saccule and utricle

Summary

Summary: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.

Top Publications

  1. Manzari L, Burgess A, Macdougall H, Curthoys I. Enhanced otolithic function in semicircular canal dehiscence. Acta Otolaryngol. 2011;131:107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This patient also showed enhanced VEMPs and reduced thresholds. We conclude that in this patient the enhanced VEMP responses are thus probably due to enhanced otolithic stimulation by sound and vibration after dehiscence...
  2. Cunningham L, Cheng A, Rubel E. Caspase activation in hair cells of the mouse utricle exposed to neomycin. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8532-40 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that caspase-9 is the primary upstream caspase mediating neomycin-induced hair cell death in this preparation...
  3. Davies D, Magnus C, Corwin J. Developmental changes in cell-extracellular matrix interactions limit proliferation in the mammalian inner ear. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:985-98 pubmed
  4. Oshima K, Grimm C, Corrales C, Senn P, Martinez Monedero R, Géléoc G, et al. Differential distribution of stem cells in the auditory and vestibular organs of the inner ear. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2007;8:18-31 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that the lack of regenerative capacity in the adult mammalian cochlea is either a result of an early postnatal loss of stem cells or diminishment of stem cell features of maturing cochlear cells...
  5. Yamane H, Sunami K, Iguchi H, Sakamoto H, Imoto T, Rask Andersen H. Assessment of Meniere's disease from a radiological aspect - saccular otoconia as a cause of Meniere's disease?. Acta Otolaryngol. 2012;132:1054-60 pubmed
    ..These structures could be involved in the pathogenesis of MD...
  6. Bianco I, Ma L, Schoppik D, Robson D, Orger M, Beck J, et al. The tangential nucleus controls a gravito-inertial vestibulo-ocular reflex. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1285-95 pubmed publisher
  7. Burns J, Cox B, Thiede B, Zuo J, Corwin J. In vivo proliferative regeneration of balance hair cells in newborn mice. J Neurosci. 2012;32:6570-7 pubmed publisher
  8. Yamane H, Takayama M, Sunami K, Sakamoto H, Imoto T, Anniko M. Visualization and assessment of saccular duct and endolymphatic sinus. Acta Otolaryngol. 2011;131:469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy can be useful to assess the condition of the saccular duct and endolymphatic sinus concerning the longitudinal flow system of endolymph...
  9. Curthoys I, Manzari L, Smulders Y, Burgess A. A review of the scientific basis and practical application of a new test of utricular function--ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone-conducted vibration. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2009;29:179-86 pubmed

More Information

Publications62

  1. Yamane H, Takayama M, Sunami K, Sakamoto H, Imoto T, Anniko M. Blockage of reuniting duct in Meniere's disease. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;130:233-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Taleb M, Brandon C, Lee F, Lomax M, Dillmann W, Cunningham L. Hsp70 inhibits aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death and is necessary for the protective effect of heat shock. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2008;9:277-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, overexpression of Hsp70 alone significantly inhibits aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death...
  3. Hofman R, Segenhout J, Buytaert J, Dirckx J, Wit H. Morphology and function of Bast's valve: additional insight in its functioning using 3D-reconstruction. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;265:153-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that opening and closure of the valve occurs through movement of the flexible base/utricular membrane away from and toward the relatively rigid valve lip...
  4. Meyers J, Corwin J. Shape change controls supporting cell proliferation in lesioned mammalian balance epithelium. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4313-25 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that cellular shape change can overcome the normal postnatal cessation of supporting cell proliferation that appears to limit regeneration in mammalian vestibular epithelia...
  5. Cunningham L. The adult mouse utricle as an in vitro preparation for studies of ototoxic-drug-induced sensory hair cell death. Brain Res. 2006;1091:277-81 pubmed
    ..In addition, this preparation allows for examination of the effects of specific gene products through the use of transgenic and knockout mouse models...
  6. Matsui J, Haque A, Huss D, Messana E, Alosi J, Roberson D, et al. Caspase inhibitors promote vestibular hair cell survival and function after aminoglycoside treatment in vivo. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6111-22 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that inhibiting the activation of caspases promotes the survival of hair cells and protects against vestibular function deficits after aminoglycoside treatment...
  7. Curthoys I, Iwasaki S, Chihara Y, Ushio M, McGarvie L, Burgess A. The ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential to air-conducted sound; probable superior vestibular nerve origin. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122:611-616 pubmed publisher
    ..The n10 component of the oVEMP to either ACS or BCV probably indicates mainly superior vestibular nerve function. ..
  8. Higgs D, Plachta D, Rollo A, Singheiser M, Hastings M, Popper A. Development of ultrasound detection in American shad (Alosa sapidissima). J Exp Biol. 2004;207:155-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, it appears that ultrasound-detecting clupeiformes have undergone structural modification of the utricle that allows detection of ultrasonic stimulation...
  9. Hume C, Kirkegaard M, Oesterle E. ErbB expression: the mouse inner ear and maturation of the mitogenic response to heregulin. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2003;4:422-43 pubmed
    ..The distribution of erbBs in the neonatal and adult mouse ear is consistent with the EGF receptor/ligand family regulating diverse cellular processes in the inner ear, including cell proliferation and differentiation...
  10. Kwak S, Vemaraju S, Moorman S, Zeddies D, Popper A, Riley B. Zebrafish pax5 regulates development of the utricular macula and vestibular function. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:3026-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, pax5 works in conjunction with fgf3 and pax2a to establish and/or maintain the utricular macula and is essential for vestibular function...
  11. Hughes I, Blasiole B, Huss D, Warchol M, Rath N, Hurle B, et al. Otopetrin 1 is required for otolith formation in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Dev Biol. 2004;276:391-402 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that Otop1 has an essential and conserved role in the timing of formation and the size and shape of the developing otolith...
  12. Sage C, Huang M, Karimi K, Gutierrez G, Vollrath M, Zhang D, et al. Proliferation of functional hair cells in vivo in the absence of the retinoblastoma protein. Science. 2005;307:1114-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, acute loss of Rb1 in postnatal hair cells caused cell cycle reentry. Manipulation of the pRb pathway may ultimately lead to mammalian hair cell regeneration...
  13. Cunningham L, Brandon C. Heat shock inhibits both aminoglycoside- and cisplatin-induced sensory hair cell death. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2006;7:299-307 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that heat shock can inhibit ototoxic drug-induced hair cell death, and that the utricle preparation can be used to examine the molecular mechanism(s) underlying this protective effect...
  14. Li H, Liu H, Heller S. Pluripotent stem cells from the adult mouse inner ear. Nat Med. 2003;9:1293-9 pubmed
    ..Our observation that these stem cells are capable of differentiating into hair cell-like cells implies a possible use of such cells for the replacement of lost inner-ear sensory cells...
  15. Curthoys I. A critical review of the neurophysiological evidence underlying clinical vestibular testing using sound, vibration and galvanic stimuli. Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;121:132-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The neurophysiological results on BCV have led to a new clinical test of utricular function - the n10 of the oVEMP. The cVEMP tests saccular function while the oVEMP tests utricular function...
  16. Manzari L, Burgess A, Curthoys I. Vestibular function in Lermoyez syndrome at attack. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;269:685-91 pubmed publisher
  17. Lin V, Golub J, Nguyen T, Hume C, Oesterle E, Stone J. Inhibition of Notch activity promotes nonmitotic regeneration of hair cells in the adult mouse utricles. J Neurosci. 2011;31:15329-39 pubmed publisher
  18. Meyers J, MacDonald R, Duggan A, Lenzi D, Standaert D, Corwin J, et al. Lighting up the senses: FM1-43 loading of sensory cells through nonselective ion channels. J Neurosci. 2003;23:4054-65 pubmed
    ..The bright and specific labeling with styryl dyes provides a novel way to study sensory cells and neurons in vivo and in vitro, and it offers new opportunities for visually assaying sensory channel function...
  19. Taylor R, Forge A. Hair cell regeneration in sensory epithelia from the inner ear of a urodele amphibian. J Comp Neurol. 2005;484:105-20 pubmed
    ..A similar mechanism has been proposed for the hair cell recovery phenomenon observed in the vestibular organs of mammals...
  20. Cunningham L, Matsui J, Warchol M, Rubel E. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevents neomycin-induced hair cell death and caspase-9 activation in the adult mouse utricle in vitro. J Neurobiol. 2004;60:89-100 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the expression level of Bcl-2 has important effects on the pathway(s) important for the regulation of aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death...
  21. O Halloran E, Oesterle E. Characterization of leukocyte subtypes in chicken inner ear sensory epithelia. J Comp Neurol. 2004;475:340-60 pubmed
    ..An absence of leukocytes in lesioned areas of the auditory sensory epithelium suggests they may not play a critical role in triggering hair cell regeneration...
  22. Warchol M, Speck J. Expression of GATA3 and tenascin in the avian vestibular maculae: normative patterns and changes during sensory regeneration. J Comp Neurol. 2007;500:646-57 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that GATA3 expression may maintain positional information in the maculae during sensory regeneration...
  23. Shou J, Zheng J, Gao W. Robust generation of new hair cells in the mature mammalian inner ear by adenoviral expression of Hath1. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;23:169-79 pubmed
    ..Local adenoviral gene therapy in the inner ear may be a potential approach to treatment of hearing and balance disorders...
  24. Collado M, Thiede B, Baker W, Askew C, Igbani L, Corwin J. The postnatal accumulation of junctional E-cadherin is inversely correlated with the capacity for supporting cells to convert directly into sensory hair cells in mammalian balance organs. J Neurosci. 2011;31:11855-66 pubmed publisher
  25. Smith M, Schuck J, Gilley R, Rogers B. Structural and functional effects of acoustic exposure in goldfish: evidence for tonotopy in the teleost saccule. BMC Neurosci. 2011;12:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Threshold shifts were calculated by subtracting control thresholds from post-sound exposure thresholds...
  26. Burns J, Burns J, Christophel J, Collado M, Magnus C, Carfrae M, et al. Reinforcement of cell junctions correlates with the absence of hair cell regeneration in mammals and its occurrence in birds. J Comp Neurol. 2008;511:396-414 pubmed publisher
  27. Schuck J, Smith M. Cell proliferation follows acoustically-induced hair cell bundle loss in the zebrafish saccule. Hear Res. 2009;253:67-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes a time course of hair cell bundle regeneration in the zebrafish inner ear and demonstrates that cell proliferation is associated with the regenerative process...
  28. Webb J, Herman J, Woods C, Ketten D. The ears of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae): 'hearing generalists' on noisy coral reefs?. J Fish Biol. 2010;77:1406-23 pubmed publisher
  29. Su H, Huang T, Young Y, Cheng P. Aging effect on vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:977-80 pubmed
    ..Although tests to evaluate vestibular-ocular reflex pathway have shown that vestibular function is adversely affected by aging, VEMP, in this study, is used as a novel test to define how aging influences sacculocollic reflex pathway...
  30. Manzari L, Tedesco A, Burgess A, Curthoys I. Ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone-conducted vibration in superior vestibular neuritis show utricular function. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;143:274-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether the first negative component (n10) of the ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) to bone-conducted vibration (BCV) is due primarily to activation of the utricular macula...
  31. Steyger P, Peters S, Rehling J, Hordichok A, Dai C. Uptake of gentamicin by bullfrog saccular hair cells in vitro. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2003;4:565-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, GTTR is a valid fluorescent probe with which to investigate the pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of gentamicin accumulation...
  32. Alpini D, Pugnetti L, Caputo D, Cornelio F, Capobianco S, Cesarani A. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in multiple sclerosis: clinical and imaging correlations. Mult Scler. 2004;10:316-21 pubmed
    ..Abnormal VEMPs indicated brainstem dysfunction in four patients (10%) with normal MRI and no specific clinical signs...
  33. Iwasaki S, Chihara Y, Smulders Y, Burgess A, Halmagyi G, Curthoys I, et al. The role of the superior vestibular nerve in generating ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration at Fz. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120:588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..If the n10 is due primarily to utricular activation then diseases which affect only the superior division of the vestibular nerve (SVN) should reduce or eliminate n10...
  34. Huang M, Sage C, Tang Y, Lee S, Petrillo M, Hinds P, et al. Overlapping and distinct pRb pathways in the mammalian auditory and vestibular organs. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:337-51 pubmed
    ..This study thus supports the concept that pRb-regulated pathways relevant to hair cell development, encompassing proliferation, differentiation and survival, act predominantly during early development...
  35. Riley B, Moorman S. Development of utricular otoliths, but not saccular otoliths, is necessary for vestibular function and survival in zebrafish. J Neurobiol. 2000;43:329-37 pubmed
    ..The presence of a utricular otolith in at least one inner ear is necessary and sufficient for vestibular function and survival. In contrast, saccular otoliths are dispensable for these functions...
  36. Yamoah E, Lumpkin E, Dumont R, Smith P, Hudspeth A, Gillespie P. Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase extrudes Ca2+ from hair cell stereocilia. J Neurosci. 1998;18:610-24 pubmed
    ..Our data further indicate that PMCA could elevate the extracellular Ca2+ concentration close to hair bundles above the low level found in bulk endolymph...
  37. Lanford P, Platt C, Popper A. Structure and function in the saccule of the goldfish (Carassius auratus): a model of diversity in the non-amniote ear. Hear Res. 2000;143:1-13 pubmed
    ..The saccule provides an excellent model for investigating structure-function relationships in the vertebrate inner ear, as well as the development of auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia...
  38. Bermingham N, Hassan B, Price S, Vollrath M, Ben Arie N, Eatock R, et al. Math1: an essential gene for the generation of inner ear hair cells. Science. 1999;284:1837-41 pubmed
    ..Embryonic Math1-null mice failed to generate cochlear and vestibular hair cells. This gene is thus required for the genesis of hair cells...
  39. Morsli H, Tuorto F, Choo D, Postiglione M, Simeone A, Wu D. Otx1 and Otx2 activities are required for the normal development of the mouse inner ear. Development. 1999;126:2335-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that both Otx genes play important and differing roles in the morphogenesis of the mouse inner ear and the development of its sensory organs...
  40. Yan H, Curtsinger W. The otic gasbladder as an ancillary auditory structure in a mormyrid fish. J Comp Physiol A. 2000;186:595-602 pubmed
    ..Histological sections revealed a particularly close coupling between the otic gasbladder and the saccule chamber. These results support von Frisch's hypothesis that the otic gasbladders of mormyrids assist in underwater sound detection...
  41. Dumont R, Lins U, Filoteo A, Penniston J, Kachar B, Gillespie P. Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2a is the PMCA of hair bundles. J Neurosci. 2001;21:5066-78 pubmed
    ..Because PMCA2a is the only Ca(2+) pump present at appreciable levels in hair bundles, the biochemical properties of this pump must account fully for the physiological features of transmembrane Ca(2+) pumping in bundles...
  42. Matsuzaki M, Murofushi T. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with idiopathic bilateral vestibulopathy. Report of three cases. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2001;63:349-52 pubmed
    ..As previously reported in the cases of vestibular neuritis, VEMP could be useful for classifying IBV according to the function of the inferior vestibular nerve...
  43. Wang W, Chan E, Baron S, Van de Water T, Lufkin T. Hmx2 homeobox gene control of murine vestibular morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:5017-29 pubmed
  44. Sugihara I, Furukawa T. Inwardly rectifying currents in hair cells and supporting cells in the goldfish sacculus. J Physiol. 1996;495 ( Pt 3):665-79 pubmed
    ..Putative Ih and Iso single channels had unitary conductances of 7 and 61 pS, respectively, in the cell-attached mode with 125 microM Ko+...
  45. Welgampola M, Carey J. Waiting for the evidence: VEMP testing and the ability to differentiate utricular versus saccular function. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;143:281-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we highlight the evidence-based assumptions that guide interpretation of AC sound- and BCV-evoked VEMPs and the gaps in VEMP research thus far...
  46. Praetorius M, Vicario I, Schimmang T. Efficient transfer of embryonic stem cells into the cochlea via a non-invasive vestibular route. Acta Otolaryngol. 2008;128:720-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell transplantation into the utriculus provides an efficient and non-invasive route to introduce embryonic stem (ES) cells into the vestibular and cochlear portions of the inner ear...
  47. Marano R, Redmond S. In vitro cultured primary cells from a human utricle explant possesses hair cell like characteristics. J Mol Histol. 2011;42:365-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, RT-PCR revealed positive gene expression for the proliferation control marker fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and negative gene expression for E-cadherin (CDH1), a vestibular cell differentiation marker...
  48. Versino M, Ranza L, Colnaghi S, Alloni R, Callieco R, Romani A, et al. The N3 potential compared to sound and galvanic vestibular evoked myogenic potential in healthy subjects and in multiple sclerosis patients. J Vestib Res. 2007;17:39-46 pubmed
    ..The three techniques detected a similar number of abnormalities, but these abnormalities were not correlated. This suggests that these different techniques should be regarded as complementary in evaluating saccular function...
  49. Fuller P, Jones T, Jones S, Fuller C. Neurovestibular modulation of circadian and homeostatic regulation: vestibulohypothalamic connection?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15723-8 pubmed
    ..These results link the vestibular macular receptors with specific alterations in homeostatic and circadian regulation...
  50. Rutherford M, Roberts W. Frequency selectivity of synaptic exocytosis in frog saccular hair cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2898-903 pubmed
    ..We conclude that frog saccular hair cells possess an intrinsic synaptic frequency selectivity that is saturated by strong stimuli...
  51. Ramcharitar J, Selckmann G. Differential ablation of sensory receptors underlies ototoxin-induced shifts in auditory thresholds of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). J Appl Toxicol. 2010;30:536-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that fish auditory systems should be used alongside the lateral line, for the assessment of ototoxicity in new-developed drugs...
  52. Huang W, Qin H, Nong D, Tang A, Li Z, Yang T. [Origin of acoustically evoked short latency negative response in guinea pigs]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2011;46:319-24 pubmed
  53. Basta D, Todt I, Goepel F, Ernst A. Loss of saccular function after cochlear implantation: the diagnostic impact of intracochlear electrically elicited vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Audiol Neurootol. 2008;13:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..A possible coactivation of the inferior vestibular nerve by the electrical stimulation might play an additional role in the pathogenesis of the persisting postsurgical dizziness...