sex attractants


Summary: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.

Top Publications

  1. Lassance J, Liénard M, Antony B, Qian S, Fujii T, Tabata J, et al. Functional consequences of sequence variation in the pheromone biosynthetic gene pgFAR for Ostrinia moths. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:3967-72 pubmed publisher
  2. Hagström A, Liénard M, Groot A, Hedenström E, Löfstedt C. Semi-selective fatty acyl reductases from four heliothine moths influence the specific pheromone composition. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37230 pubmed publisher
    ..This study further supports the key role of these in pheromone biosynthesis and emphasizes the interplay between the pheromone fatty acyl precursors and the Lepidoptera specific pgFARs in shaping the pheromone composition. ..
  3. Durand N, Carot Sans G, Chertemps T, Bozzolan F, Party V, Renou M, et al. Characterization of an antennal carboxylesterase from the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis degrading a host plant odorant. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15026 pubmed publisher
    ..These enzymes are only expressed in the male antennae, and secreted into the lumen of the pheromone-sensitive sensilla. CCEs able to hydrolyze other odorants than sex pheromones, such as plant volatiles, have not been identified...
  4. Albre J, Liénard M, Sirey T, Schmidt S, Tooman L, Carraher C, et al. Sex pheromone evolution is associated with differential regulation of the same desaturase gene in two genera of leafroller moths. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002489 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that differential gene regulation among members of a multigene family may be an important mechanism of molecular innovation in sex pheromone evolution and speciation. ..
  5. Niehuis O, Buellesbach J, Gibson J, Pothmann D, Hanner C, Mutti N, et al. Behavioural and genetic analyses of Nasonia shed light on the evolution of sex pheromones. Nature. 2013;494:345-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they indicate that the genetic basis of new pheromone compounds can be simple, allowing them to persist long enough in a population for receivers to evolve chemosensory adaptations for their exploitation...
  6. Oku K, Yasuda T. Effects of age and mating on female sex attractant pheromone levels in the sorghum plant bug, Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura). J Chem Ecol. 2010;36:548-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that male response in S. rubrovittatus is dictated more by the quantities of pheromone components released into the volatile headspace by females than by the quantities present in the body...
  7. Kuenen L, McElfresh J, Millar J. Identification of critical secondary components of the sex pheromone of the navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:314-30 pubmed
    ..This suggests that careful reexamination of pheromone gland contents for both type I and type II compounds may prove fruitful in species that have been studied but for which full attractant blends have eluded identification. ..
  8. Liénard M, Hagström A, Lassance J, Löfstedt C. Evolution of multicomponent pheromone signals in small ermine moths involves a single fatty-acyl reductase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10955-60 pubmed publisher
  9. Lassance J, Groot A, Liénard M, Antony B, Borgwardt C, Andersson F, et al. Allelic variation in a fatty-acyl reductase gene causes divergence in moth sex pheromones. Nature. 2010;466:486-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Accumulation of substitutions in the coding region of a single biosynthetic enzyme can produce pheromone differences resulting in reproductive isolation, with speciation as a potential end result. ..

More Information


  1. Cheng Y, Luo L, Jiang X, Zhang L, Niu C. Expression of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide and its receptor (PBANR) mRNA in adult female Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2010;75:13-27 pubmed publisher
    ..exigua moths during the same period. We infer from these results that pheromone biosynthesis and release in S. exigua is regulated by PBAN via up-regulating synthesis. ..
  2. Olsson S, Kesevan S, Groot A, Dekker T, Heckel D, Hansson B. Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) pheromone reception. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:285 pubmed publisher
  3. Griffiths K, Trueman J, Brown G, Peakall R. Molecular genetic analysis and ecological evidence reveals multiple cryptic species among thynnine wasp pollinators of sexually deceptive orchids. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;59:195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..The diversity of Neozeleboria may have enabled, rather than constrained, pollinator-driven speciation in these orchids...
  4. El Sayed A, Mitchell V, Manning L, Suckling D. New sex pheromone blend for the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana. J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:640-6 pubmed publisher
    ..e., in newly invaded habitats). In addition, this new blend may enhance pheromone control of this pest, through approaches such as mating disruption, lure and kill, and mass trapping. ..
  5. Harari A, Zahavi T, Thiéry D. Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths. Evolution. 2011;65:1572-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality...
  6. Ray A, Barbour J, McElfresh J, Moreira J, Swift I, Wright I, et al. 2,3-Hexanediols as sex attractants and a female-produced sex pheromone for cerambycid beetles in the prionine genus Tragosoma. J Chem Ecol. 2012;38:1151-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Rouyar A, Party V, Presern J, Blejec A, Renou M. A general odorant background affects the coding of pheromone stimulus intermittency in specialist olfactory receptor neurones. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26443 pubmed publisher
    ..Rapid recovery of behavior shows that change of perceived intensity is more important than absolute stimulus intensity. While decreasing the response intensity, background odor preserved the temporal parameters of the specific signal...
  8. Xu P, Garczynski S, Atungulu E, Syed Z, Choo Y, Vidal D, et al. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41653 pubmed publisher
  9. Keleman K, Vrontou E, Krüttner S, Yu J, Kurtovic Kozaric A, Dickson B. Dopamine neurons modulate pheromone responses in Drosophila courtship learning. Nature. 2012;489:145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work thus reveals critical behavioural, cellular and molecular components of the learning rule by which Drosophila adjusts its innate mating strategy according to experience. ..
  10. Kühbandner S, Sperling S, Mori K, Ruther J. Deciphering the signature of cuticular lipids with contact sex pheromone function in a parasitic wasp. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:2471-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide novel insights into the semiochemical function of cuticular lipids by showing that the bioactivity of CHCs may be influenced by the stereochemistry and a synergetic interaction with long time ignored TAGs. ..
  11. Li K, Siefkes M, Brant C, Li W. Isolation and identification of petromyzestrosterol, a polyhydroxysteroid from sexually mature male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.). Steroids. 2012;77:806-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The concentration-response curve of 3k PZS was exponential in shape with steep slopes between 10(-10) and 10(-6) mol L(-1). The concentration-response curve for 1 was shallower than that for 3k PZS. ..
  12. Duportets L, Maria A, Vitecek S, Gadenne C, Debernard S. Steroid hormone signaling is involved in the age-dependent behavioral response to sex pheromone in the adult male moth Agrotis ipsilon. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;186:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that 20E is involved in the expression of sexual behavior via the EcR/USP signaling pathway, probably acting on central pheromone processing in A. ipsilon...
  13. Ioriatti C, Anfora G, Tasin M, de Cristofaro A, Witzgall P, Lucchi A. Chemical ecology and management of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:1125-37 pubmed
  14. Houot B, Bousquet F, Ferveur J. The consequences of regulation of desat1 expression for pheromone emission and detection in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2010;185:1297-309 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the pleiotropic action of desat1 on pheromonal communication depends on the fine regulation of its transcriptional activity. ..
  15. Choi M, Vander Meer R, Coy M, Scharf M. Phenotypic impacts of PBAN RNA interference in an ant, Solenopsis invicta, and a moth, Helicoverpa zea. J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:1159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This work illustrates the variety of phenotypic effects observed after RNAi silencing of the PBAN gene and suggests the possibility of novel biologically-based insect pest control methods. ..
  16. Hillier N, Vickers N. Mixture interactions in moth olfactory physiology: examining the effects of odorant mixture, concentration, distal stimulation, and antennal nerve transection on sensillar responses. Chem Senses. 2011;36:93-108 pubmed publisher
    ..virescens ORNs...
  17. Wang G, Vasquez G, Schal C, Zwiebel L, Gould F. Functional characterization of pheromone receptors in the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens. Insect Mol Biol. 2011;20:125-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our results and previous research we can now assign pheromone receptors in H. virescens males to each of the critical H. virescens agonistic pheromone compounds and two antagonistic compounds produced by heterospecific females. ..
  18. Vasquez G, Fischer P, Grozinger C, Gould F. Differential expression of odorant receptor genes involved in the sexual isolation of two Heliothis moths. Insect Mol Biol. 2011;20:115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..subflexa antennae suggests that interspecific sequence differences, rather than gene regulation differences, underly the species-specific male response to pheromone components. ..
  19. Lee D, Shrestha S, Kim A, Park S, Yang C, Kim Y, et al. RNA interference of pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor suppresses mating behavior by inhibiting sex pheromone production in Plutella xylostella (L.). Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:236-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the identified PBAN receptor is functional in PBAN signaling via calcium secondary messenger, which leads to activation of pheromone biosynthesis and male attraction. ..
  20. Varela N, Avilla J, Gemeno C, Anton S. Ordinary glomeruli in the antennal lobe of male and female tortricid moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) process sex pheromone and host-plant volatiles. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the absence of recorded pheromone responses in the Cu needs to be confirmed. ..
  21. Belmabrouk H, Nowotny T, Rospars J, Martinez D. Interaction of cellular and network mechanisms for efficient pheromone coding in moths. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19790-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The first inhibition plays the role of a reset to limit variability in the time to first spike. The second inhibition prevents responses of excessive duration to allow tracking of intermittent stimuli...
  22. Zavada A, Buckley C, Martinez D, Rospars J, Nowotny T. Competition-based model of pheromone component ratio detection in the moth. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16308 pubmed publisher
    ..3) when longer durations of the competition between LNs were observed it did not lead to higher recognition accuracy. ..
  23. Kong X, Sun X, Wang H, Zhang Z, Zhao C, Booij K. Identification of components of the female sex pheromone of the Simao pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura. J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:412-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated that the blend of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,E7-12:OH, and Z5-12:OAc comprise the sex pheromone of D. kikuchii. The optimized three-component lure blend is recommended for monitoring D. kikuchii infestations. ..
  24. Barrozo R, Jarriault D, Deisig N, Gemeno C, Monsempes C, Lucas P, et al. Mating-induced differential coding of plant odour and sex pheromone in a male moth. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:1841-50 pubmed publisher
  25. Yasukochi Y, Miura N, Nakano R, Sahara K, Ishikawa Y. Sex-linked pheromone receptor genes of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, are in tandem arrays. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18843 pubmed publisher
    ..Odorant receptors (ORs) play a critical role in recognition of female sex pheromones; eight types of OR genes expressed in male antennae were previously reported in Ostrinia moths...
  26. Zhang Z, Luo J, Lu C, Zhao B, Meng J, Chen L, et al. Evidence of female-produced sex pheromone of Adelphocoris suturalis (Hemiptera: Miridae): effect of age and time of day. J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:1189-94 pubmed
    ..These results improve our understanding of the sexual communication behavior of A. suturalis and provide evidence of female-produced sex pheromone in this species...
  27. Ding B, Liénard M, Wang H, Zhao C, Löfstedt C. Terminal fatty-acyl-CoA desaturase involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis in the winter moth (Operophtera brumata). Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:715-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that a terminal desaturation step is involved in the winter moth pheromone biosynthesis, prior to the decarboxylation. ..
  28. Anton S, Evengaard K, Barrozo R, Anderson P, Skals N. Brief predator sound exposure elicits behavioral and neuronal long-term sensitization in the olfactory system of an insect. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3401-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide thus evidence for cross-modal experience-dependent plasticity not only on the behavioral level, but also on the central nervous level, in an insect. ..
  29. Zhang J, Salcedo C, Fang Y, Zhang R, Zhang Z. An overlooked component: (Z)-9-tetradecenal as a sex pheromone in Helicoverpa armigera. J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:1209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..armigera, it should be added to sex pheromone lure formulations to improve pheromone trap sensitivity and the efficacy of commercial mating disruption. ..
  30. Trona F, Anfora G, Bengtsson M, Witzgall P, Ignell R. Coding and interaction of sex pheromone and plant volatile signals in the antennal lobe of the codling moth Cydia pomonella. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:4291-303 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of a clear segregation between the pheromone and general odour subsystems in the AL of the codling moth suggests a level of interaction that has not been reported from other insects. ..
  31. Johnson N, Yun S, Buchinger T, Li W. Multiple functions of a multi-component mating pheromone in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. J Fish Biol. 2012;80:538-54 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that the sea lamprey male mating pheromone has multiple functions and is composed of multiple components...
  32. Jarriault D, Gadenne C, Lucas P, Rospars J, Anton S. Transformation of the sex pheromone signal in the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon: from peripheral input to antennal lobe output. Chem Senses. 2010;35:705-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, MGC neurons showed a wider tuning and a higher sensitivity to single pheromone components than ORNs...
  33. Party V, Hanot C, Büsser D, Rochat D, Renou M. Changes in odor background affect the locomotory response to pheromone in moths. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52897 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments show that the effects of odorant background on insect responses to chemical signals are complex and cannot be explained by a single mechanism...
  34. Barrozo R, Gadenne C, Anton S. Switching attraction to inhibition: mating-induced reversed role of sex pheromone in an insect. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:2933-9 pubmed publisher
  35. Fonseca M, Vidal D, Zarbin P. Male-produced sex pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Hedypathes betulinus: chemical identification and biological activity. J Chem Ecol. 2010;36:1132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of volatiles from the host plant greatly increased the attractiveness of the ternary pheromone mixture and of the major pheromone component alone. ..
  36. Laughlin J, Ha T, Jones D, Smith D. Activation of pheromone-sensitive neurons is mediated by conformational activation of pheromone-binding protein. Cell. 2008;133:1255-1265 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the pheromone-binding protein is an inactive, extracellular ligand converted by pheromone molecules into an activator of pheromone-sensitive neurons and reveals a distinct paradigm for detection of odorants. ..
  37. Thomas M. Detection of female mating status using chemical signals and cues. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2011;86:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This transfer of substances by males may be part of their strategy to suppress reproduction by competing males, particularly in species where females mate more than once. ..
  38. Groot A, Inglis O, Bowdridge S, Santangelo R, Blanco C, Lopez J, et al. Geographic and temporal variation in moth chemical communication. Evolution. 2009;63:1987-2003 pubmed publisher
  39. Fukuzawa M, Fu X, Tatsuki S, Ishikawa Y. cDNA cloning and in situ hybridization of Delta11-desaturase, a key enzyme of pheromone biosynthesis in Ostrinia scapulalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J Insect Physiol. 2006;52:430-5 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR and in situ hybridization unequivocally showed that OscaZ/E11 is specifically expressed in the modified epidermal cells located at the dorsal end of the 8th-9th intersegmental membrane. ..
  40. Cummins S, Nichols A, Schein C, Nagle G. Newly identified water-borne protein pheromones interact with attractin to stimulate mate attraction in Aplysia. Peptides. 2006;27:597-606 pubmed
    ..We also review the structure, expression, localization, release, and behavioral actions of attractin, enticin, temptin, and seductin. ..
  41. Party V, Hanot C, Said I, Rochat D, Renou M. Plant terpenes affect intensity and temporal parameters of pheromone detection in a moth. Chem Senses. 2009;34:763-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This modulation might positively affect mate location at high pheromone density especially nearby a pheromone source. ..
  42. Lacaille F, Hiroi M, Twele R, Inoshita T, Umemoto D, Manière G, et al. An inhibitory sex pheromone tastes bitter for Drosophila males. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e661 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the two substances induced similar behavioral responses both in courtship and feeding tests. We conclude that the inhibitory pheromone tastes bitter to the fly. ..
  43. Lin D, Zhang S, Block E, Katz L. Encoding social signals in the mouse main olfactory bulb. Nature. 2005;434:470-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that mitral cells represent natural odorant stimuli by acting as selective feature detectors, and that their activation is largely independent of the presence of other components in the olfactory stimulus. ..
  44. Hamilton J, Maingon R, Alexander B, Ward R, Brazil R. Analysis of the sex pheromone extract of individual male Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies from six regions in Brazil. Med Vet Entomol. 2005;19:480-8 pubmed
    ..Evidence of a fifth chemotype in Brazil is also presented. ..
  45. Mant J, Brändli C, Vereecken N, Schulz C, Francke W, Schiestl F. Cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromone of the bee Colletes cunicularius and the key to its mimicry by the sexually deceptive orchid, Ophrys exaltata. J Chem Ecol. 2005;31:1765-87 pubmed
    ..Thus, linalool appears to function as a long-range attractant, whereas cuticular hydrocarbons are necessary for inducing short-range mating behavior. ..
  46. Chertemps T, Duportets L, Labeur C, Ueda R, Takahashi K, Saigo K, et al. A female-biased expressed elongase involved in long-chain hydrocarbon biosynthesis and courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4273-8 pubmed
    ..These results strongly support the hypothesis that eloF is a crucial enzyme for female pheromone biosynthesis and courtship behavior in D. melanogaster. ..
  47. Kong X, Zhang Z, Zhao C, Wang H. Female sex pheromone of the Yunnan pine caterpillar moth Dendrolimus houi: first (E,Z)-isomers in pheromone components of Dendrolimus spp. J Chem Ecol. 2007;33:1316-27 pubmed
    ..The optimum ratio of acetate to aldehyde was 1:1, and this ratio was more critical than the ratio of either compound to the alcohol. This represents the first example of (E,Z)-isomers in pheromone blends of Dendrolimus species. ..
  48. Martinez Garcia F, Martínez Ricós J, Agustín Pavón C, Martínez Hernández J, Novejarque A, Lanuza E. Refining the dual olfactory hypothesis: pheromone reward and odour experience. Behav Brain Res. 2009;200:277-86 pubmed publisher
  49. Armstrong S, Robertson D, Cheetham S, Hurst J, Beynon R. Structural and functional differences in isoforms of mouse major urinary proteins: a male-specific protein that preferentially binds a male pheromone. Biochem J. 2005;391:343-50 pubmed
    ..This atypical MUP is also present in a random sample of wild-caught male mice, confirming that this protein is not specific to the inbred mouse strain but is present in natural populations also. ..
  50. Ray A, Millar J, McElfresh J, Swift I, Barbour J, Hanks L. Male-produced aggregation pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Rosalia funebris. J Chem Ecol. 2009;35:96-103 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Rosaliini. ..
  51. Zhang J, Soini H, Bruce K, Wiesler D, Woodley S, Baum M, et al. Putative chemosignals of the ferret (Mustela furo) associated with individual and gender recognition. Chem Senses. 2005;30:727-37 pubmed
    ..Similar results were previously obtained in anal glands of three other Mustela species. These findings provide new information about the constituents of urine and volatile components of anal gland secretions in ferrets...
  52. Maingon R, Ward R, Hamilton J, Bauzer L, Peixoto A. The Lutzomyia longipalpis species complex: does population sub-structure matter to Leishmania transmission?. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24:12-7 pubmed
    ..Identifying genes important for sand fly ecological adaptability and sand fly-Leishmania genetic co-variation could be helpful for interrupting Leishmania transmission. ..
  53. Foster S. Lipid analysis of the sex pheromone gland of the moth Heliothis virescens. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2005;59:80-90 pubmed
    ..These pools are greatest during maximal pheromone production when the biosynthetic enzymes, possibly the fatty acid reductase, are unable to utilize rapidly enough the quantities of Z11-16:Acyl biosynthesized. ..
  54. Moncho Bogani J, Martinez Garcia F, Novejarque A, Lanuza E. Attraction to sexual pheromones and associated odorants in female mice involves activation of the reward system and basolateral amygdala. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:2186-98 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the basolateral amygdala stands out as the key centre for vomeronasal-olfactory associative learning. ..
  55. Groot A, Fan Y, Brownie C, Jurenka R, Gould F, Schal C. Effect of PBAN on pheromone production by mated Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa females. J Chem Ecol. 2005;31:15-28 pubmed
    ..This procedure has the advantages that pheromone glands can be extracted during the photophase, from mated females that have already oviposited. ..
  56. Ejima A, Smith B, Lucas C, Levine J, Griffith L. Sequential learning of pheromonal cues modulates memory consolidation in trainer-specific associative courtship conditioning. Curr Biol. 2005;15:194-206 pubmed
    ..Suppression of memory by new learning demonstrates that the dynamics of memory consolidation are subject to plasticity in Drosophila. This type of metaplasticity is essential for navigation of experience-rich natural environments. ..
  57. Leal W, Parra Pedrazzoli A, Kaissling K, Morgan T, Zalom F, Pesak D, et al. Unusual pheromone chemistry in the navel orangeworm: novel sex attractants and a behavioral antagonist. Naturwissenschaften. 2005;92:139-46 pubmed
    ..Pyralidae), but (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate is a behavioral antagonist. The new pheromone blend may be highly effective in mating disruption and monitoring programs. ..
  58. Matsuoka K, Tabunoki H, Kawai T, Ishikawa S, Yamamoto M, Sato R, et al. Transport of a hydrophobic biosynthetic precursor by lipophorin in the hemolymph of a geometrid female moth which secretes an epoxyalkenyl sex pheromone. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;36:576-83 pubmed
    ..s. cretacea females. ..
  59. Kroiss J, Schmitt T, Schreier P, Strohm E, Herzner G. A selfish function of a "social" gland? A postpharyngeal gland functions as a sex pheromone reservoir in males of the solitary wasp Philanthus triangulum. J Chem Ecol. 2006;32:2763-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we found a dimorphism in the composition of the PPG contents, based on significant differences in the proportions of seven compounds between the two morphs. ..
  60. Ming Q, Yan Y, Wang C. Mechanisms of premating isolation between Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:170-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, we summarized the potential isolation mechanisms of H. armigera and H. assulta. ..
  61. Palmer C, Watts R, Houck L, Picard A, Arnold S. Evolutionary replacement of components in a salamander pheromone signaling complex: more evidence for phenotypic-molecular decoupling. Evolution. 2007;61:202-15 pubmed
    ..Overall, these two pheromone genes provide a revealing window on the dynamics that drive the evolution of multiple traits in a signaling complex. ..
  62. Liu T, Dartevelle L, Yuan C, Wei H, Wang Y, Ferveur J, et al. Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5539-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the high intensity of male-male interaction shown by these manipulated males was related to their altered sensory perception of other males. ..
  63. Domingue M, Musto C, Linn C, Roelofs W, Baker T. Olfactory neuron responsiveness and pheromone blend preference in hybrids between Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J Insect Physiol. 2008;54:1261-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding points toward a distinct evolutionary role for this ORN in allowing a pheromone shift. ..
  64. Srinivasan J, Kaplan F, Ajredini R, Zachariah C, Alborn H, Teal P, et al. A blend of small molecules regulates both mating and development in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature. 2008;454:1115-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The ascaroside signalling system thus connects reproductive and developmental pathways and represents a unique example of structure- and concentration-dependent differential activity of signalling molecules. ..
  65. Liénard M, Strandh M, Hedenstrom E, Johansson T, Löfstedt C. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:270 pubmed publisher
  66. Dickson B. Wired for sex: the neurobiology of Drosophila mating decisions. Science. 2008;322:904-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This simple and genetically tractable system provides an excellent model to explore the neurobiology of decision making. ..
  67. Kalinová B, Kindl J, Jiros P, Zácek P, Vasickova S, Budesinsky M, et al. Composition and electrophysiological activity of constituents identified in male wing gland secretion of the bumblebee parasite Aphomia sociella. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Both sexes perceived male wing gland secretion, with females being significantly more sensitive compared to males. ..
  68. Jarriault D, Gadenne C, Rospars J, Anton S. Quantitative analysis of sex-pheromone coding in the antennal lobe of the moth Agrotis ipsilon: a tool to study network plasticity. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:1191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented will serve as a basis for comparison with those of immature and mated males. ..
  69. Leal W, Ishida Y, Pelletier J, Xu W, Rayo J, Xu X, et al. Olfactory proteins mediating chemical communication in the navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitella. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7235 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, AtraPBP1 is highly enriched in male antennae. Fluorescence, CD and NMR studies suggest a dramatic pH-dependent conformational change, with high affinity to pheromone constituents at neutral pH and no binding at low pH. ..
  70. Barrozo R, Jarriault D, Simeone X, Gaertner C, Gadenne C, Anton S. Mating-induced transient inhibition of responses to sex pheromone in a male moth is not mediated by octopamine or serotonin. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:1100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results show that, although biogenic amines modulate the olfactory system in moths, OA and 5-HT are probably not involved in the post-mating inhibition of responses to sex pheromone in A. ipsilon males...
  71. Robbins P, Nojima S, Polavarapu S, Koppenhöfer A, Rodriguez Saona C, Holdcraft R, et al. Sex pheromone of the scarab beetle Phyllophaga (Phytalus) georgiana (horn). J Chem Ecol. 2009;35:336-41 pubmed publisher
    ..georgiana as well as for three other species, P. anxia (both northern and southern genitalic forms), P. gracilis, and P. postrema. The latter three species were captured in traps baited with L-isoleucine methyl ester. ..
  72. Liblikas I, Mozūraitis R, Santangelo E, Noreika R, Borg Karlson A. Syntheses, characterizations, and biological activities of tetradeca-4,8-dien-1-yl acetates as sex attractants of leaf-mining moth of the genus Phyllonorycter (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Chem Biodivers. 2009;6:1388-403 pubmed publisher
    ..4E,8E)-Tetradeca-4,8-dien-1-yl acetate was the most efficient attractant for Ph. esperella and Ph. saportella males, and (4E,8Z)-tetradeca-4,8-dien-1-yl acetate was attractive to Ph. cerasicolella males. ..