middle ear


Summary: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.

Top Publications

  1. Zhao F, Koike T, Wang J, Sienz H, Meredith R. Finite element analysis of the middle ear transfer functions and related pathologies. Med Eng Phys. 2009;31:907-16 pubmed publisher
    With developments in software and micro-measurement technology, a three-dimensional middle ear finite element (FE) model can now be more easily constructed to study sound transfer function...
  2. Hotomi M, Billal D, Kamide Y, Kanesada K, Uno Y, Kudo F, et al. Serotype distribution and penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from middle ear fluids of pediatric patients with acute otitis media in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3808-10 pubmed publisher
    Out of 175 pneumococcal isolates from middle ear fluids, 26.3% were penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP). Serotypes 19F and 23F occurred most frequently among PRSP strains...
  3. Linder T, Schlegel C, DeMin N, van der Westhuizen S. Active middle ear implants in patients undergoing subtotal petrosectomy: new application for the Vibrant Soundbridge device and its implication for lateral cranium base surgery. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:41-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of ossiculoplasties in chronic ear and lateral cranium base surgery depends on the presence of a ventilated middle ear space and is guided by the existence or absence of ossicular remnants...
  4. Karahatay S, Yilmaz Y, Birkent H, Ay H, Satar B. Middle ear barotrauma with hyperbaric oxygen therapy: incidence and the predictive value of the nine-step inflation/deflation test and otoscopy. Ear Nose Throat J. 2008;87:684-8 pubmed
    We conducted a prospective study to determine the incidence of middle ear barotrauma in patients who were undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT)...
  5. Sanna M, Fois P, Pasanisi E, Russo A, Bacciu A. Middle ear and mastoid glomus tumors (glomus tympanicum): an algorithm for the surgical management. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:661-8 pubmed publisher
    Glomus tumors are slow-growing benign lesions and represent the most common primary neoplasms of the middle ear. The objective of the present study is to report our surgical strategy in the management of glomus tympanicum tumors.
  6. Kerschner J, Erdos G, Hu F, Burrows A, Cioffi J, Khampang P, et al. Partial characterization of normal and Haemophilus influenzae-infected mucosal complementary DNA libraries in chinchilla middle ear mucosa. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2010;119:270-8 pubmed publisher
    We sought to construct and partially characterize complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries prepared from the middle ear mucosa (MEM) of chinchillas to better understand pathogenic aspects of infection and inflammation, particularly with respect ..
  7. Chen J, Bodmer D, Khetani J, Lin V. Tactile dysgeusia: a new clinical observation of middle ear and skull base surgery. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:99-103 pubmed
  8. Jung J, Park J, Kim S, Lim D, Park S, Kwak K, et al. Prophylactic antiemetic effect of midazolam after middle ear surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;137:753-6 pubmed
    To investigate the prophylactic antiemetic effect of midazolam after middle ear surgery.
  9. Richter C, Amin S, Linden J, Dixon J, Dixon M, Tucker A. Defects in middle ear cavitation cause conductive hearing loss in the Tcof1 mutant mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1551-60 pubmed publisher
    ..of the mechanisms underlying CHL remains, particularly with respect to the molecular mechanisms underlying middle ear development and disease...

More Information


  1. Strauss G, Bahrami N, Pössneck A, Strauss M, Dietz A, Korb W, et al. [Evaluation of a training system for middle ear surgery with optoelectric detection]. HNO. 2009;57:999-1009 pubmed publisher
    ..This work presents a new training concept for surgery of the temporal bone. It is based on a model of gypsum plastic with optoelectric detection of risk structures. A prototypical evaluation is given...
  2. Gurgel R, Karnell L, Hansen M. Middle ear cancer: a population-based study. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:1913-7 pubmed publisher
    Primary carcinoma of the middle ear is a rare clinical entity, best suited for evaluation using a population-based database...
  3. Zhang Q, Liu C, Wang J, Sun J, Hu Y, Chen G, et al. Expression pattern of aquaporin 4 and 5 in the middle ear of guinea pigs with secretory otitis media. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;130:68-74 pubmed publisher
    Our study suggests that aquaporins 4 and 5 (AQP4 and AQP5) in the middle ear cavity may play a vital role in the homeostasis of the tubotympanum and in the course of the accumulation of the effusion in secretory otitis media (SOM).
  4. Reid S, Hong W, Dew K, Winn D, Pang B, Watt J, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae forms surface-attached communities in the middle ear of experimentally infected chinchillas. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:786-94 pubmed
    ..Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) causes respiratory and systemic infections that are a major public health problem worldwide. It has been postulated that pneumococci persist in vivo in biofilm communities...
  5. Shashinder S, Tang I, Velayutham P, Rahmat O, Loganathan A. Foreign body in the middle ear, a hearing aid complication. Med J Malaysia. 2008;63:267-8 pubmed
    ..During the process of making ear mould impression, the impression material accidentally entered the right middle ear. Removal of the ear mould impression was possible permeatally under general anaesthesia.
  6. Dogru S, Haholu A, Gungor A, Kucukodaci Z, Cincik H, Ozdemir T, et al. Histologic analysis of the effects of three different support materials within rat middle ear. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;140:177-82 pubmed publisher
    To investigate histologic changes in the mucosa of rat middle ear after implantation of three different support materials.
  7. Zenner H, Rodriguez Jorge J. Totally implantable active middle ear implants: ten years' experience at the University of Tübingen. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;69:72-84 pubmed publisher
    Active middle ear implants do not produce acoustic sounds but, rather, micromechanical vibrations...
  8. Eom K, Kwak H, Kang H, Park S, Lee H, Kang H, et al. Virtual CT otoscopy of the middle ear and ossicles in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2008;49:545-50 pubmed
    Virtual otoscopy enables noninvasive 3D endoluminal imaging of the middle ear through postprocessing of computed tompgraphy (CT) data...
  9. Son E, Kim S, Park H, Kim S, Yoon J, Chung H, et al. Activation of epithelial sodium channel in human middle ear epithelial cells by dexamethasone. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;602:383-7 pubmed publisher
    The middle ear epithelium functions to maintain a fluid-free middle ear cavity...
  10. Deveze A, Koka K, Tringali S, Jenkins H, Tollin D. Active middle ear implant application in case of stapes fixation: a temporal bone study. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:1027-34 pubmed publisher
    Driving the oval window directly with an active middle ear implant (AMEI) can produce high levels of input to the inner ear.
  11. Lee R, Weber D, Ness A, Wasman J, Megerian C. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the middle ear masquerading as Bell's palsy. Am J Otolaryngol. 2007;28:423-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the relationship between an IPT and facial nerve paralysis is vital and must be recognized for treatment and to maximize postoperative facial nerve function...
  12. Oztürkcan S, Dündar R, Katilmiş H, Ilknur A, Aktaş S, Haciömeroğlu S. The ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions applied into the middle ear of guinea pigs. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:663-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These preparations are used for both their antiseptic and acidic qualities in external and middle ear infections. We investigated the ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions on guinea pigs...
  13. Sahan M, Yildirim N, Arslanoglu A, Karslioglu Y, Kazikdasş K. Carcinoid tumor of the middle ear: report of a case. Am J Otolaryngol. 2008;29:352-6 pubmed publisher
    Carcinoid tumor of the middle ear is an extremely rare lesion of the middle ear, and thus its diagnosis is frequently delayed. Some authors found it hard to differentiate middle ear carcinoid from the middle ear adenoma...
  14. Madsen A, Gundgaard M, Hoff C, Maare C, Holmboe P, Knap M, et al. Cancer of the external auditory canal and middle ear in Denmark from 1992 to 2001. Head Neck. 2008;30:1332-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the context of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group, nationwide material from 1992-2001 was analyzed to study the extent and nature of the disease, evaluate treatment, compare staging systems, and examine prognosis and survival...
  15. Skalova A, Sima R, Bohus P, Curik R, Lukas J, Michal M. Endolymphatic sac tumor (aggressive papillary tumor of middle ear and temporal bone): report of two cases with analysis of the VHL gene. Pathol Res Pract. 2008;204:599-606 pubmed publisher
    ..This mutation is a C to T exchange at position 194, resulting in amino acid exchange S65L. No mutation was found in any of the three exons analyzed and in the exon-intron junctions of the VHL gene in the sporadic case...
  16. Ayache S, Tramier B, Strunski V. Otoendoscopy in cholesteatoma surgery of the middle ear: what benefits can be expected?. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:1085-90 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted with the aim of determining the contribution of otoendoscopy in the surgical management of cholesteatoma of the middle ear.
  17. Schikschneit M, Maier W, Kayser G, Berlis A, Boedeker C. Amputation neuroma of the middle ear mimicking glomus tympanicum tumor. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;137:843-4 pubmed
  18. Kerschner J, Khampang P, Samuels T. Extending the chinchilla middle ear epithelial model for mucin gene investigation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74:980-5 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the expression of recently identified human mucin genes in an in vivo model of the chinchilla middle ear epithelium (CMEE).
  19. Kösling S, Omenzetter M, Bartel Friedrich S. Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear. Eur J Radiol. 2009;69:269-79 pubmed
    ..fields, which are necessary to know for a profound understanding of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear. Typical and less typical combinations of malformed parts of the ear can be derived from the embryogenesis...
  20. Wood J, Hughes A, Mercer K, Chapman S. Analysis of chick (Gallus gallus) middle ear columella formation. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:16 pubmed publisher
    The chick middle ear bone, the columella, provides an accessible model in which to study the tissue and molecular interactions necessary for induction and patterning of the columella, as well as associated multiple aspects of endochondral ..
  21. Mason M, Lai F, Li J, Nevo E. Middle ear structure and bone conduction in Spalax, Eospalax, and Tachyoryctes mole-rats (Rodentia: Spalacidae). J Morphol. 2010;271:462-72 pubmed publisher
  22. Wang S, Li J, Miyamoto C, Chen F, Zhou L, Zhang H, et al. A study of middle ear function in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with IMRT technique. Radiother Oncol. 2009;93:530-3 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluates the difference in damage to middle ear function with CRT and IMRT techniques in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)...
  23. Ji Q, Luo Z, Zhang X, Yuan C, Xu L. Evolutionary development of the middle ear in Mesozoic therian mammals. Science. 2009;326:278-81 pubmed publisher
    The definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) is defined by the loss of embryonic Meckel's cartilage and disconnection of the middle ear from the mandible in adults...
  24. Ikarashi F, Tsuchiya A. Middle ear gas exchange via the mucosa: estimation by hyperventilation. Acta Otolaryngol. 2008;128:9-12 pubmed
    ..It was verified that gas exchange via the mucosa is less likely to be impaired than gas exchange via the eustachian tube...
  25. Kerschner J, Khampang P, Erbe C, Kolker A, Cioffi J. Mucin gene 19 (MUC19) expression and response to inflammatory cytokines in middle ear epithelium. Glycoconj J. 2009;26:1275-84 pubmed publisher
    Mucin gene 19 (MUC19) has been identified as a major gel-forming mucin in the human middle ear (ME)...
  26. Harimaya A, Fujii N, Himi T. Preliminary study of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the middle ear of acute otitis media due to Alloiococcus otitidis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:677-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In the middle ear, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines are released in association with infection by pathogens, and these ..
  27. Mori E, Kojima H, Wada K, Moriyama H. Middle ear adenoma diagnosed by recurrent facial paralysis. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:75-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Middle ear adenoma is a rare disease derived from the middle ear mucosa. It is usually lack specific findings and easily mistaken for other conditions, delaying a correct diagnosis...
  28. Lee D, Shin O, Cho K, Kim J. Inflammatory pseudotumor in the middle ear cavity. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:1569-72 pubmed publisher
    ..It is extremely rare in the middle ear alone. A 7-year-old girl presented right hearing impairment...
  29. Fujii Y. Clinical strategies for preventing postoperative nausea and vomitting after middle ear surgery in adult patients. Curr Drug Saf. 2008;3:230-9 pubmed
    b>Middle ear surgery (tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy) performed under general or local anesthesia is associated with a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV)...
  30. Macarthur C, DeGagne J, Kempton J, Trune D. Steroid control of acute middle ear inflammation in a mouse model. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;135:453-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids have differential effects on inflammation and fluid absorption, but little is known of their control of middle and inner ear manifestations of acute otitis media...
  31. Bornitz M, Hardtke H, Zahnert T. Evaluation of implantable actuators by means of a middle ear simulation model. Hear Res. 2010;263:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..now a great variety of devices available with different actuator concepts and different attachment points to the middle ear or inner ear fluid...
  32. Samuel E, Burrows A, Kerschner J. Cytokine regulation of mucin secretion in a human middle ear epithelial model. Cytokine. 2008;41:38-43 pubmed
    b>Middle ear mucins are associated with otitis media (OM), contribute to hearing loss and are regulated by cytokines...
  33. Arechvo I, Lasurashvili N, Bornitz M, Kevanishvili Z, Zahnert T. Laser Doppler vibrometry of the middle ear in humans: derivation dependence, variability, and bilateral differences. Medicina (Kaunas). 2009;45:878-86 pubmed
    ..Due to bilateral differences in the middle ear transfer function, in LDV testing of the ear suspected to the pathology, LDV recording from the opposite healthy ..
  34. Lewis J, McCreery R, Neely S, Stelmachowicz P. Comparison of in-situ calibration methods for quantifying input to the middle ear. J Acoust Soc Am. 2009;126:3114-24 pubmed publisher
    ..FPL and IPL were both investigated as measures of sound-level entering the middle ear. FPL may be a better measure of middle-ear input because IPL is more dependent on middle-ear reflectance and ear-..
  35. Yeo J, Jung J, Ryu T, Jeon Y, Kim S, Baek W. Antiemetic efficacy of dexamethasone combined with midazolam after middle ear surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;141:684-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the antiemetic efficacy of dexamethasone combined with midazolam after middle ear surgery.
  36. Balci A, Sangun O, Okuyucu S, Karazincir S, Akoglu E, Altintas Y, et al. The prevalence and significance of incidental middle ear and mastoid cavity abnormalities on MRI in a pediatric population. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:1849-54 pubmed publisher
    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of abnormalities in the middle ear and mastoid cavity on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and correlate the results with clinical data, tympanometric findings and ..
  37. Clark M, Westerberg B, Berean K. Primary middle ear Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoepithelial carcinoma: case reports and systematic review. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:172-7 pubmed publisher
    To report two cases of primary lymphoepithelial carcinoma in the middle ear and to determine the optimal treatment for such lesions.
  38. Pau H, Sievert U, Just T, Sadé J. Pressure changes in the human middle ear without opening the eustachian tube. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:1182-6 pubmed publisher
    By means of a direct, though non-invasive experiment on healthy humans we could demonstrate that middle ear (ME) pressure decreases when the eustachian tube (ET) does not open...
  39. Nistico L, Gieseke A, Stoodley P, Hall Stoodley L, Kerschner J, Ehrlich G. Fluorescence "in situ" hybridization for the detection of biofilm in the middle ear and upper respiratory tract mucosa. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;493:191-213 pubmed publisher
    ..microscopy (CLSM)-based 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol, to find biofilm bacteria in middle ear and upper respiratory tract mucosa, which preserves the three-dimensional structure of the biofilm and avoids ..
  40. Jaryszak E, Sampson E, Antonelli P. Effect of ossicular prosthesis biofilms on middle ear scarring and hearing outcomes. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:1191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine if biofilms are present on ORPs in patients undergoing revision ossicular chain reconstruction and if their presence correlates with middle ear scarring or hearing outcomes.
  41. Cristalli G, Manciocco V, Pichi B, Marucci L, Arcangeli G, Telera S, et al. Treatment and outcome of advanced external auditory canal and middle ear squamous cell carcinoma. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:816-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Disease-free survival was 73.3%, and overall survival was 75.6%. Radical external auditory canal and/or middle ear canal resection is of utmost importance to obtain a good surgical outcome...
  42. Okada T, Saito K, Takahashi M, Hasegawa Y, Fujimoto Y, Terada A, et al. En bloc petrosectomy for malignant tumors involving the external auditory canal and middle ear: surgical methods and long-term outcome. J Neurosurg. 2008;108:97-104 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to describe a method for resecting malignant tumors originating in the external auditory canal or middle ear and requiring en bloc resection of the petrous bone.
  43. Cenacchi G, Ferri G, Salfi N, Tarantino L, Modugno G, Ceroni A, et al. Secretory meningioma of the middle ear: a light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of one case. Neuropathology. 2008;28:69-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The histopathologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural response was secretory meningioma, a rare variant of conventional meningothelial meningioma in atypical sites...
  44. Huttenbrink K, Zahnert T, Bornitz M, Beutner D. TORP-vibroplasty: a new alternative for the chronically disabled middle ear. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:965-71 pubmed publisher
    Surgery can often eradicate chronic middle ear disease in patients with recurrent cholesteatoma, tubal dysfunction, and others; however, in many cases, social hearing cannot be restored even after multiple revision tympanoplasties...
  45. Kerschner J, Tripathi S, Khampang P, Papsin B. MUC5AC expression in human middle ear epithelium of patients with otitis media. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136:819-24 pubmed publisher
    To compare levels of middle ear (ME) MUC5AC expression in patients with otitis media (OM) with patients without OM...
  46. Gaihede M, Dirckx J, Jacobsen H, Aernouts J, Søvsø M, Tveterås K. Middle ear pressure regulation--complementary active actions of the mastoid and the Eustachian tube. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:603-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Middle ear pressure (MEP) is actively regulated by both the Eustachian tube and the mastoid air cell system.
  47. Braccini F, Tardivet L, Dohan Ehrenfest D. [The relevance of Choukroun's Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) during middle ear surgery: preliminary results]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2009;130:175-80 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the relevance of Leucocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF, Choukroun's technique) Concentrates during tympanoplasty...
  48. Cheng T, Gan R. Mechanical properties of stapedial tendon in human middle ear. J Biomech Eng. 2007;129:913-18 pubmed
    Measurement on mechanical properties of the stapedial tendon in human middle ear has not been reported in the literature...
  49. George M, Ikonomidis C, Pusztaszeri M, Monnier P. Primary meningioma of the middle ear: case report. J Laryngol Otol. 2010;124:572-4 pubmed publisher
    To report a rare case of primary meningioma of the middle ear.
  50. Song J, Cho J, Woo J, Lee H, Hwang S, Chae S. Differential expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in rat middle ear. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:821-4 pubmed publisher
    The epithelial cells of the middle ear and Eustachian tube must maintain an adequate mucosal defense system against various antigenic stimuli...
  51. Alaerts J, Luts H, Wouters J. Evaluation of middle ear function in young children: clinical guidelines for the use of 226- and 1,000-Hz tympanometry. Otol Neurotol. 2007;28:727-32 pubmed
    ..The aims of the study were to evaluate tympanometry with regard to age and classification system using two probe-tone frequencies and to provide clinical guidelines...
  52. Eser O, Ipci K, Alp S, Akyol U, Unal O, Hascelik G, et al. Efficacy of nasopharyngeal culture in identification of pathogen in middle ear fluid in chronic otitis media with effusion. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2009;27:237-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed at evaluating the accuracy of nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens in the identification of pathogens in the middle ear fluid (MEF) in patients with OME.
  53. Hoa M, Syamal M, Sachdeva L, Berk R, Coticchia J. Demonstration of nasopharyngeal and middle ear mucosal biofilms in an animal model of acute otitis media. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2009;118:292-8 pubmed
    We performed this study to determine the role of nasopharyngeal and middle ear (ME) biofilms in acute otitis media (AOM).