prostaglandin d2


Summary: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.

Top Publications

  1. Katsumata Y, Shinmura K, Sugiura Y, Tohyama S, Matsuhashi T, Ito H, et al. Endogenous prostaglandin D2 and its metabolites protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury by activating Nrf2. Hypertension. 2014;63:80-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we propose activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? by the dehydrated metabolite of PGD(2) (15-deoxy-?12,14-PGJ(2)) as another mechanism by which glucocorticoids induce cardioprotection. ..
  2. Moriai M, Tsuji N, Kobayashi D, Kuribayashi K, Watanabe N. Down-regulation of hTERT expression plays an important role in 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2009;34:1363-72 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, 15d-PGJ2 inhibits the transcriptional activity of c-Myc, Sp1 and ER by three different mechanisms and results in the transcriptional repression of the hTERT gene. ..
  3. Kanda H, Kobayashi K, Yamanaka H, Noguchi K. COX-1-dependent prostaglandin D2 in microglia contributes to neuropathic pain via DP2 receptor in spinal neurons. Glia. 2013;61:943-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that PGD2 signaling via DP2 signaling pathway from microglia to neurons is one of the triggering factors for mechanical allodynia in this neuropathic pain model...
  4. Fujitani Y, Aritake K, Kanaoka Y, Goto T, Takahashi N, Fujimori K, et al. Pronounced adipogenesis and increased insulin sensitivity caused by overproduction of prostaglandin D2 in vivo. FEBS J. 2010;277:1410-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study provides the first evidence that PGD(2) participates in the differentiation of adipocytes and in insulin sensitivity in vivo, and the H-PGDS TG mice could constitute a novel model mouse for diabetes studies. ..
  5. Byrns M, Duan L, Lee S, Blair I, Penning T. Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 expression in MCF-7 cells reveals roles in steroid hormone and prostaglandin metabolism that may explain its over-expression in breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;118:177-87 pubmed publisher
  6. Yamamoto Y, Fujita M, Koma H, Yamamori M, Nakamura T, Okamura N, et al. 15-Deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 enhanced the anti-tumor activity of camptothecin against renal cell carcinoma independently of topoisomerase-II and PPAR? pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;410:563-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) exhibited the anti-tumor activity synergistically with CPT independent of topoisomerase-II and PPAR?. ..
  7. Veliça P, Khanim F, Bunce C. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits C2C12 myogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;319:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate a complex interplay between myoblasts and inflammatory cells during the repair process and have implications for the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of muscle injuries. ..
  8. Napimoga M, da Silva C, Carregaro V, Farnesi de Assunção T, Duarte P, de Melo N, et al. Exogenous administration of 15d-PGJ2-loaded nanocapsules inhibits bone resorption in a mouse periodontitis model. J Immunol. 2012;189:1043-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the 15d-PGJ(2)-NC formulation presented immunomodulatory effects, decreasing bone resorption and inflammatory responses in a periodontitis mouse model. ..
  9. Higashi N, Taniguchi M, Mita H, Yamaguchi H, Ono E, Akiyama K. Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) assessment using the urinary biomarkers, leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) metabolites. Allergol Int. 2012;61:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..A comprehensive analysis of the urinary concentration of inflammatory mediators may afford a new research target in elucidating the pathophysiology of AIA. ..

More Information


  1. Lee S, Jang E, Kim J, Kim J, Lee W, Suk K. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase protein regulates glial cell migration and morphology through myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate: prostaglandin D2-independent effects. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:9414-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also indicate that L-PGDS may participate in reactive gliosis in an autocrine or paracrine manner, and may have pathological implications in neuroinflammatory diseases. ..
  2. Martinez A, Sánchez Gómez F, Díez Dacal B, Oeste C, Perez Sala D. 15-Deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 exerts pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in mesangial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2012;11:58-65 pubmed
  3. He R, Oyoshi M, Wang J, Hodge M, Jin H, Geha R. The prostaglandin Dâ‚‚ receptor CRTH2 is important for allergic skin inflammation after epicutaneous antigen challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:784-90 pubmed publisher
    ..CRTH2 promotes allergic skin inflammation in response to cutaneous exposure to antigen in previously sensitized mice. ..
  4. Ahmed S, McGettrick H, Yates C, Buckley C, Ratcliffe M, Nash G, et al. Prostaglandin D2 regulates CD4+ memory T cell trafficking across blood vascular endothelium and primes these cells for clearance across lymphatic endothelium. J Immunol. 2011;187:1432-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, chemokines may not regulate all stages of lymphocyte migration during inflammation, and paradigms describing their trafficking may need to account for the role of PGD(2). ..
  5. Zhao J, Zhao J, LEGGE K, Perlman S. Age-related increases in PGD(2) expression impair respiratory DC migration, resulting in diminished T cell responses upon respiratory virus infection in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that inhibiting PGD(2) function may be a useful approach to enhance T cell responses against respiratory viruses in older humans. ..
  6. Han Z, Zhu T, Liu X, Li C, Yue S, Liu X, et al. 15-deoxy-?12,14 -prostaglandin J2 reduces recruitment of bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophages in chronic liver injury in mice. Hepatology. 2012;56:350-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, hepatic inflammation and fibrosis were strikingly ameliorated after 15d-PGJ(2) administration. Our findings strongly suggest the antiinflammation and antifibrogenic potential of 15d-PGJ(2) in chronic liver diseases. ..
  7. Shichijo M, Arimura A, Hirano Y, Yasui K, Suzuki N, Deguchi M, et al. A prostaglandin D2 receptor antagonist modifies experimental asthma in sheep. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:1404-14 pubmed publisher
    ..15 mg/kg, twice a day, intravenous); however, S-5751 did not block inhaled leukotrieneD(4)-induced broncoconstriction. Prostanoid DP1 receptor inhibition may represent an alternative target for asthma therapy. ..
  8. Urade Y, Hayaishi O. Prostaglandin D2 and sleep/wake regulation. Sleep Med Rev. 2011;15:411-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Chiba T, Ueki S, Ito W, Kato H, Kamada R, Takeda M, et al. The opposing role of two prostaglandin D2 receptors, DP and CRTH2, in human eosinophil migration. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;106:511-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) regulates various immunological responses via two distinct PGD2 receptors, prostaglandin D receptor (DP), and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2)...
  10. Xue L, Salimi M, Panse I, Mjösberg J, McKenzie A, Spits H, et al. Prostaglandin D2 activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells through chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:1184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Through IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation, these innate cells can also contribute to adaptive type 2 immunity; thus CRTH2 bridges the innate and adaptive pathways in human ILC2s. ..
  11. Xue L, Barrow A, Pettipher R. Interaction between prostaglandin D and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells mediates cytokine production by Th2 lymphocytes in response to activated mast cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;156:126-33 pubmed publisher
  12. Tokudome S, Sano M, Shinmura K, Matsuhashi T, Morizane S, Moriyama H, et al. Glucocorticoid protects rodent hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase-derived PGD2 biosynthesis. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1477-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest what we believe to be a novel interaction between glucocorticoid-GR signaling and the cardiomyocyte survival pathway mediated by the arachidonic acid cascade. ..
  13. Mo C, Chearwae W, Bright J. PPARgamma regulates LIF-induced growth and self-renewal of mouse ES cells through Tyk2-Stat3 pathway. Cell Signal. 2010;22:495-500 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PPARgamma regulates LIF-induced growth and self-renewal of mouse ES cells through Tyk2-Stat3 pathway. ..
  14. Zhu F, Wang P, Kontrogianni Konstantopoulos A, Konstantopoulos K. Prostaglandin (PG)D(2) and 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2), but not PGE(2), mediate shear-induced chondrocyte apoptosis via protein kinase A-dependent regulation of polo-like kinases. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:1325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Reconstructing the signaling network regulating chondrocyte apoptosis may provide insights to optimize conditions for culturing artificial cartilage in bioreactors and for developing therapeutic strategies for arthritic disorders. ..
  15. Kase K, Hua J, Yokoi H, Ikeda K, Nagaoka I. Inhibitory action of roxithromycin on histamine release and prostaglandin D2 production from beta-defensin 2-stimulated mast cells. Int J Mol Med. 2009;23:337-40 pubmed
    ..In this study, histamine release, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were measured in the absence and presence ..
  16. Parson H, Harati H, Cooper D, Vinik A. Role of prostaglandin D2 and the autonomic nervous system in niacin-induced flushing. J Diabetes. 2013;5:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Aspirin can only reduce the flushing response by 30-40%. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms of niacin-induced flushing, with and without aspirin, in normal, healthy individuals...
  17. Xue L, Barrow A, Pettipher R. Novel function of CRTH2 in preventing apoptosis of human Th2 cells through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. J Immunol. 2009;182:7580-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that in addition to promoting the recruitment and activation of Th2 cells, PGD(2) may also impede the resolution of allergic inflammation through inhibiting apoptosis of Th2 cells. ..
  18. Hokari R, Nagata N, Kurihara C, Watanabe C, Komoto S, Okada Y, et al. Increased expression and cellular localization of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. J Pathol. 2009;219:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, prostaglandin D2 was shown to be involved in host immunity by chemotactic activity through chemoattractant receptor-homologous ..
  19. El Shazly A, Moonen V, Mawet M, Begon D, Henket M, Arafa M, et al. IFN-? and TNF-? potentiate prostaglandin D2-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis through up-regulation of CRTH2 surface receptor. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:1864-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptor CRTH2, is a pro-inflammatory molecule involved in eosinophil recruitment to the allergic airway...
  20. Roy S, Parent A, Gallant M, de Brum Fernandes A, Stankova J, Parent J. Characterization of C-terminal tail determinants involved in CRTH2 receptor trafficking: identification of a recycling motif. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;630:10-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identified specific amino acids in the CRTH2 receptor C-tail implicated in the agonist-induced internalization and the recycling of the receptor. ..
  21. Mathurin K, Gallant M, Germain P, Allard Chamard H, Brisson J, Iorio Morin C, et al. An interaction between L-prostaglandin D synthase and arrestin increases PGD2 production. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:2696-706 pubmed publisher
  22. Koyama M, Izutani Y, Goda A, Matsui T, Horinaka M, Tomosugi M, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 synergistically induce apoptosis. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:2320-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Cotreatments with the clinically relevant HDIs and the endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligand 15d-PGJ(2) are promising for the treatment of a broad spectrum of malignant tumors. ..
  23. Shyu R, Wu C, Wang C, Tsai T, Wang L, Chen M, et al. H-rev107 regulates prostaglandin D2 synthase-mediated suppression of cellular invasion in testicular cancer cells. J Biomed Sci. 2013;20:30 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is conjectured to induce SRY-related high-mobility group box 9 (SOX9) expression and subsequent ..
  24. Numazawa S, Takase M, Ahiko T, Ishii M, Shimizu S, Yoshida T. Possible involvement of transient receptor potential channels in electrophile-induced insulin secretion from RINm5F cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:346-54 pubmed
  25. Watanabe K, Yokoyama Y, Kokuryo T, Kawai K, Kitagawa T, Seki T, et al. 15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 prevents inflammatory response and endothelial cell damage in rats with acute obstructive cholangitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results clearly demonstrate that 15D-PGJ(2) inhibits the inflammatory response and endothelial cell damage seen in acute obstructive cholangitis and could contribute to improve the outcome of this pathology...
  26. Maicas N, Ibáñez L, Alcaraz M, Ubeda A, Ferrándiz M. Prostaglandin D2 regulates joint inflammation and destruction in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:130-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) may exert proinflammatory or antiinflammatory effects in different biologic systems...
  27. Taketomi Y, Ueno N, Kojima T, Sato H, Murase R, Yamamoto K, et al. Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2-DP1 receptor paracrine axis. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:554-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we describe a lipid-driven PLA2G3-L-PGDS-DP1 loop that drives mast cell maturation. ..
  28. Koyama J, Taga S, Shimizu K, Shimizu M, Morita I, Takeuchi A. Simultaneous determination of histamine and prostaglandin D2 using an LC-ESI-MS/MS method with positive/negative ion-switching ionization modes: application to the study of anti-allergic flavonoids on the degranulation of KU812 cells. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401:1385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..8% for PGD(2). This method was used to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of 26 flavonoids and sodium cromoglicate which are first-line anti-allergic drugs. Of these compounds, baicalein and morin were the most potent inhibitors. ..
  29. Ugajin T, Satoh T, Kanamori T, Aritake K, Urade Y, Yokozeki H. Fc?RI, but not Fc?R, signals induce prostaglandin D2 and E2 production from basophils. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:775-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, human basophils, like mouse basophils, also produced PGD2 through IgE-mediated stimulation. Thus, basophils could be an important source of PGD2/PGE2 and may contribute to allergic inflammation and immune responses...
  30. Arima M, Fukuda T. Prostaglandin D? and T(H)2 inflammation in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Korean J Intern Med. 2011;26:8-18 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will focus on the current understanding of the roles of PGD? and its metabolites in T(H)2 inflammation and the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. ..
  31. Cha B, Lim J, Kim K, Kim H. 15-deoxy-D12,14-prostaglandin J2 suppresses RANTES expression by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activation in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;62:167-74 pubmed
    ..pylori-infected AGS cells. 15d-PGJ(2), inhibits the activations of NADPH oxidase and Jak1/Stat3 and RANTES expression, suggesting that 15d-PGJ(2) may be beneficial for the treatment of H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation. ..
  32. Joo M, Kwon M, Cho Y, Hu N, Pedchenko T, Sadikot R, et al. Lipopolysaccharide-dependent interaction between PU.1 and c-Jun determines production of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase and prostaglandin D2 in macrophages. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L771-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7 cells. Conversely, siRNA silencing of PU.1 expression blunted productions of L-PGDS and prostaglandin D2 (PGD(2)). LPS treatment induced formation of the complex of PU.1 and cJun on the PU...
  33. Joos H, Hogrefe C, Rieger L, Dürselen L, Ignatius A, Brenner R. Single impact trauma in human early-stage osteoarthritic cartilage: implication of prostaglandin D2 but no additive effect of IL-1? on cell survival. Int J Mol Med. 2011;28:271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate for the first time an elevated release of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) by human articular cartilage in response to a single mechanical impact...
  34. Gallant M, Chamoux E, Bisson M, Wolsen C, Parent J, Roux S, et al. Increased concentrations of prostaglandin D2 during post-fracture bone remodeling. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:644-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support our working hypothesis that PGD(2) could be implicated in the control of bone anabolism in humans. ..
  35. Joo M, Sadikot R. PGD synthase and PGD2 in immune resposne. Mediators Inflamm. 2012;2012:503128 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper highlights the role of PGD synthases and PGD2 in immune inflammatory response. ..
  36. Nagata N, Urade Y. [Sleep-wake regulation by prostaglandin D2 and adenosine]. Brain Nerve. 2012;64:621-8 pubmed
    ..The results of these studies have shown that the A2Asubreceptors in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens are responsible for the effect of caffeine on wakefulness. ..
  37. Alves C, de Melo N, Fraceto L, de Araújo D, Napimoga M. Effects of 15d-PGJ?-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules on inflammation. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;162:623-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The formulation enables the use of a much smaller drug dose, and is significantly more effective compared with unloaded 15d-PGJ?. ..
  38. Chbicheb S, Yao X, Rodeau J, Salamone S, Boisbrun M, Thiel G, et al. EGR1 expression: a calcium and ERK1/2 mediated PPAR?-independent event involved in the antiproliferative effect of 15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 and thiazolidinediones in breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;81:1087-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, in MCF7 transfected with siRNA targeting EGR1, ?2-TGZ inhibited less efficiently cell proliferation. ..
  39. Shimura C, Satoh T, Igawa K, Aritake K, Urade Y, Nakamura M, et al. Dendritic cells express hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase and function as a source of prostaglandin D2 in the skin. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:227-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), an arachidonic acid metabolite, has been implicated in allergic responses. A major source of PGD2 in the skin is mast cells that express hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS)...
  40. Kane C, Phelan K, Han L, Smith R, Xie J, Douglas J, et al. Protection of neurons and microglia against ethanol in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonists. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25 Suppl 1:S137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In composite, these studies suggest that PPAR-? agonists may be effective in limiting ethanol-induced toxicity to the developing CNS. ..
  41. Wang J, Mak O. Induction of apoptosis by 15d-PGJ2 via ROS formation: an alternative pathway without PPAR? activation in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2011;94:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these findings support the use of quercetin and PPAR? agonists in non-small cell lung carcinoma. ..
  42. Liu X, Yu H, Yang L, Li C, Li L. 15-Deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) attenuates the biological activities of monocyte/macrophage cell lines. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:654-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, 15d-PGJ(2) attenuates the biological activities of mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line cells involving oxidative stress, independently of PPAR?. These data further underline the anti-inflammation potential of 15d-PGJ(2). ..
  43. Syed M, Joo M, Abbas Z, Rodger D, Christman J, Mehta D, et al. Expression of TREM-1 is inhibited by PGD2 and PGJ2 in macrophages. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:3140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a novel mechanism by which these prostaglandins exhibit anti-inflammatory effects and a new therapeutic approach to inhibition of TREM-1. ..
  44. Yu R, Xiao L, Zhao G, Christman J, van Breemen R. Competitive enzymatic interactions determine the relative amounts of prostaglandins E2 and D2. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;339:716-25 pubmed publisher
  45. Higdon A, Dranka B, Hill B, Oh J, Johnson M, Landar A, et al. Methods for imaging and detecting modification of proteins by reactive lipid species. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;47:201-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes the synthesis, purification, and selected application of these tagged lipids in vitro. ..
  46. Surh Y, Na H, Park J, Lee H, Kim W, Yoon I, et al. 15-Deoxy-?¹²,¹?-prostaglandin J?, an electrophilic lipid mediator of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving signaling. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;82:1335-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, 15d-PGJ2 and its synthetic derivatives have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. ..
  47. Pena dos Santos D, Severino F, Pereira S, Rodrigues D, Cunha F, Vieira S, et al. Activation of peripheral kappa/delta opioid receptors mediates 15-deoxy-(Delta12,14)-prostaglandin J2 induced-antinociception in rat temporomandibular joint. Neuroscience. 2009;163:1211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The pharmacological properties of the peripheral administration of 15d-PGJ(2) highlight the potential use of this PPAR-gamma agonist on TMJ inflammatory pain conditions. ..
  48. Shin S, Seo C, Han H, Han J, Jeong J, Kwak J, et al. 15d-PGJ2 induces apoptosis by reactive oxygen species-mediated inactivation of Akt in leukemia and colorectal cancer cells and shows in vivo antitumor activity. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:5414-25 pubmed publisher
  49. Xue L, Barrow A, Fleming V, Hunter M, Ogg G, Klenerman P, et al. Leukotriene E4 activates human Th2 cells for exaggerated proinflammatory cytokine production in response to prostaglandin D2. J Immunol. 2012;188:694-702 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal that cysLTs, in particular LTE(4), have a significant proinflammatory impact on T cells and demonstrate their effects on Th2 cells are mediated by a montelukast-sensitive receptor. ..
  50. Tachikawa M, Tsuji K, Yokoyama R, Higuchi T, Ozeki G, Yashiki A, et al. A clearance system for prostaglandin D2, a sleep-promoting factor, in cerebrospinal fluid: role of the blood-cerebrospinal barrier transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;343:608-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the system regulating the PGD(2) level in the CSF involves PGT- and OAT3-mediated PGD(2) uptake by the choroid plexus epithelial cells, acting as a pathway for PGD(2) clearance from the CSF via the BCSFB. ..
  51. Wu C, Shyu R, Wang C, Tsai T, Wang L, Chen M, et al. Involvement of the prostaglandin D2 signal pathway in retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1)-mediated suppression of cell invasion in testis cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:2227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..However, RIG1 significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in NT2/D1 cells. We found that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) interacted with RIG1 using yeast two-hybrid screens...
  52. Prakash J, Bansal R, Post E, de Jager Krikken A, Lub de Hooge M, Poelstra K. Albumin-binding and tumor vasculature determine the antitumor effect of 15-deoxy-Delta-(12,14)-prostaglandin-J(2) in vivo. Neoplasia. 2009;11:1348-58 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) can be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer, although its effects seem to be limited to the tumors allowing albumin penetration. ..
  53. Cebola I, Peinado M. Epigenetic deregulation of the COX pathway in cancer. Prog Lipid Res. 2012;51:301-13 pubmed publisher