scala tympani

Summary

Summary: The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).

Top Publications

  1. Adunka O, Radeloff A, Gstoettner W, Pillsbury H, Buchman C. Scala tympani cochleostomy II: topography and histology. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:2195-200 pubmed
    ..To assess intracochlear trauma using two different round window-related cochleostomy techniques in human temporal bones...
  2. Shepherd R, Xu J. A multichannel scala tympani electrode array incorporating a drug delivery system for chronic intracochlear infusion. Hear Res. 2002;172:92-8 pubmed
    We have developed a novel scala tympani electrode array suitable for use in experimental animals. A unique feature of this array is its ability to chronically deliver pharmacological agents to the scala tympani...
  3. Briaire J, Frijns J. The consequences of neural degeneration regarding optimal cochlear implant position in scala tympani: a model approach. Hear Res. 2006;214:17-27 pubmed
    ..by placing the contacts on the medial side of the array and positioning the implant against the medial wall of scala tympani. The question remains whether this is the optimal position for a cochlea with intact neural fibers and, if so, ..
  4. Pierre P, Engmér C, Wallin I, Laurell G, Ehrsson H. High concentrations of thiosulfate in scala tympani perilymph after systemic administration in the guinea pig. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:132-7 pubmed publisher
    High concentrations of the antioxidant thiosulfate reach scala tympani perilymph after i.v. administration in the guinea pig. Thiosulfate concentrations in perilymph remain elevated longer than in blood...
  5. Kontorinis G, Scheper V, Wissel K, Stover T, Lenarz T, Paasche G. In vitro modifications of the scala tympani environment and the cochlear implant array surface. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:2057-63 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the influence of alterations of the scala tympani environment and modifications of the surface of cochlear implant electrode arrays on insertion forces in vitro.
  6. Lamm C, Walliser U, Schumann K, Lamm K. [Oxygen partial pressure measurements in the perilymph and scala tympani in normo- and hyperbaric conditions. An animal experiment study]. HNO. 1988;36:363-6 pubmed
    ..In all animals the pO2 in the perilymph of the scala tympani fell by 34% of the original value during insertion of the sensor into the scala tympani...
  7. Adunka O, Buchman C. Scala tympani cochleostomy I: results of a survey. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:2187-94 pubmed
    To assess current surgical techniques for scala tympani cochlear implantation among North American surgeons.
  8. Salt A, Hale S, Plonkte S. Perilymph sampling from the cochlear apex: a reliable method to obtain higher purity perilymph samples from scala tympani. J Neurosci Methods. 2006;153:121-9 pubmed
    ..When auditory function is of primary interest, the drug level in the perilymph of scala tympani (ST) is most relevant, since drug in this scala has ready access to the auditory sensory cells...
  9. Hara A, Salt A, Thalmann R. Perilymph composition in scala tympani of the cochlea: influence of cerebrospinal fluid. Hear Res. 1989;42:265-71 pubmed
    ..This is consistent with cerebrospinal fluid (having a low glycine content) being drawn into scala tympani through the cochlear aqueduct and contaminating the sample...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Plontke S, Biegner T, Kammerer B, Delabar U, Salt A. Dexamethasone concentration gradients along scala tympani after application to the round window membrane. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:401-6 pubmed publisher
    Local application of dexamethasone-21-dihydrogen-phosphate (Dex-P) to the round window (RW) membrane of guinea pigs produces a substantial basal-apical concentration gradient in scala tympani (ST) perilymph.
  2. Mynatt R, Hale S, Gill R, Plontke S, Salt A. Demonstration of a longitudinal concentration gradient along scala tympani by sequential sampling of perilymph from the cochlear apex. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2006;7:182-93 pubmed
    ..When auditory function is of primary interest, the drug's kinetics in scala tympani (ST) must be established...
  3. Cartee L, Miller C, van den Honert C. Spiral ganglion cell site of excitation I: comparison of scala tympani and intrameatal electrode responses. Hear Res. 2006;215:10-21 pubmed
    ..a cochlear implant, single-fiber responses to electrical stimuli delivered by an electrode positioned in the scala tympani were compared to responses from stimuli delivered by an electrode placed in the internal auditory meatus...
  4. Hahn H, Kammerer B, DiMauro A, Salt A, Plontke S. Cochlear microdialysis for quantification of dexamethasone and fluorescein entry into scala tympani during round window administration. Hear Res. 2006;212:236-44 pubmed
    ..iii) that microdialysis allows quantification of the entry rates through the round window membrane (RWM) into scala tympani (ST)...
  5. Mihelic Rapp M, Giebel W. A new immunohistochemical method for the detection of gentamicin in inner ear fluid compartments. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1996;253:411-6 pubmed
    ..molecules (such as the aminoglycoside antibiotics) in frozen sections of the inner ear compartments (scala tympani, scala vestibuli and cochlear duct)...
  6. Verbist B, Ferrarini L, Briaire J, Zarowski A, Admiraal Behloul F, Olofsen H, et al. Anatomic considerations of cochlear morphology and its implications for insertion trauma in cochlear implant surgery. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study is to analyze the 3-dimensional anatomy of the cochlear spiral and to investigate the consequences of its course to insertion trauma during cochlear implantation...
  7. Kha H, Chen B, Clark G, Jones R. Stiffness properties for Nucleus standard straight and contour electrode arrays. Med Eng Phys. 2004;26:677-85 pubmed
  8. Goldwyn J, Bierer S, Bierer J. Modeling the electrode-neuron interface of cochlear implants: effects of neural survival, electrode placement, and the partial tripolar configuration. Hear Res. 2010;268:93-104 pubmed publisher
    ..the electrode-neuron interface, variations in spiral ganglion nerve density and electrode position within the scala tympani, affect the simulated neural activation patterns and how these patterns change with electrode configuration...
  9. Connor S, Holland N, Agger A, Leong A, Varghese R, Jiang D, et al. Round window electrode insertion potentiates retention in the scala tympani. Acta Otolaryngol. 2012;132:932-7 pubmed publisher
    The round window membrane (RWM)-intentioned approach is superior to the traditional bony cochleostomy (BC) approach in obtaining electrode placement within the scala tympani (ST).
  10. Lane J, Witte R, Driscoll C, Shallop J, Beatty C, Primak A. Scalar localization of the electrode array after cochlear implantation: clinical experience using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography. Otol Neurotol. 2007;28:658-62 pubmed
    ..To use the improved resolution available with 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in vivo to localize the cochlear implant electrode array within the basal turn...
  11. Pararas E, Chen Z, Fiering J, Mescher M, Kim E, McKenna M, et al. Kinetics of reciprocating drug delivery to the inner ear. J Control Release. 2011;152:270-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterized the pharmacokinetics of reciprocating drug delivery to the scala tympani within the cochlea by measuring the effects of changes in flow parameters on the distribution of drug ..
  12. Pfister M, Maier H, Gummer A, Preyer S. [In vivo cochleoscopy through the round window]. HNO. 1997;45:216-21 pubmed
    ..It is anticipated that improved resolution will allow the cochleoscope to be used for diagnostic purposes in cases of sensorineural hearing loss...
  13. Postnov A, Zarowski A, De Clerck N, Vanpoucke F, Offeciers F, van Dyck D, et al. High resolution micro-CT scanning as an innovative tool for evaluation of the surgical positioning of cochlear implant electrodes. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126:467-74 pubmed
  14. Tona Y, Inaoka T, Ito J, Kawano S, Nakagawa T. Development of an electrode for the artificial cochlear sensory epithelium. Hear Res. 2015;330:106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..of electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses were obtained, with the electrode positioned in the scala tympani and with the electrode inserted into the cochlear modiolus...
  15. Kumar G, Chokshi M, Richter C. Electrical impedance measurements of cochlear structures using the four-electrode reflection-coefficient technique. Hear Res. 2010;259:86-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been estimated that up to 75% of the current injected via a CI is shunted along scala tympani and is not available to stimulate auditory neurons...
  16. Li Y, Chen H, Guo M. [Therapeutic effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 injection into the inner ears through scala tympani fenestration on gentamicin-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2008;28:200-3 pubmed
    To study the therapeutic effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) injection into the inner ears through a scala tympani fenestration on sensorineural deafness in a guinea pig model of gentamicin-induced hearing loss.
  17. Lecerf P, Bakhos D, Cottier J, Lescanne E, Trijolet J, Robier A. Midmodiolar reconstruction as a valuable tool to determine the exact position of the cochlear implant electrode array. Otol Neurotol. 2011;32:1075-81 pubmed publisher
    ..A midmodiolar reconstruction with multislice computed tomography could potentially be used clinically to determine the cochlear implant electrode array position if the technique was validated with a cadaveric temporal bone study...
  18. Martinez Monedero R, Niparko J, Aygun N. Cochlear coiling pattern and orientation differences in cochlear implant candidates. Otol Neurotol. 2011;32:1086-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Detailed studies of cochlear morphology can guide our approach to cochleostomy and electrode insertion to optimize neuronal and hair cell preservation and ultimate electrode location...
  19. Zhang J, Wei W, Ding J, Roland J, Manolidis S, Simaan N. Inroads toward robot-assisted cochlear implant surgery using steerable electrode arrays. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:1199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Robotic insertions of actively steerable perimodiolar electrode arrays can substantially reduce insertion forces and prevent electrode buckling...
  20. Su G, Colesa D, Pfingst B. Effects of deafening and cochlear implantation procedures on postimplantation psychophysical electrical detection thresholds. Hear Res. 2008;241:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that surviving hair cells influence electrical threshold levels...
  21. Song B, Li Y, Han D. Delayed electrical stimulation and BDNF application following induced deafness in rats. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:142-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the combination of ES and BDNF has a synergistic protective effect rather than an additive effect. Both SGC body and peripheral process influence the auditory sensitivity, and the latter appears to be more important...
  22. Du Q, Wang Z. [Impedance of cochlear implant electrode array in scalae tympani]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;88:3302-4 pubmed
    ..To study the relationship between the impedance of paired cochlear implant electrodes and their position in scalae tympani as well as the relationship between the impedance and the current frequency...
  23. Yimtae K, Song H, Billings P, Harris J, Keithley E. Connection between the inner ear and the lymphatic system. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:1631-5 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to identify the lymphatic drainage of the inner ear in guinea pigs...
  24. Marcon S, Patuzzi R. Changes in cochlear responses in guinea pig with changes in perilymphatic K+. Part I: summating potentials, compound action potentials and DPOAEs. Hear Res. 2008;237:76-89 pubmed publisher
    We have measured the effects of changing perilymphatic K+ by perfusing scala tympani in guinea pigs with salt solutions high or low in K+, while monitoring the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in the ear canal (a measure ..
  25. Linthicum F, Fayad J, Otto S, Galey F, House W. Inner ear morphologic changes resulting from cochlear implantation. Am J Otol. 1991;12 Suppl:8-10; discussion 18-21 pubmed
    ..The ganglion cell population responds directly to the electrical stimulus. Examination of three auditory nerves from three cases and the cochlear nuclei from one case also reveals no effect of prolonged electrical stimulation...
  26. Miroir M, Nguyen Y, Kazmitcheff G, Ferrary E, Sterkers O, Grayeli A. Friction force measurement during cochlear implant insertion: application to a force-controlled insertion tool design. Otol Neurotol. 2012;33:1092-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to evaluate force profiles during array insertion in human cochlea specimens and to evaluate a mechatronic inserter using a 1-axis force sensor...
  27. Welling D, Hinojosa R, Gantz B, Lee J. Insertional trauma of multichannel cochlear implants. Laryngoscope. 1993;103:995-1001 pubmed
    ..The degree of insertional trauma may be relevant to changing indications for insertion of cochlear implants as well as for patients with device failure who require reimplantation...
  28. Nuttall A, Guo M, Ren T, Dolan D. Basilar membrane velocity noise. Hear Res. 1997;114:35-42 pubmed
    ..anesthetized young healthy guinea pigs were surgically exposed and a hole was made on the lateral wall of the scala tympani of the first cochlear turn for visualization of the BM and measurement of the BM velocity with a laser ..
  29. Sellick P, Patuzzi R, Robertson D. Primary afferent and cochlear nucleus contributions to extracellular potentials during tone-bursts. Hear Res. 2003;176:42-58 pubmed
    Gross electrical responses to tone bursts were measured in the guinea pig with electrodes located in scala tympani (ST) and scala vestibuli (SV) of the cochlea, on the central portion of the VIIIth nerve fibres in the internal auditory ..
  30. Kanzaki S, Shiotani A, Inoue M, Hasegawa M, Ogawa K. Sendai virus vector-mediated transgene expression in the cochlea in vivo. Audiol Neurootol. 2007;12:119-26 pubmed
    ..Sendai virus (SeV) vector into the guinea pig cochlea using two different approaches--the scala media and scala tympani--and investigated which cell types took up the vector...
  31. Adunka O, Kiefer J. Impact of electrode insertion depth on intracochlear trauma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;135:374-82 pubmed
    ..To assess the effect of cochlear implant (CI) insertion depth and surgical technique on intracochlear trauma...
  32. Paprocki A, Biskup B, Kozłowska K, Kuniszyk A, Bien D, Niemczyk K. The topographical anatomy of the round window and related structures for the purpose of cochlear implant surgery. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2004;63:309-12 pubmed
    ..The average total length of the unstimulated lamina is 2.06 and 4.06 in the two situations respectively...
  33. Altschuler R, O Shea K, Miller J. Stem cell transplantation for auditory nerve replacement. Hear Res. 2008;242:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..as well as in vivo differentiation and survival of exogenous embryonic and tissue stem cells placed into scala tympani and/or modiolus...
  34. Wright C, Roland P. Vascular trauma during cochlear implantation: a contributor to residual hearing loss?. Otol Neurotol. 2013;34:402-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was performed to investigate the vascular structures of the cochlea that are potentially vulnerable to mechanical trauma during cochlear implant surgery...
  35. Sperling N, Paparella M, Yoon T, Zelterman D. Symptomatic versus asymptomatic endolymphatic hydrops: a histopathologic comparison. Laryngoscope. 1993;103:277-85 pubmed
  36. Lupo J, Koka K, Jenkins H, Tollin D. Third-window vibroplasty with an active middle ear implant: assessment of physiologic responses in a model of stapes fixation in Chinchilla lanigera. Otol Neurotol. 2012;33:425-31 pubmed publisher
    Mechanical stimulation through a cochlear third window into the scala tympani in a chinchilla model with normal and fixed stapes can generate cochlear responses equivalent to acoustic stimuli.
  37. Wada H, Sugawara M, Kobayashi T, Hozawa K, Takasaka T. Measurement of guinea pig basilar membrane using computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction system. Hear Res. 1998;120:1-6 pubmed
  38. Du Q, Wang Z. [Impedance between modiolus and different walls of scala tympani]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;22:878-9 pubmed
    To compare the impedance between the modiolus and the inner wall of scala tympani with that between the modiolus and the outer wall of scala tympani.
  39. Grolman W, Maat A, Verdam F, Simis Y, Carelsen B, Freling N, et al. Spread of excitation measurements for the detection of electrode array foldovers: a prospective study comparing 3-dimensional rotational x-ray and intraoperative spread of excitation measurements. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:27-33 pubmed
    ..We wanted to see if spread of excitation (SOE) is useful for determining the electrode array position within the cochlea...
  40. Nakajima H, Dong W, Olson E, Merchant S, Ravicz M, Rosowski J. Differential intracochlear sound pressure measurements in normal human temporal bones. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2009;10:23-36 pubmed publisher
    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones...
  41. Wysocki J. Dimensions of the human vestibular and tympanic scalae. Hear Res. 1999;135:39-46 pubmed
  42. Noble J, Labadie R, Majdani O, Dawant B. Automatic segmentation of intracochlear anatomy in conventional CT. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011;58:2625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical results suggest that implanting the electrode in the scala tympani, one of the two principal cavities inside the cochlea, may result in better hearing restoration...
  43. Finley C, Holden T, Holden L, Whiting B, Chole R, Neely G, et al. Role of electrode placement as a contributor to variability in cochlear implant outcomes. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:920-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Suboptimal cochlear implant (CI) electrode array placement may reduce presentation of coded information to the central nervous system and, consequently, limit speech recognition...
  44. Szalai R, Tsaneva Atanasova K, Homer M, Champneys A, Kennedy H, Cooper N. Nonlinear models of development, amplification and compression in the mammalian cochlea. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2011;369:4183-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, new modelling evidence is presented that structural longitudinal coupling between OHCs may be necessary in order to capture all features of the observed mechanical responses...
  45. Johnson L, Della Santina C, Wang X. Temporal bone characterization and cochlear implant feasibility in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Hear Res. 2012;290:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..and investigate the feasibility of implanting a multi-channel intracochlear electrode into the marmoset scala tympani. Micro computed tomography (microCT) was used to create high-resolution images of marmoset temporal bones...
  46. Nguyen Y, Miroir M, Kazmitcheff G, Sutter J, Bensidhoum M, Ferrary E, et al. Cochlear implant insertion forces in microdissected human cochlea to evaluate a prototype array. Audiol Neurootol. 2012;17:290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The recordings showed lower insertion forces beyond 270° of insertion and deeper insertions with the thin prototype array. This will potentially allow larger cochlear coverage with less trauma...
  47. Salt A, Rask Andersen H. Responses of the endolymphatic sac to perilymphatic injections and withdrawals: evidence for the presence of a one-way valve. Hear Res. 2004;191:90-100 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we compared the influence of injections into and withdrawals from scala tympani of the cochlea on the endolymphatic sac...
  48. Patuzzi R, Moleirinho A. Automatic monitoring of mechano-electrical transduction in the guinea pig cochlea. Hear Res. 1998;125:1-16 pubmed
    ..point on the transfer curve migrates in a way consistent with a movement of the organ of Corti towards scala tympani or a contraction of the outer hair cells...
  49. Richardson R, Wise A, O Leary S, Hardman J, Casley D, Clark G. Tracing neurotrophin-3 diffusion and uptake in the guinea pig cochlea. Hear Res. 2004;198:25-35 pubmed
    ..125)I NT-3 signal was strongest in cells lining the perilymphatic space of the scala tympani, basilar membrane, osseous spiral lamina and spiral ligament...
  50. Parthasarathi A, Grosh K, Zheng J, Nuttall A. Effect of current stimulus on in vivo cochlear mechanics. J Acoust Soc Am. 2003;113:442-52 pubmed
    ..A positive current applied in the scala vestibuli relative to a ground electrode in the scala tympani is found to enhance gain and increase the best frequency at a given location on the BM...
  51. Schnabl J, Glueckert R, Feuchtner G, Recheis W, Potrusil T, Kuhn V, et al. Sheep as a large animal model for middle and inner ear implantable hearing devices: a feasibility study in cadavers. Otol Neurotol. 2012;33:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In a histomorphometric study, we sought to investigate whether sheep or pig cochleae are suitable for this purpose and whether device implantation is feasible...
  52. Aschendorff A, Kubalek R, Turowski B, Zanella F, Hochmuth A, Schumacher M, et al. Quality control after cochlear implant surgery by means of rotational tomography. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:34-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate the intracochlear electrode position in using rotational tomography in adult cochlear implant patients...
  53. Niedermeier K, Braun S, Fauser C, Kiefer J, Straubinger R, Stark T. A safety evaluation of dexamethasone-releasing cochlear implants: comparative study on the risk of otogenic meningitis after implantation. Acta Otolaryngol. 2012;132:1252-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Dexamethasone released from a cochlear implant seems not to enhance the risk for postoperative infections...