephalometric roentgenographic long-term study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998;114:437-46 pubmed
    ..glenoid fossa remodeling, and condylar position changes within the fossa) and its influence on the position of the chin was analyzed. Lateral head films in habitual occlusion from before and after 0...
  16. Bülow M, Olsson R, Ekberg O. Supraglottic swallow, effortful swallow, and chin tuck did not alter hypopharyngeal intrabolus pressure in patients with pharyngeal dysfunction. Dysphagia. 2002;17:197-201 pubmed
    ..Three different swallowing techniques were applied: supraglottic swallow, effortful swallow, and chin tuck. Pharyngeal intrabolus pressure was analyzed at the level of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor...
  17. Basciftci F, Karaman A. Effects of a modified acrylic bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance and vertical chin cap on dentofacial structures. Angle Orthod. 2002;72:61-71 pubmed
    ..and vertical effects of a modified acrylic bonded rapid maxillary expansion (RME) device used with a vertical chin cap on dentofacial structures...
  18. Nagasaka S, Fujimura T, Segoshi K. Development of a non-radiographic cephalometric system. Eur J Orthod. 2003;25:77-85 pubmed
  19. Lau J, Okada C, Trobe J. Galloping ophthalmoplegia and numb chin in Burkitt lymphoma. J Neuroophthalmol. 2004;24:130-4 pubmed
    ..bilateral ophthalmoplegia over a period of 10 days, together with bilateral facial pain and numbness of the chin. He had no other clinical manifestations...
  20. Ruf S, Baltromejus S, Pancherz H. Effective condylar growth and chin position changes in activator treatment: a cephalometric roentgenographic study. Angle Orthod. 2001;71:4-11 pubmed
    ..glenoid fossa remodeling, and condylar position changes within the fossa) and its influence on the position of the chin was analyzed in 40 class II, division I malocclusions treated successfully with activators...
  21. Baek S, Cho I, Chang Y, Kim M. Skeletodental factors affecting chin point deviation in female patients with class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry: a three-dimensional analysis using computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;104:628-39 pubmed
    Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) was used to investigate which skeletodental factors are related to chin point deviation of facial asymmetry in skeletal class III malocclusion (SCIII) patients.
  22. Offiah C, Hall E. Case of the month. The rapidly enlarging chin mass. Br J Radiol. 2005;78:175-6 pubmed
  23. Lazar F, zur Hausen A, Mischkowski R, Zoller J. Atypical cyst formation following chin augmentation using a nasal osteocartilaginous graft. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2006;34:107-12 pubmed
    The purpose of this paper is to present a case of an intraosseous mucocele that was detected 5 years after chin augmentation using a nasal osteocartilaginous graft...
  24. Adams J. Grafts and implants in nasal and chin augmentation. A rational approach to material selection. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1987;20:913-30 pubmed
    ..By contrast, Silastic works well for chin augmentation. Also, consider present or future bacterial contamination in the area...
  25. Nácul A. Contour of the lower third of the face using an intramusculary injectable implant. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2005;29:222-9 pubmed
    ..5 ml, applied by means of a minimally invasive procedure into deep anatomic planes. The biomatertal is injected in the muscle using microcannulas...
  26. Schwartz J, Tattersall I. The human chin revisited: what is it and who has it?. J Hum Evol. 2000;38:367-409 pubmed
    Although the presence of a "chin" has long been recognized as unique to Homo sapiens among mammals, both the ontogeny and the morphological details of this structure have been largely overlooked...
  27. Hung D, Sejdic E, Steele C, Chau T. Extraction of average neck flexion angle during swallowing in neutral and chin-tuck positions. Biomed Eng Online. 2009;8:25 pubmed publisher
    A common but debated technique in the management of swallowing difficulties is the chin tuck swallow, where the neck is flexed forward prior to swallowing...
  28. Lewin J, Hebert T, Putnam J, DuBrow R. Experience with the chin tuck maneuver in postesophagectomy aspirators. Dysphagia. 2001;16:216-9 pubmed
    ..The chin tuck maneuver is a postural technique that reduces and often eliminates aspiration in swallowing-impaired patients...
  29. Torres F, Almeida R, De Almeida M, Almeida Pedrin R, Pedrin F, Henriques J. Anterior open bite treated with a palatal crib and high-pull chin cup therapy. A prospective randomized study. Eur J Orthod. 2006;28:610-7 pubmed
    ..and soft tissue changes produced by a removable appliance with a palatal crib associated with high-pull chin cup therapy in children with an Angle Class I anterior open bite (AOB) malocclusion...
  30. Kwon T, Park H, Ryoo H, Lee S. A comparison of craniofacial morphology in patients with and without facial asymmetry--a three-dimensional analysis with computed tomography. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:43-8 pubmed
    ..Forty-two adult patients with dentofacial deformity were placed into two groups according to the deviation of the chin: Asymmetry group (n = 24) and Non-asymmetry group (n = 18)...
  31. Lancioni G, O Reilly M, Singh N, Sigafoos J, Tota A, Antonucci M, et al. Children with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior using chin movements to operate microswitches to obtain environmental stimulation. Res Dev Disabil. 2006;27:290-8 pubmed
    ..studies, two children with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior were assessed to see if they could use chin movements to operate microswitches to obtain environmental stimulation...
  32. Gui L, Huang L, Zhang Z. Genioplasty and chin augmentation with Medpore implants: a report of 650 cases. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008;32:220-6 pubmed
    Genioplasty is an old and useful technique. Chin augmentation with Medpore has become popular in recent years. The authors briefly examine their experience with the two techniques.
  33. Nkenke E, Schultze Mosgau S, Radespiel Tröger M, Kloss F, Neukam F. Morbidity of harvesting of chin grafts: a prospective study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2001;12:495-502 pubmed
    In a prospective study, 20 patients who underwent harvesting of chin grafts as outpatients, were followed up for 12 months (3 further patients with incomplete follow-up data were excluded from the study)...
  34. Todisco T, Todisco C, Bruni L, Donato R. Chin stimulation: a trigger point for provoking acute hiccups. Respiration. 2004;71:104 pubmed
  35. Clavero J, Lundgren S. Ramus or chin grafts for maxillary sinus inlay and local onlay augmentation: comparison of donor site morbidity and complications. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2003;5:154-60 pubmed
    ..Local bone grafts from the mandible are a convenient source of autogenous bone for alveolar reconstruction prior to implant placement...
  36. Yaremchuk M. Improving aesthetic outcomes after alloplastic chin augmentation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;112:1422-32; discussion 1433-4 pubmed
    A novel approach to increase chin projection with alloplastic material is presented...
  37. Warren S, Spector J, Zide B. Chin surgery V: treatment of the long, nonprojecting chin. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:760-8 pubmed
    Correction of the long, nonprojecting chin requires both vertical reduction and sagittal augmentation...
  38. Kobayashi A, Yoshimasu H, Kobayashi J, Amagasa T. Neurosensory alteration in the lower lip and chin area after orthognathic surgery: bilateral sagittal split osteotomy versus inverted L ramus osteotomy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:778-84 pubmed
    ..This study investigated neurosensory disturbances in patients after orthognathic surgery in relation to differences in mandibular splitting methods and degree of surgical skill...
  39. Meijndert L, Raghoebar G, Schupbach P, Meijer H, Vissink A. Bone quality at the implant site after reconstruction of a local defect of the maxillary anterior ridge with chin bone or deproteinised cancellous bovine bone. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;34:877-84 pubmed
    ..Reconstruction was performed with chin bone (N=5), chin bone and a resorbable Bio-Gide GBR membrane (N=5) or Bio-Oss spongiosa granules in combination ..
  40. Godin M, Costa L, Romo T, Truswell W, Wang T, Williams E. Gore-Tex chin implants: a review of 324 cases. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2003;5:224-7 pubmed
    Augmentation of the chin is a long-standing and effective technique for facial enhancement. We have used preformed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) implants for chin augmentation for several years...
  41. Suk K, Kim K, Lee S, Kim J. Significance of chin-brow vertical angle in correction of kyphotic deformity of ankylosing spondylitis patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003;28:2001-5 pubmed
    ..A prospective study...
  42. Zide B, Pfeifer T, Longaker M. Chin surgery: I. Augmentation--the allures and the alerts. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;104:1843-53; discussion 1861-2 pubmed
    The correction of sagittal deformities of the chin presents a seemingly simple surgical challenge. However, several authors have reported negative sequelae from such chin surgery, During the past 11 years, the senior author (B.M.Z...
  43. Jerjes W, Swinson B, Banu B, Al Khawalde M, Hopper C. Paraesthesia of the lip and chin area resolved by endodontic treatment: A case report and review of literature. Br Dent J. 2005;198:743-5 pubmed
    ..It has been reported as being the sole symptom of pathological lesions and metastatic tumours in the mandible...
  44. Narendra H, Ray S. Numb chin syndrome as a manifestation of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. J Cancer Res Ther. 2009;5:49-51 pubmed
    Numb chin syndrome (NCS) is a sensory neuropathy presenting with numbness of the chin in the distribution of the mental nerve and the branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve...
  45. Frodel J. Evaluation and treatment of deformities of the chin. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2005;13:73-84 pubmed
    b>Chin deformities present commonly to the facial plastic surgeon. Proper evaluation of the face is essential to allow the surgeon to counsel the patient properly regarding optimal management of chin deformities...
  46. Chen T, Wang H, Chou T. Correction of retrusive chin in the reconstruction of face and neck burns using sliding genioplasty. Burns. 2005;31:918-20 pubmed
  47. Karasu H, Uyanik L, Kocyigit I. Displacement of avulsed tooth into soft tissue of chin resulting from epileptic attack trauma. N Y State Dent J. 2005;71:26-8 pubmed
    ..The case of a patient with severe dental injury resulting from an epileptic attack is presented. He had several teeth avulsed and displacement of a tooth into the soft tissue of the chin.
  48. Gassia V, Beylot C, Béchaux S, Michaud T. [Botulinum toxin injection techniques in the lower third and middle of the face, the neck and the décolleté: the "Nefertiti lift"]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2009;136 Suppl 4:S111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..face, can be highly satisfactory, notably in erasing bunny lines, improvement of marionette lines, peau d'orange chin, attenuation of peribuccal lines, melomental folds, correction of a gummy smile, and facial asymmetries...
  49. Khan H, Niranjan N. Four V-Y islanded flap reconstruction of full thickness defect of chin and labial sulcus. Br J Plast Surg. 2004;57:278-81 pubmed
    Few techniques are described specifically for reconstruction of full thickness defects involving the chin. We present a new method of reconstruction of a large full thickness defect over the chin and lower labial sulcus with four V-Y ..
  50. Moro A, Correra P, Boniello R, Gasparini G, Pelo S. Three-dimensional analysis in facial asymmetry: comparison with model analysis and conventional two-dimensional analysis. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:417-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Three-dimensional CT seems to be so helpful in detecting individual anatomical variations that it can be adopted in the diagnosis for severe craniofacial asymmetry...
  51. Weibull L, Widmark G, Ivanoff C, Borg E, Rasmusson L. Morbidity after chin bone harvesting--a retrospective long-term follow-up study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2009;11:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..of the resorbed site using autogenous bone grafts harvested from the maxillofacial region, for example, the chin, is a common method; however, it also involves donor site morbidity...
  52. Joshi A. An investigation of post-operative morbidity following chin graft surgery. Br Dent J. 2004;196:215-8; discussion 211 pubmed
    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the morbidity at the donor site following harvest of chin bone for intra-oral augmentation.
  53. Haraguchi S, Iguchi Y, Takada K. Asymmetry of the face in orthodontic patients. Angle Orthod. 2008;78:421-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the laterality of the normal asymmetry of the human face, examining differences in laterality in relation to sex, growth stage, and skeletal classification...
  54. Ichim I, Swain M, Kieser J. Mandibular biomechanics and development of the human chin. J Dent Res. 2006;85:638-42 pubmed
    The development of the chin, a feature unique to humans, suggests a close functional linkage between jaw biomechanics and symphyseal architecture...
  55. Nwoku A, Al Atel A, Al Shlash S, Oluyadi B, Ismail S. Retrospective analysis of secondary alveolar cleft grafts using iliac of chin bone. J Craniofac Surg. 2005;16:864-8 pubmed
    ..In all cases, the wound healed well, and there was no complication. Our experience demonstrates that secondary alveolar bone grafting is an efficacious method of rehabilitating patients with alveolar clefts...