angiotensinogen

Summary

Summary: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.

Top Publications

  1. Wang F, Demura M, Cheng Y, Zhu A, Karashima S, Yoneda T, et al. Dynamic CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-associated changes of DNA methylation in the angiotensinogen gene. Hypertension. 2014;63:281-8 pubmed publisher
    ..binding protein (CEBP) binding site and a transcription start site and activate expression of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT)...
  2. van den Heuvel M, Batenburg W, Jainandunsing S, Garrelds I, van Gool J, Feelders R, et al. Urinary renin, but not angiotensinogen or aldosterone, reflects the renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity and the efficacy of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in the kidney. J Hypertens. 2011;29:2147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured urinary and plasma renin, prorenin, angiotensinogen, aldosterone, albumin and creatinine in 101 diabetic and nondiabetic patients with or without hypertension...
  3. Falcao S, Stoyanova E, Cloutier G, Maurice R, Gutkowska J, Lavoie J. Mice overexpressing both human angiotensinogen and human renin as a model of superimposed preeclampsia on chronic hypertension. Hypertension. 2009;54:1401-7 pubmed publisher
    ..risk factor for preeclampsia, we investigated whether hypertensive mice that overexpress human renin and angiotensinogen develop superimposed preeclampsia...
  4. Arnold A, Sakima A, Kasper S, Vinsant S, Garcia Espinosa M, Diz D. The brain renin-angiotensin system and cardiovascular responses to stress: insights from transgenic rats with low brain angiotensinogen. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;113:1929-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights the importance of understanding the impact of RAS components from the circulation, neurons, and glia on the integration of cardiovascular responses to stressors. ..
  5. Biala A, Tauriainen E, Siltanen A, Shi J, Merasto S, Louhelainen M, et al. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and ameliorates Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling in transgenic rats harboring human renin and angiotensinogen genes. Blood Press. 2010;19:196-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Four-week-old double transgenic rats harboring human renin and human angiotensinogen genes (dTGR) were treated for 4 weeks either with SIRT1 activator resveratrol or SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide...
  6. Godin N, Liu F, Lau G, Brezniceanu M, Chenier I, Filep J, et al. Catalase overexpression prevents hypertension and tubular apoptosis in angiotensinogen transgenic mice. Kidney Int. 2010;77:1086-97 pubmed publisher
    Transgenic mice that overexpress angiotensinogen, the sole precursor of angiotensins, in their renal proximal tubular cells develop hypertension, albuminuria, and tubular apoptosis...
  7. Mehri S, Mahjoub S, Farhati A, Bousaada R, Ben Arab S, Baudin B, et al. Angiotensinogen gene polymorphism in acute myocardial infarction patients. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2011;12:42-7 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study was to explore the role of a genetic variant of angiotensinogen (AGT), M235T, as an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to investigate the possible association with the severity of ..
  8. Kamiyama M, Farragut K, Garner M, Navar L, Kobori H. Divergent localization of angiotensinogen mRNA and protein in proximal tubule segments of normal rat kidney. J Hypertens. 2012;30:2365-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Angiotensinogen in the kidneys is formed primarily in the proximal tubule cells and is secreted into the tubular fluid. Structurally, proximal tubules can be divided into three segments...
  9. Lu P, Liu H, Yin H, Yang L. Expression of angiotensinogen during hepatic fibrogenesis and its effect on hepatic stellate cells. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:BR248-56 pubmed
    ..b>Angiotensinogen (AGT) is an important precursor in tissue RAS...

More Information

Publications83

  1. Kalupahana N, Massiera F, Quignard Boulange A, Ailhaud G, Voy B, Wasserman D, et al. Overproduction of angiotensinogen from adipose tissue induces adipose inflammation, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of angiotensinogen (Agt) from WAT causes systemic insulin resistance via modulation of adipose inflammation...
  2. Radi Z, Murad Y. Cellular expression of renal, cardiac and pulmonary inducible nitric oxide synthase in double-transgenic mice expressing human renin and angiotensinogen genes. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;36:571-5 pubmed publisher
    1. Hypertensive mice expressing the human renin (REN) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes are used as a model for human hypertension. 2...
  3. Lo C, Liu F, Shi Y, Maachi H, Chenier I, Godin N, et al. Dual RAS blockade normalizes angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 expression and prevents hypertension and tubular apoptosis in Akita angiotensinogen-transgenic mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;302:F840-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Ace2) expression, hypertension, and renal proximal tubular cell (RPTC) apoptosis in type 1 diabetic Akita angiotensinogen (Agt)-transgenic (Tg) mice that specifically overexpress Agt in their RPTCs...
  4. Yiannikouris F, Karounos M, Charnigo R, English V, Rateri D, Daugherty A, et al. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of angiotensinogen decreases plasma angiotensinogen concentration and systolic blood pressure in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;302:R244-51 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies demonstrated that overexpression of angiotensinogen (AGT) in adipose tissue increased blood pressure...
  5. Yanes L, Sartori Valinotti J, Iliescu R, Romero D, Racusen L, Zhang H, et al. Testosterone-dependent hypertension and upregulation of intrarenal angiotensinogen in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F771-9 pubmed publisher
    ..to the systemic renin-angiotensin system, which is suppressed in response to HS in male DS, intrarenal angiotensinogen expression is increased, and intrarenal levels of ANG II are not suppressed...
  6. Uchida Y, Miyajima A, Kikuchi E, Kozakai N, Kosaka T, Ieda M, et al. Renal damage inhibited in mice lacking angiotensinogen gene subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction. Urology. 2009;74:938-43 pubmed publisher
    ..cell apoptosis and proliferation in unilateral ureteral obstruction using mice genetically deficient in angiotensinogen (Agt(-/-))...
  7. Fang Y, Deng H, Thomas G, Tzang C, Li C, Xu Z, et al. Linkage of angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms with hypertension in a sibling study of Hong Kong Chinese. J Hypertens. 2010;28:1203-9 pubmed publisher
    The angiotensinogen gene has been linked with human essential hypertension in whites but the relationship in Asian populations has been less consistent...
  8. Dickson M, Tian X, Liu X, Davis D, Sigmund C. Upstream stimulatory factor is required for human angiotensinogen expression and differential regulation by the A-20C polymorphism. Circ Res. 2008;103:940-7 pubmed publisher
    Among naturally occurring polymorphisms in the 5' flanking region of the human angiotensinogen (AGT) gene, the -20 and -217 polymorphisms have the strongest effects on AGT regulation in AGT-expressing cells derived from liver, kidney, ..
  9. Mills K, Kobori H, Hamm L, Alper A, Khan I, Rahman M, et al. Increased urinary excretion of angiotensinogen is associated with risk of chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:3176-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the association between urinary angiotensinogen, a reliable biomarker of intrarenal RAS activity, and risk of CKD in 201 patients and 201 controls...
  10. Kobashi G, Ohta K, Yamada H, Hata A, Minakami H, Sakuragi N, et al. 4G/5G variant of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene and severe pregnancy-induced hypertension: subgroup analyses of variants of angiotensinogen and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. J Epidemiol. 2009;19:275-80 pubmed
    ..the pathogenesis of PIH, and to evaluate possible interactions of the PAI-1 polymorphisms with those of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3)...
  11. Yasue S, Masuzaki H, Okada S, Ishii T, Kozuka C, Tanaka T, et al. Adipose tissue-specific regulation of angiotensinogen in obese humans and mice: impact of nutritional status and adipocyte hypertrophy. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:425-31 pubmed publisher
    ..However, neither regulation of angiotensinogen (AGT) expression in adipose tissue nor secretion of adipose tissue-derived AGT has been fully elucidated in ..
  12. Saito T, Urushihara M, Kotani Y, Kagami S, Kobori H. Increased urinary angiotensinogen is precedent to increased urinary albumin in patients with type 1 diabetes. Am J Med Sci. 2009;338:478-80 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that kidney and urinary angiotensinogen levels were significantly increased before the development of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats...
  13. Turgut S, Akin F, Akcılar R, Ayada C, Turgut G. Angiotensin converting enzyme I/D, angiotensinogen M235T and AT1-R A/C1166 gene polymorphisms in patients with acromegaly. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to investigate association between the frequencies of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) I/D, angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) A/C1166 gene polymorphisms and some clinical ..
  14. Siriwardhana N, Kalupahana N, Fletcher S, Xin W, Claycombe K, Quignard Boulange A, et al. n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially regulate adipose angiotensinogen and other inflammatory adipokines in part via NF-?B-dependent mechanisms. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:1661-7 pubmed publisher
    ..arachidonic acid (AA, n-6 PUFA) on expression and secretion of angiotensinogen (Agt), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
  15. Nakano D, Kobori H, Burford J, Gevorgyan H, Seidel S, Hitomi H, et al. Multiphoton imaging of the glomerular permeability of angiotensinogen. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:1847-56 pubmed publisher
    Patients and animals with renal injury exhibit increased urinary excretion of angiotensinogen. Although increased tubular synthesis of angiotensinogen contributes to the increased excretion, we do not know to what degree glomerular ..
  16. Motawi T, Shaker O, Taha M, Sedrak H, Nabil M. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase and angiotensinogen gene polymorphism in coronary artery diseases in Egypt. Angiology. 2011;62:191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..healthy individuals to assess the association of endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) polymorphism (Glu298Asp) and angiotensinogen polymorphisms (M235T) and CAD in an Egyptian population...
  17. Kobori H, Urushihara M. Augmented intrarenal and urinary angiotensinogen in hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Pflugers Arch. 2013;465:3-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Angiotensinogen is the only known substrate for renin, which is the rate-limiting enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system...
  18. Ying C, Wang Y, Wu Z, Fang M, Wang J, Li Y, et al. Association of the renin gene polymorphism, three angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and the haplotypes with essential hypertension in the Mongolian population. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2010;32:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the precursor of potent vasoactive hormone angiotensin II and the AGT gene has been incriminated as ..
  19. Lin J, Hu F, Qi L, Curhan G. Genetic polymorphisms of angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor and angiotensinogen and risk of renal dysfunction and coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. BMC Nephrol. 2009;10:9 pubmed publisher
    ..dysfunction, but limited data are available on associations between angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGT1R) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genotypes in type 2 diabetes...
  20. Reis K, Ebinc F, Koc E, Demirci H, Erten Y, Guz G, et al. Association of the angiotensinogen M235T and APO E gene polymorphisms in Turkish type 2 diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. Ren Fail. 2011;33:469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..8-fold (95% CI: 1.94-11.67), 2.9-fold (95% CI: 1.27-6.69), respectively]. Our study has shown that AGT M235T TT genotype and APO E ? 2/3 genotype may be linked to a risk for DN among Turkish population. ..
  21. Alge J, Karakala N, Neely B, Janech M, Tumlin J, Chawla L, et al. Urinary angiotensinogen and risk of severe AKI. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8:184-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Angiotensinogen had the best discriminative characteristics...
  22. Zhou A, Carrell R, Murphy M, Wei Z, Yan Y, Stanley P, et al. A redox switch in angiotensinogen modulates angiotensin release. Nature. 2010;468:108-11 pubmed publisher
    ..by angiotensins, which are vasopressor peptides specifically released by the enzyme renin from the tail of angiotensinogen-a non-inhibitory member of the serpin family of protease inhibitors...
  23. Niedoszytko M, Ratajska M, Chełmińska M, Makowiecki M, Malek E, Sieminska A, et al. The angiotensinogen AGT p.M235T gene polymorphism may be responsible for the development of severe anaphylactic reactions to insect venom allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;153:166-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The AGT M235T MM variant may be responsible for severe anaphylactic reactions to insect venom allergens in some patients. ..
  24. Schmerbach K, Pfab T, Zhao Y, Culman J, Mueller S, Villringer A, et al. Effects of aliskiren on stroke in rats expressing human renin and angiotensinogen genes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15052 pubmed publisher
    ..Since aliskiren specifically blocks human renin, double transgenic rats expressing human renin and angiotensinogen genes were used...
  25. Bujak Gizycka B, Olszanecki R, Suski M, Madek J, Stachowicz A, Korbut R. Angiotensinogen metabolism in rat aorta: robust formation of proangiotensin-12. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;61:679-82 pubmed
    ..Proangiotensin-12 (proAng-12, Ang-(1-12)) is a newly characterized metabolite of angiotensinogen, formed in array of organs of rats, which may serve as an alternate substrate for local angiotensin ..
  26. Ji L, Zhang L, Shen P, Wang P, Zhang Y, Xing W, et al. Association of angiotensinogen gene M235T and angiotensin-converting enzyme gene I/D polymorphisms with essential hypertension in Han Chinese population: a meta-analysis. J Hypertens. 2010;28:419-28 pubmed publisher
    The polymorphisms of angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes have been linked to increased risk of essential hypertension in multiple populations, but the results were inconsistent...
  27. Gomes da Silva A, Xavier C, Campagnole Santos M, Caligiorne S, Baltatu O, Bader M, et al. Cardiovascular responses evoked by activation or blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the hypothalamic PVN are attenuated in transgenic rats with low brain angiotensinogen. Brain Res. 2012;1448:101-10 pubmed publisher
    ..or blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), in transgenic rats with low brain angiotensinogen [TGR(ASrAOGEN)]. Brain Ang II and Ang-(1-7) levels were also determined...
  28. Mehri S, Koubaa N, Hammami S, Mahjoub S, Chaaba R, Nakbi A, et al. Genotypic interactions of renin-angiotensin system genes with diabetes type 2 in a Tunisian population. Life Sci. 2010;87:49-54 pubmed publisher
    To explore the role of genetic variants of angiotensinogen (AGT M235T), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I/D), and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R A1166C) as predictors of diabetes risk and to examine their combined effects on type 2 ..
  29. Deb D, Chen Y, Zhang Z, Zhang Y, Szeto F, Wong K, et al. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses high glucose-induced angiotensinogen expression in kidney cells by blocking the NF-{kappa}B pathway. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F1212-8 pubmed publisher
    ..D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] plays a renoprotective role by suppressing the RAS, with renin and angiotensinogen (AGT) as the main targets...
  30. Vefring H, Wee L, Jugessur A, Gjessing H, Nilsen S, Lie R. Maternal angiotensinogen (AGT) haplotypes, fetal renin (REN) haplotypes and risk of preeclampsia; estimation of gene-gene interaction from family-triad data. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:90 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our objective was to determine whether the genes for placental renin (REN) and maternal angiotensinogen (AGT) interact to influence the risk of preeclampsia...
  31. Lo C, Chang S, Chenier I, Filep J, Ingelfinger J, Zhang S, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F suppresses angiotensinogen gene expression and attenuates hypertension and kidney injury in diabetic mice. Diabetes. 2012;61:2597-608 pubmed
    We investigated the impact of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) overexpression on angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression, hypertension, and renal proximal tubular cell (RPTC) injury in high-glucose milieu both in vivo ..
  32. Rands V, Seth D, Kobori H, Prieto M. Sexual dimorphism in urinary angiotensinogen excretion during chronic angiotensin II-salt hypertension. Gend Med. 2012;9:207-18 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated whether there is a sex difference in the intrarenal gene expression and urinary excretion of angiotensinogen (AGT) during angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension and high-salt (HS) diet...
  33. Padrissa Altés S, Franco Gou R, Boillot O, Serafin A, Rimola A, Arroyo V, et al. Effect of angiotensin II and bradykinin inhibition in rat reduced-size liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2009;15:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that small liver grafts generated Ang II after ROLT and that this was associated with increased angiotensinogen and ACE messenger RNA expression...
  34. Wang Y, Ragg H. An unexpected link between angiotensinogen and thrombin. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:2395-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Angiotensinogen is well known as source protein for a group of potent vasoactive hormones, however, a discrete biochemical activity of the angiotensinogen body is not known...
  35. Verma S, Lal H, Golden H, Gerilechaogetu F, Smith M, Guleria R, et al. Rac1 and RhoA differentially regulate angiotensinogen gene expression in stretched cardiac fibroblasts. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;90:88-96 pubmed publisher
    ..including myocardial remodelling, involvement in mediating mechanical stretch-induced regulation of angiotensinogen (Ao), the precursor to Ang II, remains to be determined...
  36. Sulikowski T, Domanski L, Zietek Z, Adler G, Pawlik A, Kaczmarczyk M, et al. The effect of preservation solutions UW and EC on the expression of renin I, angiotensinogen and angiotensin I-converting enzyme genes in rat kidney. Ann Transplant. 2011;16:108-13 pubmed
    ..aim of this study was to examine the effect of preservation solutions UW and EC on the expression of renin I, angiotensinogen and angiotensin I-converting enzyme genes in rat kidney...
  37. Satou R, Miyata K, Gonzalez Villalobos R, Ingelfinger J, Navar L, Kobori H. Interferon-? biphasically regulates angiotensinogen expression via a JAK-STAT pathway and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in renal proximal tubular cells. FASEB J. 2012;26:1821-30 pubmed publisher
    Renal inflammation modulates angiotensinogen (AGT) production in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) via inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor ?, and interferon-? (IFN-?)...
  38. Ying J, Stuart D, Hillas E, Gociman B, Ramkumar N, Lalouel J, et al. Overexpression of mouse angiotensinogen in renal proximal tubule causes salt-sensitive hypertension in mice. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25:684-9 pubmed publisher
    The role of proximal tubule (PT) angiotensinogen (AGT) in modulating blood pressure has previously been examined using mice expressing PT human AGT and human renin, or rat AGT...
  39. Matsusaka T, Niimura F, Shimizu A, Pastan I, Saito A, Kobori H, et al. Liver angiotensinogen is the primary source of renal angiotensin II. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:1181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the kidney abundantly expresses angiotensinogen mRNA, transcriptional dysregulation of angiotensinogen within the kidney is one potential cause of increased ..
  40. Yiannikouris F, Gupte M, Putnam K, Thatcher S, Charnigo R, Rateri D, et al. Adipocyte deficiency of angiotensinogen prevents obesity-induced hypertension in male mice. Hypertension. 2012;60:1524-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Adipocytes express angiotensinogen and secrete angiotensin peptides...
  41. Prosser H, Forster M, Richards A, Pemberton C. Cardiac chymase converts rat proAngiotensin-12 (PA12) to angiotensin II: effects of PA12 upon cardiac haemodynamics. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;82:40-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This conversion was blocked by chymostatin. PA12 may act as a circulating substrate for cardiac chymase-mediated AngII production, in contrast to ACE-mediated AngII production from AngI. ..
  42. Ferrario C, Varagic J, Habibi J, Nagata S, Kato J, Chappell M, et al. Differential regulation of angiotensin-(1-12) in plasma and cardiac tissue in response to bilateral nephrectomy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H1184-92 pubmed publisher
    ..immunofluorescence revealed significant increases in average grayscale density for cardiac tissue angiotensinogen, ANG I, ANG II, and AT(1) receptors of WKY rats postnephrectomy...
  43. Wang Q, Li Y, Chen X, Yu J, Wang J, Sun J, et al. Angiotensinogen polymorphisms and acquired atrial fibrillation in Chinese. J Electrocardiol. 2010;43:373-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the association between polymorphism in angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and risk of acquired AF in a pair-matched case-control study ..
  44. Ragia G, Nikolaidis E, Tavridou A, Arvanitidis K, Kanoni S, Dedoussis G, et al. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2010;11:136-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the association of polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1) receptor) with severe CAD in CABG patients...
  45. Park S, Liu X, Davis D, Sigmund C. Gene trapping uncovers sex-specific mechanisms for upstream stimulatory factors 1 and 2 in angiotensinogen expression. Hypertension. 2012;59:1212-9 pubmed publisher
    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C/A) located within an E-box at the -20 position of the human angiotensinogen (AGT) promoter may regulate transcriptional activation through differential recruitment of the transcription factors upstream ..
  46. Han M, Li A, Meng F, Dong L, Zheng B, Hu H, et al. Synergistic co-operation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B with activator protein 1 in angiotensin II-induced angiotensinogen gene activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. FEBS J. 2009;276:1720-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and activator of transcription (STAT) and activator protein 1 have been found in the promoter region of the angiotensinogen gene...
  47. Zhou L, Xue H, Yuan P, Ni J, Yu C, Huang Y, et al. Angiotensin AT1 receptor activation mediates high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal proximal tubular cells. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2010;37:e152-7 pubmed publisher
    ..makers, namely E-cadherin and vimentin, were estimated using fluorescence immunocytochemistry, mRNA levels of angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and AT1 receptors were determined by real-time polymerase chain ..
  48. Oishi T, Date S, Shimamoto Y, Saito T, Hirota K, Sugaya T, et al. A nuclear receptor, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, differently contributes to the human and mouse angiotensinogen promoter activities. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2010;30:484-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Angiotensinogen (AGT), mainly produced in the liver, is the precursor of angiotensin II, an important regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis...
  49. Abboud N, Ghazouani L, Kaabi B, Ben Hadj Khalifa S, Addad F, Marwen M, et al. Evaluation of the contribution of renin angiotensin system polymorphisms to the risk of coronary artery disease among Tunisians. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2010;14:661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..between these polymorphisms (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] insertion/deletion [Ins/Del]; the angiotensinogen T174M and M235T; and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C polymorphisms) and CAD in Tunisians...
  50. Ohashi N, Urushihara M, Satou R, Kobori H. Glomerular angiotensinogen is induced in mesangial cells in diabetic rats via reactive oxygen species--ERK/JNK pathways. Hypertens Res. 2010;33:1174-81 pubmed publisher
    Whereas intra-renal angiotensinogen is predominantly localized in proximal tubular cells under basal conditions, it has been previously reported that angiotensinogen expression is induced in glomeruli under pathological conditions...
  51. Abdul Hafez A, Shu R, Uhal B. JunD and HIF-1alpha mediate transcriptional activation of angiotensinogen by TGF-beta1 in human lung fibroblasts. FASEB J. 2009;23:1655-62 pubmed publisher
    Earlier work showed that TGF-beta1 potently increases angiotensinogen (AGT) gene mRNA in primary human lung fibroblasts. Here the mechanism of TGF-beta1-induced AGT expression was studied in the IMR90 human lung fibroblast cell line...
  52. Topal N, Ozben B, Hancer V, Tanrikulu A, Diz Kucukkaya R, Fak A, et al. Polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensinogen gene in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2011;12:549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, and the M235T, A-20C, and G-6A polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen gene were genotyped...
  53. Acres O, Satou R, Navar L, Kobori H. Contribution of a nuclear factor-kappaB binding site to human angiotensinogen promoter activity in renal proximal tubular cells. Hypertension. 2011;57:608-13 pubmed publisher
    Intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) is expressed highly in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) and contributes to the regulation of intrarenal angiotensin II levels...
  54. Pavkova Goldbergova M, Spinarova L, Spinar J, Parenica J, Sišková L, Groch L, et al. Difference in angiotensinogen haplotype frequencies between chronic heart failure and advanced atherosclerosis patients - new prognostic factor?. Physiol Res. 2011;60:55-64 pubmed
    Numerous association studies have been involved in studying the angiotensinogen (AGT) variants, AGT plasma levels and relations to cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease...
  55. Kuroczycka Saniutycz E, Wasilewska A, Sulik A, Milewski R. Urinary angiotensinogen as a marker of intrarenal angiotensin II activity in adolescents with primary hypertension. Pediatr Nephrol. 2013;28:1113-9 pubmed publisher
    Experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) is a novel biomarker for the intrarenal activity of the renin-angiotensin system in hypertension (HT)...
  56. Yugar Toledo J, Martin J, Krieger J, Pereira A, Demacq C, Coelho O, et al. Gene variation in resistant hypertension: multilocus analysis of the angiotensin 1-converting enzyme, angiotensinogen, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase genes. DNA Cell Biol. 2011;30:555-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the interaction of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) polymorphisms with environmental factors (gender, age, ..
  57. Jain S, Tillinger A, Mopidevi B, Pandey V, Chauhan C, Fiering S, et al. Transgenic mice with -6A haplotype of the human angiotensinogen gene have increased blood pressure compared with -6G haplotype. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:41172-86 pubmed publisher
    Hypertension is a serious risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene locus is associated with human essential hypertension...
  58. Kobori H, Urushihara M, Xu J, Berenson G, NAVAR L. Urinary angiotensinogen is correlated with blood pressure in men (Bogalusa Heart Study). J Hypertens. 2010;28:1422-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Considerable sex and racial differences have been found to be related to cardiovascular disease. Urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) is a novel biomarker for the intrarenal activity of the renin-angiotensin system in hypertension and ..
  59. Konishi Y, Nishiyama A, Morikawa T, Kitabayashi C, Shibata M, Hamada M, et al. Relationship between urinary angiotensinogen and salt sensitivity of blood pressure in patients with IgA nephropathy. Hypertension. 2011;58:205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We also showed that increased urinary angiotensinogen levels in such patients closely correlate with augmented renal tissue angiotensinogen gene expression and ..
  60. Fukuda M, Urushihara M, Wakamatsu T, Oikawa T, Kobori H. Proximal tubular angiotensinogen in renal biopsy suggests nondipper BP rhythm accompanied by enhanced tubular sodium reabsorption. J Hypertens. 2012;30:1453-9 pubmed publisher
    ..can be easily filtered across the glomerular capillary walls and stimulates renal proximal tubular angiotensinogen (PT-AGT) production, leading to the activation of intrarenal angiotensin II, which is known to augment the ..
  61. Vincent F, Bonnin P, Clemessy M, Contreres J, Lamandé N, Gasc J, et al. Angiotensinogen delays angiogenesis and tumor growth of hepatocarcinoma in transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2853-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Angiotensinogen, a member of the serpin family, is involved in the suppression of tumor growth and metastasis...
  62. Kamiyama M, Zsombok A, Kobori H. Urinary angiotensinogen as a novel early biomarker of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activation in experimental type 1 diabetes. J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;119:314-23 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to investigate whether urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) level may serve as a useful marker of the early stage of experimental type 1 diabetes (T1DM)...
  63. Chen S, Li G, Zhang W, Wang J, Sigmund C, Olson J, et al. Ischemia-induced brain damage is enhanced in human renin and angiotensinogen double-transgenic mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1526-31 pubmed publisher
    ..II (ANG II) in the pathogenesis of injury following ischemic stroke, mice overexpressing renin and angiotensinogen (R+A+) and their wild-type control animals (R-A-) were used for experimental ischemia studies...
  64. Srivastava K, Chandra S, Bhatia J, Narang R, Saluja D. Association of angiotensinogen (M235T) gene polymorphism with blood pressure lowering response to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (Enalapril). J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2012;15:399-406 pubmed
    ..We determined the association of angiotensinogen (M235T) gene polymorphism with essential hypertension and the relationship between polymorphism in the ..
  65. Polugari Prem Kumar Manohar Rao -, Munshi A, Mullapudi R, Potham Sampath Kumar -, Sharath A, Gundala Anil Krishna -, et al. The M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene in South Indian patients of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2011;12:238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the present study was to examine the association of the T704C polymorphism of exon 2 of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene with HCM in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. Subjects and methods...
  66. Garrido Gil P, Valenzuela R, Villar Cheda B, Lanciego J, Labandeira Garcia J. Expression of angiotensinogen and receptors for angiotensin and prorenin in the monkey and human substantia nigra: an intracellular renin-angiotensin system in the nigra. Brain Struct Funct. 2013;218:373-88 pubmed publisher
    ..However, angiotensinogen and receptors for angiotensin and renin-prorenin were also observed at the cytoplasm and nuclear level, which ..
  67. Shao W, Seth D, Prieto M, Kobori H, Navar L. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system by a low-salt diet does not augment intratubular angiotensinogen and angiotensin II in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;304:F505-14 pubmed publisher
    In angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion hypertension, there is an augmentation of intratubular angiotensinogen (AGT) and ANG II leading to increased urinary AGT and ANG II excretion rates associated with tissue injury...
  68. Balam Ortiz E, Esquivel Villarreal A, Alfaro Ruiz L, Carrillo K, Elizalde A, Gil T, et al. Variants and haplotypes in angiotensinogen gene are associated with plasmatic angiotensinogen level in Mexican population. Am J Med Sci. 2011;342:205-11 pubmed publisher
    The plasmatic angiotensinogen (AGT) level has been associated with essential hypertension...
  69. Xi B, Shen Y, Yan Y, Mi J. Association of polymorphisms in the AGT gene with essential hypertension in the Chinese population. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2012;13:282-8 pubmed publisher
    Although the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, the results have been inconsistent...
  70. Nishiyama A, Konishi Y, Ohashi N, Morikawa T, Urushihara M, Maeda I, et al. Urinary angiotensinogen reflects the activity of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in patients with IgA nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:170-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that urinary angiotensinogen provides a specific index of intrarenal RAS status in patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy...
  71. Shimizu H, Saito S, Higashiyama Y, Nishijima F, Niwa T. CREB, NF-?B, and NADPH oxidase coordinately upregulate indoxyl sulfate-induced angiotensinogen expression in proximal tubular cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C685-92 pubmed publisher
    In chronic kidney disease (CKD), indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin, accumulates in serum, and the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT) is upregulated in renal proximal tubular cells...
  72. Ramkumar N, Stuart D, Ying J, Kohan D. A possible interaction between systemic and renal angiotensinogen in the control of blood pressure. Am J Hypertens. 2013;26:473-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Angiotensinogen (AGT) is synthesized in the liver and proximal tubule. AGT overexpression at either site might increase blood pressure (BP)...
  73. Mohana V, Swapna N, Surender R, Vishnupriya S, Padma T. Gender-related association of AGT gene variants (M235T and T174M) with essential hypertension--a case-control study. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2012;34:38-44 pubmed publisher
    The human angiotensinogen (AGT) is a promising candidate gene for evaluating susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH). We aimed to assess the association of the variants of AGT gene and the extent of risk involved in developing EH...
  74. Halangk J, Berg T, Neumann K, Sarrazin C, Hinrichsen H, Fitz C, et al. Evaluation of angiotensinogen c.1-44G>A and p.M268T variants as risk factors for fibrosis progression in chronic hepatitis C and liver diseases of various etiologies. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2009;13:407-14 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic stellate cells express all components of the renin-angiotensinogen (AGT) system and secrete active angiotensin II...