leukotriene d4


Summary: One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)

Top Publications

  1. Taylor Clark T, Nassenstein C, Undem B. Leukotriene D4 increases the excitability of capsaicin-sensitive nasal sensory nerves to electrical and chemical stimuli. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:1359-68 pubmed publisher
  2. Paruchuri S, Mezhybovska M, Juhas M, Sjolander A. Endogenous production of leukotriene D4 mediates autocrine survival and proliferation via CysLT1 receptor signalling in intestinal epithelial cells. Oncogene. 2006;25:6660-5 pubmed
    ..Importantly, we propose that tumour-derived intestinal cells are resistant to CysLT1R antagonist-induced apoptosis, a phenomena that could be explained by nuclear CysLT1R signalling. ..
  3. Mezhybovska M, Wikström K, Ohd J, Sjölander A. The inflammatory mediator leukotriene D4 induces beta-catenin signaling and its association with antiapoptotic Bcl-2 in intestinal epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:6776-84 pubmed
    Increased levels of the inflammatory mediator leukotriene D4 (LTD4) are present at sites of inflammatory bowel disease, and such areas also exhibit an increased risk for subsequent cancer development...
  4. Huang X, Zhang W, Li C, Shi W, Fang S, Lu Y, et al. Activation of CysLT receptors induces astrocyte proliferation and death after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Glia. 2008;56:27-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, in vitro ischemia activates astrocyte 5-LOX to produce CysLTs, and CysLTs result in CysLT(1) receptor-mediated proliferation and CysLT(2) receptor-mediated death. ..
  5. Cohen P, Noveral J, Bhala A, Nunn S, Herrick D, Grunstein M. Leukotriene D4 facilitates airway smooth muscle cell proliferation via modulation of the IGF axis. Am J Physiol. 1995;269:L151-7 pubmed
    ..of asthma and other lung diseases, we examined the interaction of the potent proinflammatory eicosanoid leukotriene D4 (LTD4) with the IGF axis in regulating airway smooth muscle cell mitogenesis...
  6. Ravasi S, Citro S, Viviani B, Capra V, Rovati G. CysLT1 receptor-induced human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation requires ROS generation, EGF receptor transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Respir Res. 2006;7:42 pubmed
    ..We used human ASMC (HASMC) to identify the signal transduction pathway(s) of the leukotriene D4 (LTD4)-induced DNA synthesis. Proliferation of primary HASMC was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation...
  7. Capra V, Thompson M, Sala A, Cole D, Folco G, Rovati G. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes and their receptors in asthma and other inflammatory diseases: critical update and emerging trends. Med Res Rev. 2007;27:469-527 pubmed
  8. Wang M, Huang X, Fang S, Yuan Y, Zhang W, Lu Y, et al. Leukotriene D4 induces brain edema and enhances CysLT2 receptor-mediated aquaporin 4 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:399-404 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that LTD(4) modulates brain edema; CysLT(1) receptor mediates vasogenic edema while CysLT(2) receptor may mediate cytotoxic edema via up-regulating AQP4 expression. ..
  9. Bosse Y, Thompson C, McMahon S, Dubois C, Stankova J, Rola Pleszczynski M. Leukotriene D4-induced, epithelial cell-derived transforming growth factor beta1 in human bronchial smooth muscle cell proliferation. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:113-21 pubmed

More Information


  1. Kawano T, Matsuse H, Kondo Y, Machida I, Saeki S, Tomari S, et al. Cysteinyl leukotrienes induce nuclear factor kappa b activation and RANTES production in a murine model of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:369-74 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that cysLTs activate NF-kappa B and induce RANTES production from isolated lung MNCs, which in turn might cause migration of eosinophils and activated T lymphocytes into the airway. ..
  2. Bandeira Melo C, Hall J, Penrose J, Weller P. Cysteinyl leukotrienes induce IL-4 release from cord blood-derived human eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109:975-9 pubmed
  3. Boehmler A, Drost A, Jaggy L, Seitz G, Wiesner T, Denzlinger C, et al. The CysLT1 ligand leukotriene D4 supports alpha4beta1- and alpha5beta1-mediated adhesion and proliferation of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:6789-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that cysteinyl leukotriene may contribute to HPC retention and proliferation only when cysteinyl leukotriene levels are increased either systemically during inflammation or locally during marrow aplasia. ..
  4. Habib G, Shi Z, Cuevas A, Guo Q, Matzuk M, Lieberman M. Leukotriene D4 and cystinyl-bis-glycine metabolism in membrane-bound dipeptidase-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:4859-63 pubmed
    ..4.13.19), the enzyme believed to be responsible for the conversion of leukotriene D4 (LTD4) to leukotriene E4 (LTE4)...
  5. Robbiani D, Finch R, Jager D, Muller W, Sartorelli A, Randolph G. The leukotriene C(4) transporter MRP1 regulates CCL19 (MIP-3beta, ELC)-dependent mobilization of dendritic cells to lymph nodes. Cell. 2000;103:757-68 pubmed
    ..Thus, MRP-1 regulates DC migration to lymph nodes, apparently by transporting LTC(4), which in turn promotes chemotaxis to CCL19 and mobilization of DCs from the epidermis...
  6. Maekawa A, Balestrieri B, Austen K, Kanaoka Y. GPR17 is a negative regulator of the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor response to leukotriene D4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11685-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that GPR17 is a ligand-independent, constitutive negative regulator for the CysLT(1)R that suppresses CysLT(1)R-mediated function at the cell membrane. ..
  7. Lynch K, O Neill G, Liu Q, Im D, Sawyer N, Metters K, et al. Characterization of the human cysteinyl leukotriene CysLT1 receptor. Nature. 1999;399:789-93 pubmed
    The cysteinyl leukotrienes-leukotriene C4(LTC4), leukotriene D4(LTD4) and leukotriene E4(LTE4)-are important mediators of human bronchial asthma...
  8. Capra V, Ravasi S, Accomazzo M, Citro S, Grimoldi M, Abbracchio M, et al. CysLT1 receptor is a target for extracellular nucleotide-induced heterologous desensitization: a possible feedback mechanism in inflammation. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5625-36 pubmed
    ..This crosstalk may have a profound physiological implication in the regulation of responses at sites of inflammation, and may represent just an example of a feedback mechanism used by cells to fine-tune their responses. ..
  9. Fernandez J, Reyes R, Ponce H, Oropeza M, Vancalsteren M, Jankowski C, et al. Isoquercitrin from Argemone platyceras inhibits carbachol and leukotriene D4-induced contraction in guinea-pig airways. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;522:108-15 pubmed
    ..Because of its effect on carbachol-induced contractile response, on the late-phase response to ovalbumin, and on leukotriene D(4)-induced contractile response, isoquercitrin might be highly useful in treatment of asthma...
  10. Kato J, Kohyama T, Okazaki H, Desaki M, Nagase T, Rennard S, et al. Leukotriene D4 potentiates fibronectin-induced migration of human lung fibroblasts. Clin Immunol. 2005;117:177-81 pubmed
    Fibroblasts play an important role in the repair and remodeling processes following injury. Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) is a potent mediator in inflammatory processes, but the direct effect of cysteinyl leukotrienes on fibroblast migration ..
  11. Bouchelouche K, Bouchelouche P. Cysteinyl leukotriene D4 increases human detrusor muscle responsiveness to histamine. J Urol. 2006;176:361-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the combination of leukotriene D(4) and histamine H1 receptor antagonists may be more effective for the treatment of interstitial cystitis than when given alone. ..
  12. Wunder F, Tinel H, Kast R, Geerts A, Becker E, Kolkhof P, et al. Pharmacological characterization of the first potent and selective antagonist at the cysteinyl leukotriene 2 (CysLT(2)) receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:399-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this compound, we showed that the cardiac effects of CysLTs are predominantly mediated by the CysLT(2) receptor. ..
  13. Bautz F, Denzlinger C, Kanz L, Mohle R. Chemotaxis and transendothelial migration of CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells induced by the inflammatory mediator leukotriene D4 are mediated by the 7-transmembrane receptor CysLT1. Blood. 2001;97:3433-40 pubmed
    ..Cysteinyl leukotrienes, particularly leukotriene D4 (LTD4), induced strong intracellular calcium fluxes and actin polymerization in mobilized and BM CD34(+) ..
  14. Woszczek G, Chen L, Nagineni S, Kern S, Barb J, Munson P, et al. Leukotriene D(4) induces gene expression in human monocytes through cysteinyl leukotriene type I receptor. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:215-221.e1 pubmed
    ..Our data show that CysLTs acting through CysLTR(1) can significantly influence the activation and migration of human monocytes and that these effects can be fully inhibited by CysLTR(1) antagonists. ..
  15. Shi Z, Han B, Habib G, Matzuk M, Lieberman M. Disruption of gamma-glutamyl leukotrienase results in disruption of leukotriene D(4) synthesis in vivo and attenuation of the acute inflammatory response. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5389-95 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate an important role for GGL in the inflammatory response and suggest that LTC(4) and LTD(4) have distinctly different functions in the inflammatory process. ..
  16. Suzuki S, Takeuchi K, Ishinaga H, Basbaum C, Majima Y. Leukotriene D4 upregulates MUC2 gene transcription in human epithelial cells. Pharmacology. 2008;81:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, pranlukast inhibited LTD(4)-induced NF-kappaB activity. These results suggest that LTD(4 )upregulates MUC2 gene transcription via a signaling pathway involving CysLT(1) receptor, G-protein, PKC, MEK, ERK and NF-kappaB. ..
  17. Potter Perigo S, Baker C, Tsoi C, Braun K, Isenhath S, Altman G, et al. Regulation of proteoglycan synthesis by leukotriene d4 and epidermal growth factor in bronchial smooth muscle cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:101-8 pubmed
    ..This study examines the effect of leukotriene D4 (LTD4), combined with epidermal growth factor (EGF), on proteoglycan synthesis by cultured human bronchial ..
  18. Thivierge M, Stankova J, Rola Pleszczynski M. IL-13 and IL-4 up-regulate cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor expression in human monocytes and macrophages. J Immunol. 2001;167:2855-60 pubmed
  19. McMahon B, Mitchell D, Shattock R, Martin F, Brady H, Godson C. Lipoxin, leukotriene, and PDGF receptors cross-talk to regulate mesangial cell proliferation. FASEB J. 2002;16:1817-9 pubmed
    ..These data elaborate on the profile of cell signaling events that underpin the anti-inflammatory and proresolution bioactions of LX. ..
  20. Yuan Y, Fang S, Qian X, Liu L, Xu L, Shi W, et al. Leukotriene D4 stimulates the migration but not proliferation of endothelial cells mediated by the cysteinyl leukotriene cyslt(1) receptor via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;109:285-92 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that LTD(4) stimulates the CysLT(1) receptor-mediated migration of endothelial cells; this may be regulated by the ERK1/2 pathway. ..
  21. Paruchuri S, Hallberg B, Juhas M, Larsson C, Sjölander A. Leukotriene D(4) activates MAPK through a Ras-independent but PKCepsilon-dependent pathway in intestinal epithelial cells. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:1883-93 pubmed
    ..Consequently, LTD(4) regulates the proliferative response by a distinct Ras-independent, PKCepsilon-dependent activation of Erk-1/2 and a parallel Ras-dependent signaling pathway. ..
  22. Jiang Y, Borrelli L, Kanaoka Y, Bacskai B, Boyce J. CysLT2 receptors interact with CysLT1 receptors and down-modulate cysteinyl leukotriene dependent mitogenic responses of mast cells. Blood. 2007;110:3263-70 pubmed
    ..Negative regulation of CysLT(1)-induced mitogenic signaling responses of MCs by CysLT(2) demonstrates physiologically relevant functions for GPCR heterodimers on primary cells central to inflammation. ..
  23. Lee K, Kim S, Park H, Park S, Min K, Lee K, et al. Cysteinyl leukotriene upregulates IL-11 expression in allergic airway disease of mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119:141-9 pubmed
    ..These findings provide one of the molecular mechanisms for the effects of cysLTs on airway inflammation and fibrosis in allergic airway diseases. ..
  24. Haneda Y, Hasegawa S, Hirano R, Hashimoto K, Ohsaki A, Ichiyama T. Leukotriene D4 enhances tumor necrosis factor-?-induced vascular endothelial growth factor production in human monocytes/macrophages. Cytokine. 2011;55:24-8 pubmed publisher
    ..LTD(4) induced VEGF production and enhanced VEGF release induced by TNF-? via CysLT(1) receptors in human monocytes/macrophages. These effects were completely inhibited by pranlukast. ..
  25. Yudina Y, Parhamifar L, Bengtsson A, Juhas M, Sjölander A. Regulation of the eicosanoid pathway by tumour necrosis factor alpha and leukotriene D4 in intestinal epithelial cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2008;79:223-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results revealed that tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and leukotriene D4 (LTD4), which are inflammatory mediators implicated in carcinogenesis, stimulated an increase of ..
  26. Thivierge M, Stankova J, Rola Pleszczynski M. Cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor type 1 expression and function is down-regulated during monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation with zymosan: involvement of IL-10 and prostaglandins. J Immunol. 2009;183:6778-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect is partially dependent on an endogenous production of PGs and IL-10 by DCs. ..
  27. Mori M, Takaku Y, Kobayashi T, Hagiwara K, Kanazawa M, Nagata M. Eosinophil superoxide anion generation induced by adhesion molecules and leukotriene D4. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;149 Suppl 1:31-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Wang X, Tang S, Hu M, Long Y, Li Y, Liao M, et al. Leukotriene D4 induces amyloid-? generation via CysLT(1)R-mediated NF-?B pathways in primary neurons. Neurochem Int. 2013;62:340-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate a functional link between the neuroinflammation and AD, the effect of leukotriene D4 (LTD4), an inflammatory lipid mediator, was studied on amyloid-? generation in vitro...
  29. Chibana K, Ishii Y, Asakura T, Fukuda T. Up-regulation of cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor by IL-13 enables human lung fibroblasts to respond to leukotriene C4 and produce eotaxin. J Immunol. 2003;170:4290-5 pubmed
    ..In the Th2 cytokine-rich milieu, such as that in bronchial asthma, CysLT1R expression on fibroblasts might be up-regulated, thereby allowing CysLTs to act effectively and increase eosinophilic inflammation. ..
  30. Adolfsson J, Ohd J, Sjolander A. Leukotriene D4-induced activation and translocation of the G-protein alpha i3-subunit in human epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;226:413-9 pubmed
    The present results show that stimulation of Intestine 407 epithelial cells with LTD4 (Leukotriene D4) triggers a rapid activation of the pertussis-toxin-sensitive Gi3-protein and a simultaneous translocation of its alpha-subunits to a ..
  31. Heise C, O Dowd B, Figueroa D, Sawyer N, Nguyen T, Im D, et al. Characterization of the human cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:30531-6 pubmed
  32. Accomazzo M, Rovati G, Vigano T, Hernandez A, Bonazzi A, Bolla M, et al. Leukotriene D4-induced activation of smooth-muscle cells from human bronchi is partly Ca2+-independent. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:266-72 pubmed
    ..Thus, in human airways, we identified a novel LTD4 transduction mechanism linked to bronchial smooth-muscle contraction, which is partly independent of Ca2+ and involves the activation of PKC-alpha. ..
  33. Hui Y, Yang G, Galczenski H, Figueroa D, Austin C, Copeland N, et al. The murine cysteinyl leukotriene 2 (CysLT2) receptor. cDNA and genomic cloning, alternative splicing, and in vitro characterization. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:47489-95 pubmed
    ..The identification of mCysLT(2)R will be useful for establishing CysLT(2)R-deficient mice and determining novel leukotriene functions. ..
  34. Tada N, Furukawa M, Ogura M, Arai S, Adachi Y, Ikehara S, et al. Experimental otitis media with effusion induced by leukotriene D4. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2002;29:127-32 pubmed
    ..The oral administration of a specific LTs antagonist, pranlukast, was found to alleviate the experimental OME. these findings suggest that LTs appear to plays an important role in the pathogenesis of OME. ..
  35. Thodeti C, Massoumi R, Bindslev L, Sjölander A. Leukotriene D4 induces association of active RhoA with phospholipase C-gamma1 in intestinal epithelial cells. Biochem J. 2002;365:157-63 pubmed
    ..binding assay to assess RhoA activation in intestinal epithelial cells and observed that RhoA was activated by leukotriene D4 (LTD4)...
  36. Suzuki M, Kato M, Kimura H, Fujiu T, Morikawa A. Inhibition of human eosinophil activation by a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist (pranlukast; ONO-1078). J Asthma. 2003;40:395-404 pubmed
    ..Eosinophils obtained from peripheral blood of normal volunteers were stimulated by platelet-activating factor, leukotriene D4, or phorbol ester. Superoxide anion generation was measured by reduction of cytochrome c...
  37. Paruchuri S, Sjölander A. Leukotriene D4 mediates survival and proliferation via separate but parallel pathways in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Int 407. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:45577-85 pubmed
    We demonstrated previously that leukotriene D4 (LTD4) regulates proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells through a CysLT receptor by protein kinase C (PKC)epsilon-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2...
  38. Massoumi R, Nielsen C, Azemovic D, Sjölander A. Leukotriene D4-induced adhesion of Caco-2 cells is mediated by prostaglandin E2 and upregulation of alpha2beta1-integrin. Exp Cell Res. 2003;289:342-51 pubmed
    ..We investigated the involvement of the inflammatory mediator leukotriene D4 (LTD4) in the regulation of cell-matrix adhesion of colon cancer (Caco-2) cells...
  39. Bengtsson A, Massoumi R, Sjölander A. Leukotriene D(4) induces AP-1 but not NFkappaB signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2008;85:100-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings show for the first time that JNK/AP-1 but not NFkappaB is a downstream target of LTD(4) in intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that AP-1 is an important mediator of LTD(4)-induced mitogenic effects. ..
  40. Tang S, Wang X, Hong H, Long Y, Li Y, Xiang G, et al. Leukotriene D4 induces cognitive impairment through enhancement of CysLT? R-mediated amyloid-? generation in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2013;65:182-92 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined neuroinflammation, amyloidogenesis, and memory performance following intracerebral infusions of leukotriene D4 (LTD4) in mice...
  41. Chen L, Eberlein M, Alsaaty S, Martinez Anton A, Barb J, Munson P, et al. Cooperative and redundant signaling of leukotriene B4 and leukotriene D4 in human monocytes. Allergy. 2011;66:1304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that therapies targeting either leukotriene alone may be less effective than approaches directed at both. ..
  42. Nielsen C, Massoumi R, Sonnerlind M, Sjölander A. Leukotriene D4 activates distinct G-proteins in intestinal epithelial cells to regulate stress fibre formation and to generate intracellular Ca2+ mobilisation and ERK1/2 activation. Exp Cell Res. 2005;302:31-9 pubmed
    ..Consequently, the CysLT1 receptor has the capacity to activate at least two distinctly different heterotrimeric G-proteins that transduce activation of unique downstream cellular events. ..
  43. Capra V, Ravasi S, Accomazzo M, Parenti M, Rovati G. CysLT1 signal transduction in differentiated U937 cells involves the activation of the small GTP-binding protein Ras. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;67:1569-77 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, LTD(4)-induced CysLT(1) receptor activation in dU937 cells leads to Ras activation and ERK phosphorylation mostly through a PTx-sensitive G(i/o) protein, PLC, and Ca(2+)-dependent tyrosine kinase(s). ..
  44. Meliton A, Munoz N, Osan C, Meliton L, Leff A. Leukotriene D4 activates {beta}2-integrin adhesion in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Eur Respir J. 2010;35:402-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of gIVaPLA2 is a critical step through which beta(2)-integrin adhesion is upregulated by the cysLT(1)R expressed on the surface membrane of human PMN. ..
  45. Sloniewsky D, Ridge K, Adir Y, Fries F, Briva A, Sznajder J, et al. Leukotriene D4 activates alveolar epithelial Na,K-ATPase and increases alveolar fluid clearance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169:407-12 pubmed
    ..In this study, we determined the effect of leukotriene D4 (LTD4) on the function of Na,K-ATPase in alveolar epithelial cells and on alveolar fluid clearance in rat ..
  46. Lavoie J, Leguillette R, Pasloske K, Charette L, Sawyer N, Guay D, et al. Comparison of effects of dexamethasone and the leukotriene D4 receptor antagonist L-708,738 on lung function and airway cytologic findings in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63:579-85 pubmed
    ..Results provide the first evidence of cysteinyl LT1 receptors in airways of horses. ..
  47. Nagata M, Saito K, Tsuchiya K, Sakamoto Y. Leukotriene D4 upregulates eosinophil adhesion via the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109:676-80 pubmed
    ..LTD(4) generated from EOS or cells of some other type might contribute to the development of phenotypic change in airway EOS. ..
  48. Capra V, Accomazzo M, Ravasi S, Parenti M, Macchia M, Nicosia S, et al. Involvement of prenylated proteins in calcium signaling induced by LTD4 in differentiated U937 cells. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2003;71:235-51 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in dU937 LTD4 signal transduction involves: (a) at least two pathways, one sensitive and one insensitive to PTx; (b) isoprenylated proteins, such as betagamma subunits and, possibly, a small G protein of the Ras family. ..
  49. Campos M, Serezani C, Peters Golden M, Jancar S. Differential kinase requirement for enhancement of Fc gammaR-mediated phagocytosis in alveolar macrophages by leukotriene B4 vs. D4. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:1204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show that the capacities of LTB(4) and LTD(4) to enhance Fc gammaR-mediated phagocytosis reflect their differential activation of specific kinase programs...
  50. Espinosa K, Bosse Y, Stankova J, Rola Pleszczynski M. CysLT1 receptor upregulation by TGF-beta and IL-13 is associated with bronchial smooth muscle cell proliferation in response to LTD4. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;111:1032-40 pubmed
    ..These findings support a role for cysLTs in the airway remodeling observed in asthmatic patients and may provide a rationale for preventive and therapeutic intervention. ..
  51. Saito K, Nagata M, Kikuchi I, Sakamoto Y. Leukotriene D4 and eosinophil transendothelial migration, superoxide generation, and degranulation via beta2 integrin. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004;93:594-600 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that leukotriene D4 augments the expression of eosinophil beta2 integrin and the adhesion of eosinophils to rh intercellular ..
  52. Thivierge M, Stankova J, Rola Pleszczynski M. Toll-like receptor agonists differentially regulate cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor 1 expression and function in human dendritic cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:1155-62 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates that some microbial agents can reduce the migration of dendritic cells in response to leukotrienes, with potential for differential involvement of these cells in allergic inflammation. ..
  53. Paruchuri S, Broom O, Dib K, Sjölander A. The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene D4 induces phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Rac-dependent migration of intestinal epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13538-44 pubmed
    ..A possible role of the pro-inflammatory leukotriene D4 (LTD4) in this process has been implicated by the findings that LTD4 can signal increased proliferation and ..