prostaglandins d


Summary: Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.

Top Publications

  1. Kostenis E, Ulven T. Emerging roles of DP and CRTH2 in allergic inflammation. Trends Mol Med. 2006;12:148-58 pubmed
    ..Here, we examine the roles of DP and CRTH2 in the orchestration of complex inflammatory processes, and discuss their importance as emerging targets for the treatment of asthma and inflammatory diseases. ..
  2. Gosset P, Pichavant M, Faveeuw C, Bureau F, Tonnel A, Trottein F. Prostaglandin D2 affects the differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells: impact on the T cell response. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:1491-500 pubmed
    ..Taken as a whole, these results demonstrate that PGD(2) impacts DC differentiation and functions, and extend the concept that it exerts important roles in immunity. ..
  3. Maruyama T, Ayabe S, Murata T, Hori M, Ozaki H. Relaxant effect of prostaglandin D(2)--receptor DP agonist on liver myofibroblast contraction. J Pharmacol Sci. 2011;116:197-203 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that prostanoid DP receptor agonism inhibits bradykinin-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation and contraction through cAMP-PKA signal activation in rat liver MFs. ..
  4. Rodriguez Y Baena R, Gaetani P, Paoletti P. A study on cisternal CSF levels of arachidonic acid metabolites after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurol Sci. 1988;84:329-35 pubmed
    ..Higher levels of leukotriene C4 in patients presenting vasospasm suggest a role for the compound in the genesis of local inflammatory processes and morphological changes of the arterial wall. ..
  5. Ikai K, Ujihara M, Kanauchi H, Urade Y. Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the activity of rat skin prostaglandin D synthetase. J Invest Dermatol. 1989;93:345-8 pubmed
  6. Morrow J, Prakash C, Duckworth T, Zackert W, Blair I, Oates J, et al. A stable isotope dilution mass spectrometric assay for the major urinary metabolite of PGD2. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res. 1991;21A:315-8 pubmed
    ..2. The finding that increased urinary excretion of this metabolite occurs in a number of clinical situations suggests that the assay may prove to be a valuable tool to explore the role of PGD2 in the pathophysiology of human disease. ..
  7. Watanabe K. Prostaglandin F synthase. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2002;68-69:401-7 pubmed
    ..Here, these three pathways of PGF synthesis by these enzymes are reviewed, and the physiological roles of the enzymes are discussed. ..
  8. Kobayashi T, Ushikubi F, Narumiya S. [Determination of ligand binding domains of the prostanoid receptors]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1999;114 Suppl 1:127P-129P pubmed
    ..This result indicates that this domain of the PGD receptor is responsible for distinction of structural differences between PGD2 and PGE2 on the cyclopentane ring. ..
  9. Nevo S. A new rare PGD variant, PGD Mediterranean. Hum Genet. 1989;81:199 pubmed
    ..The authors report a rare slow PGD variant observed in seven individuals in different Israeli population groups. ..

More Information


  1. Altin J, Bygrave F. Prostaglandin F2 alpha and the thromboxane A2 analogue ONO-11113 stimulate Ca2+ fluxes and other physiological responses in rat liver. Further evidence that prostanoids may be involved in the action of arachidonic acid and platelet-activating factor. Biochem J. 1988;249:677-85 pubmed
  2. van Overveld F, Houben L, Schmitz du Moulin F, Bruijnzeel P, Raaijmakers J, Terpstra G. Mast cell heterogeneity in human lung tissue. Clin Sci (Lond). 1989;77:297-304 pubmed
    ..8. Prostaglandin D2 release was observed when formalin-insensitive mast cells were challenged with anti-immunoglobulin E. Formalin-sensitive mast cells showed no release of prostaglandin D2. ..
  3. Westcott J, Murphy R, Stenmark K. Eicosanoids in human ventricular cerebrospinal fluid following severe brain injury. Prostaglandins. 1987;34:877-87 pubmed
    ..Thus, elevated free arachidonic acid and various oxygenated metabolites were observed in CSF following brain injury. ..
  4. Soifer S, Clyman R, Heymann M. Effects of prostaglandin D2 on pulmonary arterial pressure and oxygenation in newborn infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension. J Pediatr. 1988;112:774-7 pubmed
    ..Although PGD2 is a specific pulmonary vasodilator in fetal and newborn animals, it did not lower pulmonary arterial blood pressure nor improve oxygenation in newborn infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension syndrome. ..
  5. Casteleijn E, Kuiper J, van Rooij H, Koster J, van Berkel T. Conditioned media of Kupffer and endothelial liver cells influence protein phosphorylation in parenchymal liver cells. Involvement of prostaglandins. Biochem J. 1988;252:601-5 pubmed
    ..This stresses the concept of cellular communication inside the liver as a way by which the liver can rapidly respond to extrahepatic signals. ..
  6. Morimoto A, Murakami N, Nakamori T, Watanabe T. Multiple control of fever production in the central nervous system of rabbits. J Physiol. 1988;397:269-80 pubmed
    ..Correlating with the second peak, endogenous pyrogen acts on regions near the OVLT to synthesize and release pyrogenic prostaglandins. ..
  7. Ohno K, Sakai T, Fukushima M, Narumiya S, Fujiwara M. Site and mechanism of growth inhibition by prostaglandins. IV. Effect of cyclopentenone prostaglandins on cell cycle progression of G1-enriched HeLa S3 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988;245:294-8 pubmed
    ..The sensitivities of cells to PG in different phases of cell cycle were compared by treating G2/M phase cells with delta 12-PGJ2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  8. Ishikawa T, Tamai Y, Rochelle J, Hirata M, Namba T, Sugimoto Y, et al. Mapping of the genes encoding mouse prostaglandin D, E, and F and prostacyclin receptors. Genomics. 1996;32:285-8 pubmed
    ..Ptgdr mapped to proximal Chr 14, Ptgfr mapped to distal Chr 3, Ptgerepl mapped to middle Chr 8, and Ptgir mapped to proximal Chr 7. ..
  9. Robbins I, Barst R, Rubin L, Gaine S, Price P, Morrow J, et al. Increased levels of prostaglandin D(2) suggest macrophage activation in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Chest. 2001;120:1639-44 pubmed
    ..They may, however, have a role in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of PPH, which warrants further investigation. ..
  10. Dieter P, Schulze Specking A, Karck U, Decker K. Prostaglandin release but not superoxide production by rat Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro depends on Na+/H+ exchange. Eur J Biochem. 1987;170:201-6 pubmed
    ..The data presented here suggest that the prostaglandin production elicited by zymosan or phorbol ester in cultured rat Kupffer cells requires an activated Na+/H+ exchange. ..
  11. Robinson C, Benyon R, Agius R, Jones D, Wright D, Holgate S. The immunoglobulin E- and calcium-dependent release of histamine and eicosanoids from human dispersed mastocytosis spleen cells. J Invest Dermatol. 1988;90:359-65 pubmed
    ..92; n = 16) and A23187 (r = 0.97, n = 14) activation. These studies provide evidence for a link between PGD2 and histamine release in mastocytosis spleen cells. ..
  12. Wallukat G, Nemecz G, Farkas T, Kuehn H, Wollenberger A. Modulation of the beta-adrenergic response in cultured rat heart cells. I. Beta-adrenergic supersensitivity is induced by lactate via a phospholipase A2 and 15-lipoxygenase involving pathway. Mol Cell Biochem. 1991;102:35-47 pubmed
  13. Regal J. Role of arachidonate metabolites in C5a-induced bronchoconstriction. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988;246:542-7 pubmed
    ..In animals tachyphylactic to LTB4, the maximum of the C5a-induced bronchoconstriction was no different from control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  14. Williams K, Murphy W, Haslam R. Effects of activation of protein kinase C on the agonist-induced stimulation and inhibition of cyclic AMP formation in intact human platelets. Biochem J. 1987;243:667-78 pubmed
    ..The results show that, in the intact platelet, the predominant effects of activation of protein kinase C on adenylate cyclase activity are inhibitory, suggesting actions additional to inactivation of Gi. ..
  15. Lawrence I, Warner J, Cohan V, Hubbard W, Kagey Sobotka A, Lichtenstein L. Purification and characterization of human skin mast cells. Evidence for human mast cell heterogeneity. J Immunol. 1987;139:3062-9 pubmed
    ..These differences in inflammatory potential among human mast cells from various sites have important implications for the management of allergic and inflammatory responses. ..
  16. Szczeklik A, Dworski R, Mastalerz L, Prokop A, Sheller J, Nizankowska E, et al. Salmeterol prevents aspirin-induced attacks of asthma and interferes with eicosanoid metabolism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158:1168-72 pubmed
    ..The protective effect of salmeterol on aspirin-induced attacks and mediator release suggests that it may be efficacious in aspirin-sensitive asthma. ..
  17. Casteleijn E, Kuiper J, van Rooij H, Kamps J, Koster J, van Berkel T. Endotoxin stimulates glycogenolysis in the liver by means of intercellular communication. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:6953-5 pubmed
    ..This mechanism of intercellular communication may be designed to provide the carbohydrate source of energy necessary for the effective destruction of invaded microorganisms, by phagocytic cells, including the Kupffer cells. ..
  18. Jung T, Miller S, Rozehnal S, Woo H, Park Y, Baer W. Effect of round window membrane application of salicylate and indomethacin on hearing and levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in perilymph. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1992;493:81-7 pubmed
  19. Armour C, Johnson P, Black J. Potentiation of contraction of rabbit airway smooth muscle by some cyclooxygenase products. Prostaglandins. 1988;35:959-68 pubmed
    ..The fact that we could alter smooth muscle sensitivity in vitro with PGF2 alpha and a thromboxane analogue suggests that these mediators may be involved in the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in asthma. ..
  20. Ubatuba F. An animal model for the study of arterial thrombosis. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1989;22:993-1000 pubmed
    ..PGI2 was less active in rats than in rabbits (Threshold Protective Dose ratio ca. 4:1). PGE1 and PGD2 showed intermediate activity in both animal models. ..
  21. Barr R, Black A, Dowd P, Koro O, Mistry K, Isaacs J, et al. The in vitro 5-lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor L-652,343 does not inhibit 5-lipoxygenase in vivo in human skin. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1988;25:23-6 pubmed
    ..This shows the importance of confirming that the action of 5-lipoxygenase inhibiting drugs in vitro occurs in vivo. ..
  22. Meyer G, Neetz A, Brandes G, Tsikas D, Butterfield J, Just I, et al. Clostridium difficile toxins A and B directly stimulate human mast cells. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3868-76 pubmed
    ..extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and also resulted in a p38 MAPK-dependent increased formation of prostaglandins D(2) and E(2)...
  23. Quinkler M, Bujalska I, Tomlinson J, Smith D, Stewart P. Depot-specific prostaglandin synthesis in human adipose tissue: a novel possible mechanism of adipogenesis. Gene. 2006;380:137-43 pubmed
    ..In addition, the positive correlation between PGHS1 and BMI offers the novel hypothesis that the regulation of PG synthesis may have a role in determining fat distribution in human obesity. ..
  24. Hidaka T, Nakano M, Inokuchi T, Sugiyama M, Nishi J, Ogura R. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder mucosa. Kurume Med J. 1991;38:129-33 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that bovine gallbladder mucosa contains higher levels of fatty acid cyclooxygenase, and PGE2 isomerase and PGI2 synthetase in a proportion different from that in the muscle. ..
  25. Nakatani Y, Kudo I. [Enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism]. Arerugi. 2004;53:1057-61 pubmed
  26. Bushfield M, Hopple S, Gibson I, Murdoch F, MacIntyre D. Effects of protein kinase C activation on human platelet cyclic AMP metabolism. FEBS Lett. 1987;222:299-304 pubmed
  27. Miwa N, Sugino H, Ueno R, Hayaishi O. Prostaglandin induces Ca2+ influx and cyclic GMP formation in mouse neuroblastoma X rat glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells in culture. J Neurochem. 1988;50:1418-24 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that PG-induced cyclic GMP formation may require the rise in intracellular Ca2+ level and that the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels may not be involved in the PG-induced rise in Ca2+ content. ..
  28. Liu Y, Jackson D, Blackham A, Leff P. Partial agonist effects of BW A868C, a selective DP receptor antagonist, on Cl- secretion in dog tracheal epithelium. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996;304:117-22 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is a (the first) confirmation of partial agonist properties of BW A868C in an isolated tissue system. ..
  29. Koh T, Nakai Y, Kinoshita F, Imura H. Serotonin involvement in the inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH) release induced by prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in castrated male rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988;149:131-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the possible involvement of a serotonergic mechanism in the mediation of the suppression of LH secretion induced by PGD2 in castrated male rats. ..
  30. Ono K, Nakane H, Kato T, Fukushima M. Suppressive effects of various antitumor prostaglandin derivatives on the activity levels of DNA polymerases in human cultured tumor cells. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res. 1987;17B:976-80 pubmed
  31. Levi Schaffer F, Dayton E, Austen K, Hein A, Caulfield J, Gravallese P, et al. Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells cocultured with fibroblasts. Morphology and stimulation-induced release of histamine, leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2. J Immunol. 1987;139:3431-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, coculture of BMMC with fibroblasts induces an alteration in the composition of the secretory granules of the mast cells, as well as an augmentation of the activation-secretion response of the BMMC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  32. Awad J, Morrow J, Roberts L. Detection of the major urinary metabolite of prostaglandin D2 in the circulation: demonstration of elevated levels in patients with disorders of systemic mast cell activation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994;93:817-24 pubmed
    ..One particular advantage is the evaluation of clinical events, which only in retrospect are suspected to be associated with excessive release of PGD2, yet plasma or serum was obtained proximate to the event...
  33. Marques F, Sousa J, Correia Neves M, Oliveira P, Sousa N, Palha J. The choroid plexus response to peripheral inflammatory stimulus. Neuroscience. 2007;144:424-30 pubmed
    ..These observations emphasize that the CP must be considered a relevant mediator of immune signals between the periphery and the brain. ..
  34. Casteleijn E, Kuiper J, van Rooij H, Kamps J, Koster J, van Berkel T. Hormonal control of glycogenolysis in parenchymal liver cells by Kupffer and endothelial liver cells. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:2699-703 pubmed
    ..This implies that products of Kupffer and endothelial liver cells may play a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by the liver. ..
  35. Schratl P, Royer J, Kostenis E, Ulven T, Sturm E, Waldhoer M, et al. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking. J Immunol. 2007;179:4792-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that DP receptors comediate with CRTH2 the mobilization of eosinophils from bone marrow and their chemotaxis, which might provide the rationale for DP antagonists in the treatment of allergic disease. ..
  36. Schulman E, Post T, Vigderman R. Density heterogeneity of human lung mast cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1988;82:78-86 pubmed
    ..Dimaprit (3 X 10(-5) mol/L) and cromolyn sodium (10(-5) -3 x 10(-3) mol/L) failed to significantly inhibit any fraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  37. Tran Thi T, Haussinger D, Gyufko K, Decker K. Stimulation of prostaglandin release by Ca2+-mobilizing agents from the perfused rat liver. A comparative study on the action of ATP, UTP, phenylephrine, vasopressin and nerve stimulation. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1988;369:65-8 pubmed
    ..But phenylephrine and nerve stimulation while raising the PGD2 efflux only slightly caused an elevation of PGE2 outflow and portal pressure. ..
  38. Hardy C, Bradding P, Robinson C, Holgate S. Bronchoconstrictor and antibronchoconstrictor properties of inhaled prostacyclin in asthma. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1988;64:1567-74 pubmed
  39. Wasserman S. Basic mechanisms in asthma. Ann Allergy. 1988;60:477-82 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  40. Sharif N, Crider J, Xu S, Williams G. Affinities, selectivities, potencies, and intrinsic activities of natural and synthetic prostanoids using endogenous receptors: focus on DP class prostanoids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;293:321-8 pubmed
    ..9-8.2, n = 5-9). The pharmacological properties of some natural and numerous DP class synthetic prostanoids have been determined using endogenous receptors. ..
  41. Ujihara M, Urade Y, Eguchi N, Hayashi H, Ikai K, Hayaishi O. Prostaglandin D2 formation and characterization of its synthetases in various tissues of adult rats. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988;260:521-31 pubmed
    ..7-4.5) was catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase. The activity in the liver, lung, adrenal gland, salivary gland, heart, pancreas, and muscle (0.6-5.1) was due to both the glutathione-requiring synthetase and the transferase. ..
  42. Creticos P, Adkinson N, Kagey Sobotka A, Proud D, Meier H, Naclerio R, et al. Nasal challenge with ragweed pollen in hay fever patients. Effect of immunotherapy. J Clin Invest. 1985;76:2247-53 pubmed
    ..005], PGD2 [P = 0.04]), and (c) the treated group released 3-5-fold less mediator (TAME-esterase [P = 0.01], and histamine [P = 0.02])...
  43. Ujihara M, Tsuchida S, Satoh K, Sato K, Urade Y. Biochemical and immunological demonstration of prostaglandin D2, E2, and F2 alpha formation from prostaglandin H2 by various rat glutathione S-transferase isozymes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988;264:428-37 pubmed
    ..The F-reductase activity (3.3) was mostly catalyzed by the 1-2 group (75%). In the testis, the E-isomerase activity (3.9) was catalyzed by the 1-2 group (20-30%), the 3-4 group, and Yn1Yn2 (30-60%). ..
  44. Morrow J, Prakash C, Awad J, Duckworth T, Zackert W, Blair I, et al. Quantification of the major urinary metabolite of prostaglandin D2 by a stable isotope dilution mass spectrometric assay. Anal Biochem. 1991;193:142-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, this assay provides a sensitive and accurate method to assess endogenous production of prostaglandin D2 as a means to explore the pathophysiological role of prostaglandin D2 in human disease. ..
  45. Goh Y, Nakajima M, Azuma I, Hayaishi O. Prostaglandin D2 reduces intraocular pressure. Br J Ophthalmol. 1988;72:461-4 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PGD2 or its analogues may be useful for treating glaucoma. ..
  46. Serio R, Daniel E. Thromboxane effects on canine trachealis neuromuscular function. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1988;64:1979-88 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TxA2 may mediate the hyperresponsiveness found in vitro after O3 treatment. ..
  47. Zijlstra F, Naaktgeboren M, Mons H, Vincent J. Formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes by human lung tissue in vitro after activation by the calcium ionophore A23187. Eur J Clin Invest. 1987;17:325-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that thromboxane A2 and LTC4 are the most important arachidonic acid metabolites that induce bronchoconstriction in the human lung. ..
  48. Tran Thi T, Gyufko K, Haussinger D, Decker K. Net prostaglandin release by perfused rat liver after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. J Hepatol. 1988;6:151-7 pubmed
    ..e., from the vena cava to the portal vein, phorbol myristate acetate or PGE2 exerted only minor effects. These observations suggest a topological heterogeneity of producer and responder cells, respectively, in the liver sinusoid. ..
  49. Weinreich D, Wonderlin W. Inhibition of calcium-dependent spike after-hyperpolarization increases excitability of rabbit visceral sensory neurones. J Physiol. 1987;394:415-27 pubmed
    ..h.p. We propose that, in some visceral sensory neurones, the level of excitability is regulated by cyclic AMP-mediated control of the slow a.h.p. ..
  50. Ohishi K, Ueno R, Nishino S, Sakai T, Hayaishi O. Increased level of salivary prostaglandins in patients with major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1988;23:326-34 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the level of salivary PGs may be an indicator of major depressive disorder. ..
  51. Casteleijn E, Kuiper J, van Rooij H, Kamps J, Koster J, van Berkel T. Prostaglandin D2 mediates the stimulation of glycogenolysis in the liver by phorbol ester. Biochem J. 1988;250:77-80 pubmed
    ..Subsequently PGD2 activates glycogenolysis in the parenchymal liver cells. The intercellular communication inside the liver in response to PMA adds a new mechanism to the complex regulation of glucose homoeostasis by the liver. ..
  52. Abian J, Bulbena O, Gelpi E. Thermospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of prostaglandin methyl ester derivatives: application to the determination of prostaglandins E2 and D2 in rat gastric mucosa. Biomed Environ Mass Spectrom. 1988;16:215-9 pubmed
    ..Response curves in the selected ion monitoring mode for PGF2 alpha, PGE2 and PGD2 are linear in the range from 100 pg to 10 ng. The technique has been applied to the analysis of PGE2 and PGD2 in rat gastric mucosa. ..
  53. Zhao H, Ohinata K, Yoshikawa M. Central prostaglandin D(2) exhibits anxiolytic-like activity via the DP(1) receptor in mice. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2009;88:68-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, centrally administered PGD(2) may induce anxiolytic-like activity via the A(2A) and GABA(A) receptors, downstream of the DP(1) receptor. ..