leukotriene e4


Summary: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)

Top Publications

  1. Kishi N, Mano N, Asakawa N. Direct injection method for quantitation of endogenous leukotriene E4 in human urine by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with a column-switching technique. Anal Sci. 2001;17:709-13 pubmed
    ..mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with a column-switching system was developed for quantitative determination of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) in human urine...
  2. Maltby N, Ind P, Causon R, Fuller R, Taylor G. Leukotriene E4 release in cold urticaria. Clin Exp Allergy. 1989;19:33-6 pubmed
    ..b>Leukotriene E4 (LTE4; a stable metabolic product of LTC4 and LTD4) and histamine were measured in the blood draining the site ..
  3. Maekawa A, Kanaoka Y, Xing W, Austen K. Functional recognition of a distinct receptor preferential for leukotriene E4 in mice lacking the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 and 2 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish the existence of a third receptor, CysLT(E)R, that responds preferentially to LTE(4), the most abundant cys-LT in biologic fluids, and thus reveal a new target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  4. Buckner C, Fedyna J, Robertson J, Will J, England D, Krell R, et al. An examination of the influence of the epithelium on contractile responses to peptidoleukotrienes and blockade by ICI 204,219 in isolated guinea pig trachea and human intralobar airways. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990;252:77-85 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that contractile responses of guinea pig trachea to LTE4 are modulated by LTE4-induced release of 5-lipoxygenase product(s) only when the epithelium is present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  5. Christie P, Hawksworth R, Spur B, Lee T. Effect of indomethacin on leukotriene4-induced histamine hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;146:1506-10 pubmed
    ..68 +/- 0.46, and this was significantly decreased compared with that on the placebo day (p = 0.02). This suggests that LTE4-induced enhanced responsiveness to histamine is mediated in part by cyclooxygenase pathway-derived products. ..
  6. Mayatepek E, Hoffmann G, Bremer H. Enhanced urinary excretion of leukotriene E4 in patients with mevalonate kinase deficiency. J Pediatr. 1993;123:96-8 pubmed
    ..A positive linear relationship between increased urinary excretion of mevalonate and LTE4 (n = 5) suggests that increased cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis is involved in the pathomechanisms of this disease. ..
  7. Rabinovitch N, Graber N, Chinchilli V, Sorkness C, Zeiger R, Strunk R, et al. Urinary leukotriene E4/exhaled nitric oxide ratio and montelukast response in childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:545-51.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..05) to be younger and female and exhibit lower levels of atopic markers and methacholine reactivity. LTE(4)/FE(NO) ratios predict a better response to montelukast than FP therapy in children with mild-to-moderate asthma. ..
  8. Oommen A, Grigg J. Urinary leukotriene E4 in preschool children with acute clinical viral wheeze. Eur Respir J. 2003;21:149-54 pubmed
    ..Therefore, evidence for increased production of cystLTs in PVW was sought. Urinary leukotriene E4 (uLTE4) and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig)E were measured in children (1-5 yrs) with PVW during an acute ..
  9. Butterfield J. Increased leukotriene E4 excretion in systemic mastocytosis. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2010;92:73-6 pubmed publisher
    ..LTE(4) excretion is increased in patients with systemic mastocytosis and potentially contributes to clinical symptoms...

More Information


  1. Montuschi P, Mondino C, Koch P, Barnes P, Ciabattoni G. Effects of a leukotriene receptor antagonist on exhaled leukotriene E4 and prostanoids in children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118:347-53 pubmed
    ..This reduction is dependent on baseline exhaled LTE(4) values. Measurement of exhaled LTE(4) might help identify children with asthma most likely to benefit from LTRAs. ..
  2. Field J, Strunk R, Knight Perry J, Blinder M, Townsend R, Debaun M. Urinary cysteinyl leukotriene E4 significantly increases during pain in children and adults with sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol. 2009;84:231-3 pubmed publisher
    Baseline level of the cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT), leukotriene E4 (LTE4), is associated with an increased pain rate in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD)...
  3. Heise C, O Dowd B, Figueroa D, Sawyer N, Nguyen T, Im D, et al. Characterization of the human cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:30531-6 pubmed
  4. Paruchuri S, Jiang Y, Feng C, Francis S, Plutzky J, Boyce J. Leukotriene E4 activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and induces prostaglandin D2 generation by human mast cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16477-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This LTE(4)-selective receptor-mediated pathway may explain the unique physiologic responses of human airways to LTE(4) in vivo. ..
  5. Gogate S, Katial R. Pediatric biomarkers in asthma: exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene E4. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;8:154-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Three biomarkers, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene E4 in the urine and exhaled breath condensate, have been heavily investigated...
  6. Gauvreau G, Parameswaran K, Watson R, O Byrne P. Inhaled leukotriene E(4), but not leukotriene D(4), increased airway inflammatory cells in subjects with atopic asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:1495-500 pubmed
    ..These results suggest cysteinyl leukotrienes play a role in eosinophil migration into the airways in allergic asthma, and for the same degree of bronchoconstriction, inhaled LTE(4) causes more tissue and airway eosinophilia than LTD(4). ..
  7. Lee T, Woszczek G, Farooque S. Leukotriene E4: perspective on the forgotten mediator. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:417-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This has stimulated a search for additional LT receptors that would respond preferentially to LTE(4) stimulation. ..
  8. Shibata A, Katsunuma T, Tomikawa M, Tan A, Yuki K, Akashi K, et al. Increased leukotriene E4 in the exhaled breath condensate of children with mild asthma. Chest. 2006;130:1718-22 pubmed
    ..454, p = 0.012). EBC cys-LTs may be useful as a noninvasive marker assessing airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in children with asthma. ..
  9. Christie P, Tagari P, Ford Hutchinson A, Charlesson S, Chee P, Arm J, et al. Urinary leukotriene E4 concentrations increase after aspirin challenge in aspirin-sensitive asthmatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;143:1025-9 pubmed
    Urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) concentrations have been measured in six asthmatic patients with aspirin sensitivity and in five asthmatic subjects tolerant of aspirin, before and after provocation with aspirin or placebo...
  10. Jacques C, Spur B, Johnson M, Lee T. The mechanism of LTE4-induced histamine hyperresponsiveness in guinea-pig tracheal and human bronchial smooth muscle, in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 1991;104:859-66 pubmed
    1. Preincubation of guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle with leukotriene E4 (LTE4) in vitro increased its subsequent responsiveness to histamine. 2...
  11. Bunderson M, Pereira F, Schneider M, Shaw P, Coffin J, Beall H. Manganese enhances peroxynitrite and leukotriene E4 formation in bovine aortic endothelial cells exposed to arsenic. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2006;6:15-23 pubmed
    ..Arsenic exposure also increases leukotriene E4 (LTE4) formation in both the mice and BAECs, an effect that is partially reversed by the addition of Nomega-..
  12. Stanke Labesque F, Bäck M, Lefebvre B, Tamisier R, Baguet J, Arnol N, et al. Increased urinary leukotriene E4 excretion in obstructive sleep apnea: effects of obesity and hypoxia. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:364-70, 370.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with baseline, CPAP reduced by 22% (P = .006) U-LTE(4) concentrations only in patients with OSA with normal BMI. Obesity, and to a lesser extent hypoxia severity, are determinant of U-LTE(4) production in patients with OSA. ..
  13. Misso N, Aggarwal S, Phelps S, Beard R, Thompson P. Urinary leukotriene E4 and 9 alpha, 11 beta-prostaglandin F concentrations in mild, moderate and severe asthma, and in healthy subjects. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34:624-31 pubmed
    ..However, the negative association of urinary 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF(2) with lung function suggests an adverse effect of chronic PGD(2) production on lung function in asthma, irrespective of severity. ..
  14. Nonaka Y, Hiramoto T, Fujita N. Identification of endogenous surrogate ligands for human P2Y12 receptors by in silico and in vitro methods. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;337:281-8 pubmed
    ..The analyses showed that the P2Y12, P2Y13, P2Y14, GPR87, CysLT-1, and CysLT-2 receptors formed a P2Y-related receptor subfamily with common sequence motifs in the transmembrane regions. ..
  15. Dahlen S, Malmstrom K, Nizankowska E, Dahlen B, Kuna P, Kowalski M, et al. Improvement of aspirin-intolerant asthma by montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:9-14 pubmed
    ..Addition of a leukotriene receptor antagonist such as montelukast improves asthma in aspirin-intolerant patients over and above what can be achieved by glucocorticosteroids. ..
  16. Kumlin M, Dahlen B, Björck T, Zetterstrom O, Granstrom E, Dahlen S. Urinary excretion of leukotriene E4 and 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 in response to bronchial provocations with allergen, aspirin, leukotriene D4, and histamine in asthmatics. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;146:96-103 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  17. Øymar K, Aksnes L. Increased levels of urinary leukotriene E4 in children with severe atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. Allergy. 2005;60:86-9 pubmed
    ..Leukotrienes are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS). Urinary leukotriene E4 (U-LTE4) is a marker of whole-body cysteinyl-leukotriene production...
  18. Rabinovitch N. Urinary leukotriene E4. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2007;27:651-64; vii pubmed
    Measurement of urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) is a sensitive and noninvasive method of assaying total body cysteinyl leukotriene production and changes in cysteinyl leukotriene levels in specific microenvironments, such as the airway...
  19. Jennings J, Ramkumar T, Mao J, Boyd J, Castro M, Field J, et al. Elevated urinary leukotriene E4 levels are associated with hospitalization for pain in children with sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol. 2008;83:640-3 pubmed publisher
    ..52 episodes per 100 patient-years, P = 0.038). LTE(4) levels are elevated in children with SCD when compared with controls. LTE(4) levels are associated with an increased rate of hospitalizations for pain. ..
  20. O Shaughnessy K, Wellings R, Gillies B, Fuller R. Differential effects of fluticasone propionate on allergen-evoked bronchoconstriction and increased urinary leukotriene E4 excretion. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;147:1472-6 pubmed
    Allergen challenge is associated with an increased excretion of urinary leukotriene E4. The source of this increase is unknown, although the lack of effect of inhaled beta-agonists and sodium cromoglycate suggests that airway mast cells ..
  21. Laitinen L, Laitinen A, Haahtela T, Vilkka V, Spur B, Lee T. Leukotriene E4 and granulocytic infiltration into asthmatic airways. Lancet. 1993;341:989-90 pubmed
    ..Since LTE4 recruits granulocytes, the potential of antisulphidopeptide leukotriene drugs as anti-inflammatory and "steroid-sparing" agents should be tested. ..
  22. Sala A, Voelkel N, Maclouf J, Murphy R. Leukotriene E4 elimination and metabolism in normal human subjects. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:21771-8 pubmed
    ..The major metabolites of LTE4 might be useful in assessing in vivo production of sulfidopeptide leukotrienes in humans. ..
  23. Xue L, Barrow A, Fleming V, Hunter M, Ogg G, Klenerman P, et al. Leukotriene E4 activates human Th2 cells for exaggerated proinflammatory cytokine production in response to prostaglandin D2. J Immunol. 2012;188:694-702 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal that cysLTs, in particular LTE(4), have a significant proinflammatory impact on T cells and demonstrate their effects on Th2 cells are mediated by a montelukast-sensitive receptor. ..
  24. Christie P, Tagari P, Ford Hutchinson A, Black C, Markendorf A, Schmitz Schumann M, et al. Urinary leukotriene E4 after lysine-aspirin inhalation in asthmatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;146:1531-4 pubmed
    The FEV1 and urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) concentrations were determined in six aspirin-sensitive and six non-aspirin-sensitive asthmatic subjects before and after inhalation challenge with lysine-aspirin or placebo solution...
  25. Rafnsson A, Bäck M. Urinary leukotriene E4 is associated with renal function but not with endothelial function in type 2 diabetes. Dis Markers. 2013;35:475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Urinary leukotriene E4 (U-LTE4) is a validated disease marker of asthma and increases also in diabetes and acute coronary syndromes...
  26. Rabinovitch N, Strand M, Stuhlman K, Gelfand E. Exposure to tobacco smoke increases leukotriene E4-related albuterol usage and response to montelukast. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:1365-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-seven schoolchildren were followed for 5 months with measurements of urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE(4)), cotinine, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), and monitoring of albuterol use...
  27. Higashi N, Taniguchi M, Mita H, Ishii T, Akiyama K. Nasal blockage and urinary leukotriene E4 concentration in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Allergy. 2003;58:476-80 pubmed
    ..little experimental evidence that substantiates the relationship between nasal blockage severity and urinary leukotriene E4 (U-LTE4) concentration in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR)...
  28. Stanke Labesque F, Pofelski J, Moreau Gaudry A, Bessard G, Bonaz B. Urinary leukotriene E4 excretion: a biomarker of inflammatory bowel disease activity. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008;14:769-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Cysteinyl leukotriene pathway activation could contribute to the inflammation associated with IBD. The quantification of urinary LTE(4) could be an interesting noninvasive biomarker for the assessment of IBD activity. ..
  29. Austen K, Maekawa A, Kanaoka Y, Boyce J. The leukotriene E4 puzzle: finding the missing pieces and revealing the pathobiologic implications. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:406-14; quiz 415-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings prompt a renewed focus on LTE(4) receptors as therapeutic targets that are not currently addressed by available receptor antagonists. ..
  30. Reinhold S, Scherl T, Stölcker B, Bergler T, Hoffmann U, Weingart C, et al. Lipoxygenase products in the urine correlate with renal function and body temperature but not with acute transplant rejection. Lipids. 2013;48:167-75 pubmed publisher
  31. Kanaoka Y, Maekawa A, Austen K. Identification of GPR99 protein as a potential third cysteinyl leukotriene receptor with a preference for leukotriene E4 ligand. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:10967-72 pubmed publisher
    ..As LTE4 is the predominant cys-LT species in inflamed tissues, GPR99 may provide a new therapeutic target. ..
  32. Higashi N, Taniguchi M, Mita H, Kawagishi Y, Ishii T, Higashi A, et al. Clinical features of asthmatic patients with increased urinary leukotriene E4 excretion (hyperleukotrienuria): Involvement of chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:277-83 pubmed
    The urinary leukotriene E4 (U-LTE4) concentration is significantly increased in patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA)...
  33. Carry M, Korley V, Willerson J, Weigelt L, Ford Hutchinson A, Tagari P. Increased urinary leukotriene excretion in patients with cardiac ischemia. In vivo evidence for 5-lipoxygenase activation. Circulation. 1992;85:230-6 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, urinary excretion of leukotriene E4 (LTE4), the major urinary metabolite of peptide leukotrienes in humans, was measured in patients admitted to ..
  34. Smith C, Christie P, Hawksworth R, Thien F, Lee T. Urinary leukotriene E4 levels after allergen and exercise challenge in bronchial asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;144:1411-3 pubmed
    Urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) concentrations were measured in six asthmatic subjects after treadmill exercise, and in five asthmatic subjects after allergen challenge...
  35. Moore K, Taylor G, Maltby N, Siegers D, Fuller R, Dollery C, et al. Increased production of cysteinyl leukotrienes in hepatorenal syndrome. J Hepatol. 1990;11:263-71 pubmed
    ..Urinary leukotriene E4, the major metabolite of leukotrienes C4 and D4, was elevated in patients with hepatorenal syndrome (17...
  36. Drazen J, O Brien J, Sparrow D, Weiss S, Martins M, Israel E, et al. Recovery of leukotriene E4 from the urine of patients with airway obstruction. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;146:104-8 pubmed
    The urinary excretion of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) was measured in subjects presenting for emergency treatment of airway obstruction...
  37. Hardy G, Boizel R, Bessard J, Cracowski J, Bessard G, Halimi S, et al. Urinary leukotriene E4 excretion is increased in type 1 diabetic patients: a quantification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2005;78:291-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the urinary excretion of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) in type 1 diabetic subjects and healthy volunteers and (2) the influence of glycemic control attested ..
  38. Higashi N, Taniguchi M, Mita H, Yamaguchi H, Ono E, Akiyama K. Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) assessment using the urinary biomarkers, leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) metabolites. Allergol Int. 2012;61:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..A comprehensive analysis of the urinary concentration of inflammatory mediators may afford a new research target in elucidating the pathophysiology of AIA. ..
  39. Westcott J, Thomas R, Voelkel N. Elevated urinary leukotriene E4 excretion in patients with ARDS and severe burns. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1991;43:151-8 pubmed
    ..In certain situations, urinary LTE4 levels may be useful as a marker of the degree of inflammation. ..
  40. Shen Y, Xu Z, Shen K. Urinary leukotriene E4, obesity, and adenotonsillar hypertrophy in Chinese children with sleep disordered breathing. Sleep. 2011;34:1135-041 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a correlation between LTE(4) concentration and adenotonsillar size is present only among nonobese children. ..
  41. Di Lorenzo G, Pacor M, Candore G, Listi F, Ditta V, Leto Barone M, et al. Polymorphisms of cyclo-oxygenases and 5-lipo-oxygenase-activating protein are associated with chronic spontaneous urticaria and urinary leukotriene E4. Eur J Dermatol. 2011;21:47-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We also examined the levels of urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) before and after challenge with ASA...
  42. Paruchuri S, Tashimo H, Feng C, Maekawa A, Xing W, Jiang Y, et al. Leukotriene E4-induced pulmonary inflammation is mediated by the P2Y12 receptor. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2543-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the P2Y12 receptor is required for proinflammatory actions of the stable abundant mediator LTE4 and is a novel potential therapeutic target for asthma. ..
  43. Manning P, Rokach J, Malo J, Ethier D, Cartier A, Girard Y, et al. Urinary leukotriene E4 levels during early and late asthmatic responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1990;86:211-20 pubmed
    ..68; p = 0.001). No significant increase in urinary LTE4 levels occurred during the LAR. These results suggest that the LTE4 precursors, LTC4 and LTD4, are important bronchoconstrictor mediators causing EARs after allergen inhalation. ..
  44. Taylor G, Taylor I, Black P, Maltby N, Turner N, Fuller R, et al. Urinary leukotriene E4 after antigen challenge and in acute asthma and allergic rhinitis. Lancet. 1989;1:584-8 pubmed
    ..These studies provide evidence that leukotrienes are released in vivo in man after antigen challenge and in acute asthma. ..
  45. O Hickey S, Arm J, Rees P, Spur B, Lee T. The relative responsiveness to inhaled leukotriene E4, methacholine and histamine in normal and asthmatic subjects. Eur Respir J. 1988;1:913-7 pubmed
    The relative bronchoconstricting potencies of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) methacholine and histamine have been compared in asthmatic and normal subjects...
  46. Bouchelouche K, Kristensen B, Nordling J, Horn T, Bouchelouche P. Increased urinary leukotriene E4 and eosinophil protein X excretion in patients with interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 2001;166:2121-5 pubmed
    ..b>Leukotriene E4, the end product of cysteinyl containing leukotrienes, and eosinophil protein X are markers of the activation ..
  47. Smith C, Hawksworth R, Thien F, Christie P, Lee T. Urinary leukotriene E4 in bronchial asthma. Eur Respir J. 1992;5:693-9 pubmed
    b>Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) is excreted into the urine in a relatively constant proportion of 4-7% when either leukotriene C4 (LTC4) or LTE4 is intravenously infused, regardless of the magnitude of the infused dose...
  48. Bartels T, Lueddeckens G, Hein W, Forster W, Taube C, Pfeiffer M, et al. [Modification of lipoxygenase products in bone by the linoleic acid content of the diet]. Z Exp Chir Transplant Kunstliche Organe. 1990;23:171-4 pubmed
    ..LA rich diet increased the formation of LTC4, D4 and E4 in the proximal tibia metaphysis. The properties of eicosanoids as local mediators in the bone were discussed. ..
  49. Rasmussen J, Eriksson L, Tagari P, Margolskee D, Girard Y, Andersson K. Urinary LTE4 excretion in antigen-provoked asthmatic patients treated with the inhaled LTD4 antagonist, L-648,051. Allergy. 1992;47:599-603 pubmed
    ..After inhalation of diluent, the LTE4 excretion rates in the intervals 0-3, 3-6, 6-12 and 12-24 h were unchanged from base-line values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  50. Fukuishi N, Takada T, Fukuyama Y, Akagi M. Antiallergic effect of ardisiaquinone A, a potent 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Phytomedicine. 2001;8:460-4 pubmed
  51. He M, Chen Q, Liu J. [Urinary leukotrience E(4) level in children with asthma]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2009;11:909-12 pubmed
    ..Urinary LTE(4) is a useful marker for the diagnosis of asthma and can be as a predictor of asthma control and marker of susceptibility to treatment with leukotriene receptor antagonists. ..
  52. Elton E, Chiossone D, McCafferty G, Ryan F, Smith P. SK&F 104353: selective antagonism of peptidoleukotrine-induced changes in electrolyte transport by rat ileal mucosa in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989;251:484-9 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  53. Smith P, Montzka D, McCafferty G, Wasserman M, Fondacaro J. Effect of sulfidopeptide leukotrienes D4 and E4 on ileal ion transport in vitro in the rat and rabbit. Am J Physiol. 1988;255:G175-83 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the increase in Isc in both rat and rabbit is mediated by arachidonic acid metabolites, whereas the decrease in Gt and net Na absorption in rat ileum is mediated by a cyclooxygenase-independent pathway. ..