eustachian tube


Summary: A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.

Top Publications

  1. Cunsolo E, Marchioni D, Leo G, Incorvaia C, Presutti L. Functional anatomy of the Eustachian tube. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010;23:4-7 pubmed
    The Eustachian tube (ET) is divided in 3 portions: a bony portion, a cartilaginous portion, and a junctional portion...
  2. Ockermann T, Reineke U, Upile T, Ebmeyer J, Sudhoff H. Balloon dilation eustachian tuboplasty: a feasibility study. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:1100-3 pubmed publisher
    To assess the feasibility and safety of balloon dilation Eustachian tuboplasty (BET) as an option for treatment of patients with Eustachian tube dysfunction.
  3. Da Costa J, Navarro A, Branco Neves J, Martin M. [Otitis medias with effusion: association with the Eustachian tube dysfunction and adenoiditis. The case of the Central Hospital of Maputo]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2005;56:290-4 pubmed
    Although the aetiology of otitis media is known to be multifactorial, adenoids infections and Eustachian tube dysfunction, have been frequently associated with the incidence of middle-ear effusion...
  4. Caye Thomasen P, Stangerup S, Jørgensen G, Drozdziewic D, Bonding P, Tos M. Myringotomy versus ventilation tubes in secretory otitis media: eardrum pathology, hearing, and eustachian tube function 25 years after treatment. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:649-57 pubmed publisher
    This report documents the dynamics of eardrum pathology, hearing acuity, and eustachian tube function during 25 years after treatment of bilateral secretory otitis media...
  5. Schroder S, Reineke U, Lehmann M, Ebmeyer J, Sudhoff H. [Chronic obstructive eustachian tube dysfunction in adults: long-term results of balloon eustachian tuboplasty]. HNO. 2013;61:142-51 pubmed publisher
    Sufficient diagnostic tools and effective therapies for chronic obstructive eustachian tube dysfunction are lacking.
  6. Lazo Sáenz J, Galván Aguilera A, Martínez Ordaz V, Velasco Rodríguez V, Nieves Rentería A, Rincón Castañeda C. Eustachian tube dysfunction in allergic rhinitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:626-9 pubmed
    To assess eustachian tube function in patients with allergic rhinitis and compare them with a control group.
  7. Nagai H, Moritake K. Otogenic tension pneumocephalus complicated by eustachian tube insufflation in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:1098-101 pubmed
    ..Here, the authors report on a case of TPC complicated by eustachian tube (ET) insufflation and a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt...
  8. Kankavi O. Immunodetection of surfactant proteins in human organ of Corti, Eustachian tube and kidney. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50:1057-64 pubmed
    The presence of surfactant proteins was investigated in the human organ of Corti, Eustachian tube and kidney tissues...
  9. Caye Thomasen P, Tos M. Eustachian tube gland changes in acute otitis media. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:14-8 pubmed
    To investigate the histomorphologic impact of acute otitis media on the subepithelial glands of the eustachian tube. Previous investigations have shown an increase of eustachian tube goblet cell density during and up to at least 6 months ..

More Information


  1. Tanaka H, Kohno A, Gomi N, Matsueda K, Mitani H, Kawabata K, et al. Malignant mucosal melanoma of the eustachian tube. Radiat Med. 2008;26:305-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the head and neck region is the most common site for mucosal melanoma, a melanoma arising in the eustachian tube is rare. Here we present a case of mucosal melanoma arising in the right eustachian tube.
  2. Sudhoff H, Ockermann T, Mikolajczyk R, Ebmeyer J, Korbmacher D, Garten D, et al. [Clinical and experimental considerations for evaluation of Eustachian tube physiology]. HNO. 2009;57:428-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Eustachian tube dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion...
  3. Makibara R, Fukunaga J, Gil D. Eustachian tube function in adults with intact tympanic membrane. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;76:340-6 pubmed
    The Eustachian tube has the function of equilibrating the environmental pressure with inner pressure, protecting the middle ear from abrupt pressure changes.
  4. McCoul E, Singh A, Anand V, Tabaee A. Balloon dilation of the eustachian tube in a cadaver model: technical considerations, learning curve, and potential barriers. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:718-23 pubmed publisher
    The surgical management options for eustachian tube dysfunction have historically been limited...
  5. D Alatri L, Picciotti P, Marchese M, Fiorita A. Alternative treatment for otitis media with effusion: eustachian tube rehabilitation. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2012;32:26-30 pubmed
    In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of eustachian tube rehabilitation (ETR) as treatment for otitis media with effusion (OME). Thirty-five children with persistent OME were enrolled...
  6. Pau H, Sievert U, Just T, Sadé J. Pressure changes in the human middle ear without opening the eustachian tube. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:1182-6 pubmed publisher
    ..experiment on healthy humans we could demonstrate that middle ear (ME) pressure decreases when the eustachian tube (ET) does not open...
  7. Poe D, Hanna B. Balloon dilation of the cartilaginous portion of the eustachian tube: initial safety and feasibility analysis in a cadaver model. Am J Otolaryngol. 2011;32:115-23 pubmed publisher sinus surgery, initial studies of partial resection of inflamed mucosa from within the cartilaginous eustachian tube (ET) have demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of medically refractory otitis media with ..
  8. Doyle W, Swarts J. Eustachian tube-tensor veli palatini muscle-cranial base relationships in children and adults: an osteological study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74:986-90 pubmed publisher
    The vector relationships between the Eustachian tube, Tensor veli palatini muscle and cranial base constrain the efficiency of middle ear pressure-regulation and are required parameters for computational modeling of Eustachian tube ..
  9. McDonald M, Hoffman M, Gentry L, Jiang J. New insights into mechanism of Eustachian tube ventilation based on cine computed tomography images. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;269:1901-7 pubmed publisher
    There is debate concerning the mechanism of Eustachian tube (ET) ventilation...
  10. Takasaki K, Takahashi H, Miyamoto I, Yoshida H, Yamamoto Fukuda T, Enatsu K, et al. Measurement of angle and length of the eustachian tube on computed tomography using the multiplanar reconstruction technique. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:1251-4 pubmed
    To compare the anatomic features of the eustachian tube (ET) between children with and without otitis media with effusion (OME) and with adults.
  11. Baek S, Song M, Lim B, Lee W. Mucosal melanoma arising in the eustachian tube. J Laryngol Otol. 2006;120:E17 pubmed
    ..To date,only three cases of melanoma originating from the eustachian tube have been reported...
  12. Doyle W. The mastoid as a functional rate-limiter of middle ear pressure change. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:393-402 pubmed
  13. Yoshida H, Kobayashi T, Takasaki K, Takahashi H, Ishimaru H, Morikawa M, et al. Imaging of the patulous Eustachian tube: high-resolution CT evaluation with multiplanar reconstruction technique. Acta Otolaryngol. 2004;124:918-23 pubmed
    To evaluate the 3D anatomy of the ET and its surrounding tissues in cases with or without patulous Eustachian tube (ET) using CT with the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) technique.
  14. Ockermann T, Reineke U, Upile T, Ebmeyer J, Sudhoff H. Balloon dilatation eustachian tuboplasty: a clinical study. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:1411-6 pubmed publisher
    To assess the feasibility of balloon dilatation eustachian tuboplasty (BET) as an option for treatment of patients with eustachian tube (ET) dysfunction.
  15. Dayan J, Smith D, Oliker A, Haring J, Cutting C. A virtual reality model of eustachian tube dilation and clinical implications for cleft palate repair. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116:236-41 pubmed
  16. Bluestone C. Studies in otitis media: Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh-University of Pittsburgh progress report--2004. Laryngoscope. 2004;114:1-26 pubmed
    ..The present Progress Report has summarized the key otitis media clinical trials and laboratory studies conducted since 1969 by investigators at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh-University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA)...
  17. Hirunpat S, Riabroi K, Dechsukhum C, Atchariyasathian V, Tanomkiat W. Nasopharyngeal extension of glomus tympanicum: an unusual clinical and imaging manifestation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:1820-2 pubmed
    ..Only 2 cases have been reported in the literature to date. We present a reported case of a large nasopharyngeal extension of recurrent glomus tympanicum, with various kinds of imaging and histopathology and a review of the literature...
  18. Straetemans M, van Heerbeek N, Schilder A, Feuth T, Rijkers G, Zielhuis G. Eustachian tube function before recurrence of otitis media with effusion. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;131:118-23 pubmed
    To study the role of eustachian tube function in the development of recurrent otitis media with effusion (OME) in children treated with tympanostomy tubes for OME.
  19. Kikuchi T, Oshima T, Ogura M, Hori Y, Kawase T, Kobayashi T. Three-dimensional computed tomography imaging in the sitting position for the diagnosis of patulous eustachian tube. Otol Neurotol. 2007;28:199-203 pubmed
    Computed tomography (CT) in the sitting position was useful for detecting patulous Eustachian tube (ET).
  20. Martino E, Di Thaden R, Krombach G, Westhofen M. [Function tests for the Eustachian tube. Current knowledge]. HNO. 2004;52:1029-39; quiz 1040 pubmed
    The Eustachian tube regulates the homeostasis of the middle ear. Problems with its function are predominantly found in childhood. As a consequence, otitis and hearing impairment occur...
  21. Metson R, Pletcher S, Poe D. Microdebrider eustachian tuboplasty: A preliminary report. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;136:422-7 pubmed
    To evaluate microdebrider eustachian tuboplasty for treatment of patients with eustachian tube dysfunction.
  22. Yeo S, Park D, Eun Y, Cha C. The role of allergic rhinitis in the development of otitis media with effusion: effect on eustachian tube function. Am J Otolaryngol. 2007;28:148-52 pubmed with effusion (OME) is considered multifactorial, with viral upper respiratory tract infection and eustachian tube dysfunction. Allergy may be related to the pathogenesis of OME or to another etiological factor...
  23. van der Avoort S, van Heerbeek N, Zielhuis G, Cremers C. Sonotubometry: eustachian tube ventilatory function test: a state-of-the-art review. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:538-43; discussion 543 pubmed
    ..Sonotubometry measures the ventilatory function using sound. The qualities of sonotubometry as a test for eustachian tube ventilatory function have been studied by various investigators...
  24. Lükens A, Dimartino E, Gunther R, Krombach G. Functional MR imaging of the eustachian tube in patients with clinically proven dysfunction: correlation with lesions detected on MR images. Eur Radiol. 2012;22:533-8 pubmed publisher
    To visualise the function of the Eustachian tube by MRI and assess the effect of surrounding lesions.
  25. Song J, Kown S, Kim E, Lee Y, Kim B, Chae S. Mucosal expression of ENaC and AQP in experimental otitis media induced by Eustachian tube obstruction. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:1589-93 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and aquaporins (AQPs) in the middle ear mucosa of a rat model of otitis media with effusion caused by surgical obstruction of the Eustachian tube.
  26. Yang B, Wang Z, Xian J, Chen Q. MR imaging features of primary mucosal melanoma of the eustachian tube: report of 2 cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30:431-3 pubmed publisher
    We observed 2 cases of malignant melanoma arising from the eustachian tube with MR imaging. In this region, we explored further characteristics of primary mucosal melanoma...
  27. Hong C, Park D, Kim S, Cha C, Cha S, Yeo S. Effect of paranasal sinusitis on the development of otitis media with effusion: influence of eustachian tube function and adenoid immunity. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:1609-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore evaluated adenoid local immunity and Eustachian tube function by sinusitis and the concordance between sinusitis and OME.
  28. Yoshida H, Takahashi H, Morikawa M, Kobayashi T. Anatomy of the bony portion of the eustachian tube in tubal stenosis: multiplanar reconstruction approach. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007;116:681-6 pubmed
    We sought to clarify possible pathological conditions of the bony portion of the eustachian tube (ET) in patients with ET stenosis.
  29. Kang S, Chang K, Ohcho S, Lee H, Cha K, Moon S, et al. Expression of water channel proteins (aquaporins) in the rat Eustachian tube and middle ear mucosa. Acta Otolaryngol. 2007;127:687-92 pubmed
    Diverse expression of the different subtypes of aquaporins in different parts of the Eustachian tube and middle ear suggests region-specific functions of the aquaporins in the normal physiology of the tubotympanum and also suggests that ..
  30. Uzun C, Caye Thomasen P, Andersen J, Tos M. Eustachian tube patency and function in tympanoplasty with cartilage palisades or fascia after cholesteatoma surgery. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:864-72 pubmed
    To compare the Eustachian tube patency and function after tympanoplasty with either cartilage palisades or fascia grafting after one-stage surgery in children with tensa cholesteatoma.
  31. Kouwen H, van Balen F, Dejonckere P. Functional tubal therapy for persistent otitis media with effusion in children: myth or evidence?. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;69:943-51 pubmed
    ..The results of an own prospective randomized pilot study comparing functional treatment with watchful waiting may be considered encouraging, since a borderline significance level was reached with a small amount of subjects...
  32. Poe D, Grimmer J, Metson R. Laser eustachian tuboplasty: two-year results. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:231-7 pubmed
    ..Laser eustachian tuboplasty (LETP) combined with appropriate medical management will eliminate the chronic presence of middle ear effusions in selected patients...
  33. Seibert J, Danner C. Eustachian tube function and the middle ear. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2006;39:1221-35 pubmed
    b>Eustachian tube dysfunction has been linked to causing middle ear pathology. One of the sequelae seen is tympanic membrane retraction...
  34. Depreux F, Darrow K, Conner D, Eavey R, Liberman M, Seidman C, et al. Eya4-deficient mice are a model for heritable otitis media. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:651-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Vulnerability to otitis media is due to eustachian tube dysfunction as well as other poorly understood factors, including genetic susceptibility...
  35. Iino Y, Kakizaki K, Saruya S, Katano H, Komiya T, Kodera K, et al. Eustachian tube function in patients with eosinophilic otitis media associated with bronchial asthma evaluated by sonotubometry. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132:1109-14 pubmed
    To determine eustachian tube function in patients with asthma and with or without eosinophilic otitis media (EOM), a new middle ear disease entity with a highly viscous middle ear effusion containing many eosinophils and usually ..
  36. Sehhati Chafai Leuwer S, Wenzel S, Bschorer R, Seedorf H, Kucinski T, Maier H, et al. Pathophysiology of the Eustachian tube--relevant new aspects for the head and neck surgeon. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2006;34:351-4 pubmed
    The impact of cranio-maxillofacial procedures upon Eustachian tube function is still largely unknown...
  37. Lin H, Friedman M, Kuo F, Huang H. Synovial sarcoma of the Eustachian tube. Head Neck. 2009;31:1245-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Synovial sarcoma is a rare, aggressive high-grade neoplasm with poor prognosis. Synovial sarcoma is usually encountered in the lower extremities of young adults; only a few cases have been reported in the head and neck region...
  38. Pau H. [Eustachian tube and middle ear mechanics]. HNO. 2011;59:953-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Even the most sophisticated prostheses for reconstruction of the ossicular chain do not work in the presence of Eustachian tube dysfunction...
  39. Kirkeby S, Friis M, Mikkelsen H, Caye Thomasen P. Bacterial adherence in otitis media: determination of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues in the submucosal glands and surface epithelium of the normal and diseased Eustachian tube. Microb Pathog. 2011;51:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..nasopharyngeal epithelium, which is followed by bacterial colonization of the middle ear cavity through the Eustachian tube. N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is an important constituent of mucins and GalNAc containing sugar residues ..
  40. Morita T, Ohiwa S, Shimada A, Kazama S, Yagihashi T, Umemura T. Intranasally inoculated Mycoplasma hyorhinis causes eustachitis in pigs. Vet Pathol. 1999;36:174-8 pubmed
    ..multocida had otitis, and P. multocida was not isolated from the tympanic cavity. These findings indicate that M. hyorhinis can cause eustachitis but rarely otitis media in specific-pathogen-free pigs...
  41. Paananen R, Glumoff V, Hallman M. Surfactant protein A and D expression in the porcine Eustachian tube. FEBS Lett. 1999;452:141-4 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to investigate whether surfactant protein A or D is expressed in the porcine Eustachian tube originating from the upper airways...
  42. Kemaloglu Y, Kobayashi T, Nakajima T. Associations between the eustachian tube and craniofacial skeleton. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2000;53:195-205 pubmed
    Growth and development of the anatomic region where the Eustachian tube (ET) is located are associated with the parameters related to other parts of the craniofacial skeleton (CFS)...
  43. Maurizi M, Scarano E, Frusoni F, Deli R, Paludetti G. Clinical-morphological correlation of nasal obstruction with skull base development and otitis media. An experimental study. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1998;60:92-7 pubmed
    ..Extrarotation of the eustachian tubes and developmental abnormalities of the skull base in growing rats, caused by nasal obstruction, seem to be able to induce pathological events of the middle ear...
  44. Paananen R, Glumoff V, Sormunen R, Voorhout W, Hallman M. Expression and localization of lung surfactant protein B in Eustachian tube epithelium. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;280:L214-20 pubmed
    ..The Eustachian tube (ET) connects the upper respiratory tract to the middle ear, serving as an intermittent airway between the ..
  45. Lim D, Chun Y, Lee H, Moon S, Chang K, Li J, et al. Cell biology of tubotympanum in relation to pathogenesis of otitis media - a review. Vaccine. 2000;19 Suppl 1:S17-25 pubmed
    The sterility of the eustachian tube and tympanic cavity of normal individuals is maintained not only by the adaptive immune system, but also by the mucociliary system and the antimicrobial molecules of innate immunity...
  46. Lin J, Tsuprun V, Kawano H, Paparella M, Zhang Z, Anway R, et al. Characterization of mucins in human middle ear and Eustachian tube. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;280:L1157-67 pubmed
    Mucins are important glycoproteins in the mucociliary transport system of the middle ear and Eustachian tube. Little is known about mucin expression within this system under physiological and pathological conditions...
  47. Lai C, Tsay S, Ho C. Malignant melanoma of the eustachian tube. J Laryngol Otol. 2001;115:567-9 pubmed
    The case report describes the diagnosis and the management of malignant melanoma of the eustachian tube. This is an exceedingly rare condition that was treated with endoscopic surgery and post-operative radiotherapy...
  48. Chandrasekhar S, Connelly P, Venkatayan N, el Sherif Ammar M, Tabor M, Mautone A. Intranasal metered dose aerosolized surfactant reduces passive opening pressure of the eustachian tube: comparison study in two animal models. Otol Neurotol. 2002;23:3-7 pubmed
    Intranasal metered dose aerosolized inhaler surfactant will reduce opening pressure of the eustachian tube in gerbils and mice.
  49. Paananen R, Postle A, Clark G, Glumoff V, Hallman M. Eustachian tube surfactant is different from alveolar surfactant: determination of phospholipid composition of porcine eustachian tube lavage fluid. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:99-106 pubmed
    ..Several studies have tentatively shown that eustachian tube lavage fluid (ETLF) contains surface-active material...
  50. Straetemans M, Van Heerbeek N, Tonnaer E, Ingels K, Rijkers G, Zielhuis G. A comprehensive model for the aetiology of otitis media with effusion. Med Hypotheses. 2001;57:784-91 pubmed
    ..This article presents a comprehensive model for the aetiology of otitis media with effusion. Eustachian tube functioning and the immunological response to environmental pathogens are the two core elements...
  51. Caye Thomasen P, Tos M. Eustachian tube goblet cell density during and after acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: a morphometric analysis. Otol Neurotol. 2003;24:365-70 pubmed
    ..This may, in conjunction with deteriorated eustachian tube function, predispose to subsequent development of secretory otitis media...
  52. Racic G, Kurtovic D, Roje Z, Tomic S, Dogas Z. Primary mucosal melanoma of the eustachian tube. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2004;261:139-42 pubmed
    ..The case of a 74-year-old Caucasian female with primary malignant melanoma of the left eustachian tube and bilateral neck metastasis is presented...
  53. Minami T, Kubo N, Tomoda K, Yamashita T, Kumazawa T. Regional blood flow volume in the eustachian tube. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1993;500:80-3 pubmed
    Measurements of regional blood flow around the pharyngeal orifice of the Eustachian tube were carried out after topical administration of various inflammatory mediators in 14 mongrel dogs by the hydrogen clearance method...