angiotensin iii


Summary: A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).

Top Publications

  1. Houghton B, Huang C, Johns E. Influence of dietary sodium on the blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity responses to intracerebroventricular angiotensin II and angiotensin III in anaesthetized rats. Exp Physiol. 2010;95:282-95 pubmed publisher
    ..c.v. AngII and AngIII; (2) highlight an important role for peripheral V(1) receptors during these responses; and (3) differentiate the effects of AngII and AngIII on blood pressure and RSNA...
  2. Kemp B, Bell J, Rottkamp D, Howell N, Shao W, Navar L, et al. Intrarenal angiotensin III is the predominant agonist for proximal tubule angiotensin type 2 receptors. Hypertension. 2012;60:387-95 pubmed publisher
  3. Faber F, Gembardt F, Sun X, Mizutani S, Siems W, Walther T. Lack of angiotensin II conversion to angiotensin III increases water but not alcohol consumption in aminopeptidase A-deficient mice. Regul Pept. 2006;136:130-7 pubmed
    ..These differences induced by an altered AngII/AngIII ratio oppose the hypothesis that central AngII and AngIII act in a congruent pattern. ..
  4. Blair West J, Carey K, Denton D, Madden L, Weisinger R, Shade R. Possible contribution of brain angiotensin III to ingestive behaviors in baboons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R1633-6 pubmed
    ..On the basis of this criterion and consistent with findings in rats, ANG III could be a main effector peptide in the regulation of ingestive behaviors in a primate. ..
  5. Padia S, Kemp B, Howell N, Gildea J, Keller S, Carey R. Intrarenal angiotensin III infusion induces natriuresis and angiotensin type 2 receptor translocation in Wistar-Kyoto but not in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 2009;53:338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Identical manipulations fail to induce natriuresis or AT(2)R translocation in SHRs, suggesting that defects in AT(2)R-mediated natriuresis and trafficking may be important to the development of hypertension in SHRs. ..
  6. Wright J, Harding J. Important role for angiotensin III and IV in the brain renin-angiotensin system. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1997;25:96-124 pubmed
    ..These include electrophysiological activation, tachyphylaxis, long term potentiation, learning and memory, and cognitive affect. ..
  7. Teranishi J, Ishiguro H, Hoshino K, Noguchi K, Kubota Y, Uemura H. Evaluation of role of angiotensin III and aminopeptidases in prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2008;68:1666-73 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of angiotensin III (Ang-III) and related converting enzymes, aminopeptidase A (APA) and N (APN), in prostate cancer...
  8. Kokje R, Wilson W, Brown T, Karamyan V, Wright J, Speth R. Central pressor actions of aminopeptidase-resistant angiotensin II analogs: challenging the angiotensin III hypothesis. Hypertension. 2007;49:1328-35 pubmed
    ..The suggestion that angiotensin III rather than angiotensin II is the active peptide in the brain spawned what we call The Angiotensin III...
  9. Gammelgaard I, Wamberg S, Bie P. Systemic effects of angiotensin III in conscious dogs during acute double blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2006;188:129-38 pubmed
    The study was designed to determine (i) whether the effects of angiotensin III (AngIII) are similar to those of angiotensin II (AngII) at identical plasma concentrations and (ii) whether AngIII operates solely through AT1- receptors...

More Information


  1. Domińska K, Piastowska Ciesielska A, Lachowicz Ochedalska A, Ochedalski T. Similarities and differences between effects of angiotensin III and angiotensin II on human prostate cancer cell migration and proliferation. Peptides. 2012;37:200-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Assume also that Ang II can enhance the migration tendency aggressive prostate cancer cells, while Ang III does so more effective in non-metastatic cells. ..
  2. Mustafa M, Dharmani M, Kunheen N, Sim M. Effects of des-aspartate-angiotensin I on the actions of angiotensin III in the renal and mesenteric vasculature of normo- and hypertensive rats. Regul Pept. 2004;120:15-22 pubmed
    An earlier study showed that des-aspartate-angiotensin I (DAA-I) attenuated the pressor action of angiotensin III in aortic rings of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) but not the normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat...
  3. Wright J, Tamura Myers E, Wilson W, Roques B, Llorens Cortes C, Speth R, et al. Conversion of brain angiotensin II to angiotensin III is critical for pressor response in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284:R725-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the brain AT(1) receptor may be designed to preferentially respond to ANG III, and ANG III's importance as a centrally active ligand has been underestimated. ..
  4. Clark M, Tran H, Nguyen C. Angiotensin III stimulates ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases and astrocyte growth in cultured rat astrocytes. Neuropeptides. 2011;45:329-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies are important in establishing signaling pathways for Ang III and provide validation of the central role of Ang III. ..
  5. Yatabe J, Yoneda M, Yatabe M, Watanabe T, Felder R, Jose P, et al. Angiotensin III stimulates aldosterone secretion from adrenal gland partially via angiotensin II type 2 receptor but not angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, over 60% of Ang III-induced aldosterone release may be independent of both AT1R and AT2R. Ang III and AT2R signaling may have a role in the pathophysiology of aldosterone breakthrough...
  6. Yang Z, Lam C, Chu I, Laskin J. The effect of the secondary structure on dissociation of peptide radical cations: fragmentation of angiotensin III and its analogues. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:12468-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the energetics and the mechanisms of dissociation of even-electron and odd-electron angiotensin III ions are quite different...
  7. Padia S, Howell N, Siragy H, Carey R. Renal angiotensin type 2 receptors mediate natriuresis via angiotensin III in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor-blocked rat. Hypertension. 2006;47:537-44 pubmed
    ..AT2 receptor activation via Ang III, but not via Ang II, mediates the natriuretic response in the presence of systemic AT1 receptor blockade. ..
  8. de la Chica Rodríguez S, Cortés Denia P, Ramírez Expósito M, de Saavedra J, Sánchez Agesta R, Pérez M, et al. Doxazosin blockade of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors increases rat serum progesterone levels: a putative role of ovarian angiotensin III in steroidogenesis. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:1071-5 pubmed
    ..Ovarian P production, at least in the rat, is regulated by noradrenaline through a mechanism of action in which the RAS is involved, with a main role for angiotensin III.
  9. Rebas E, Lachowicz Ochedalska A. The effect of angiotensin III on protein tyrosine kinase activity in rat pituitary. Regul Pept. 2005;130:14-8 pubmed
    b>Angiotensin III is the biological active peptide from the angiotensin family, which play the important role in several cellular processes...
  10. Hus Citharel A, Marchetti J, Corvol P, Llorens Cortes C. Potentiation of [Ca2+]i response to angiotensin III by cAMP in cortical thick ascending limb. Kidney Int. 2002;61:1996-2005 pubmed
    ..cortical thick ascending limb (CTAL), intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin III (Ang III) were mediated by the Ang II subtype 1A receptor (AT1A-R), whereas the arginine vasopressin (AVP)-..
  11. Tchekalarova J, Kambourova T, Georgiev V. Effects of angiotensin III and angiotensin IV on pentylenetetrazol seizure susceptibility (threshold and kindling): interaction with adenosine A(1) receptors. Brain Res Bull. 2001;56:87-91 pubmed
    ..Taken together, ANG III and ANG IV decrease the PTZ seizure susceptibility. We could suggest that these effects are realized in part through interaction with adenosine A(1) receptors. ..
  12. Pelegrini da Silva A, Rosa E, Guethe L, Juliano M, Prado W, Martins A. Angiotensin III modulates the nociceptive control mediated by the periaqueductal gray matter. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1263-73 pubmed publisher
  13. Reaux A, Fournie Zaluski M, Llorens Cortes C. Angiotensin III: a central regulator of vasopressin release and blood pressure. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2001;12:157-62 pubmed
  14. Clark M, Nguyen C, Tran H. Angiotensin III induces c-Jun N-terminal kinase leading to proliferation of rat astrocytes. Neurochem Res. 2012;37:1475-81 pubmed publisher
  15. Wright J, Bechtholt A, Chambers S, Harding J. Angiotensin III and IV activation of the brain AT1 receptor subtype in cardiovascular function. Peptides. 1996;17:1365-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest an important role for Ang III, and perhaps ANG IV, in brain angiotensin pressor responses mediated by the AT1 receptor subtype. ..
  16. Padia S, Kemp B, Howell N, Siragy H, Fournie Zaluski M, Roques B, et al. Intrarenal aminopeptidase N inhibition augments natriuretic responses to angiotensin III in angiotensin type 1 receptor-blocked rats. Hypertension. 2007;49:625-30 pubmed
    The renal angiotensin angiotensin type 2 receptor has been shown to mediate natriuresis, and angiotensin III, not angiotensin II, may be the preferential angiotensin type 2 receptor activator of this response...
  17. Lorenzo O, Ruiz Ortega M, Suzuki Y, Ruperez M, Esteban V, Sugaya T, et al. Angiotensin III activates nuclear transcription factor-kappaB in cultured mesangial cells mainly via AT(2) receptors: studies with AT(1) receptor-knockout mice. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13:1162-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the potential involvement of the AngIII/AT(2) receptor/NF-kappaB pathway in pathophysiologic processes in the kidney and provide a better understanding of the renin-angiotensin system. ..
  18. Chaitman B, Ivleva A, Ujda M, Lenis J, Toth C, Stieber D, et al. Antianginal efficacy of omapatrilat in patients with chronic angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95:1283-9 pubmed
    ..The data confirm the proof of principle that broader vasopeptidase inhibition beyond angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition is required to alleviate symptoms of chronic angina. ..
  19. Llorens Cortes C, Mendelsohn F. Organisation and functional role of the brain angiotensin system. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2002;3 Suppl 1:S39-48 pubmed
  20. Malinauskas M, Wallenius V, Fändriks L, Casselbrant A. Local expression of AP/AngIV/IRAP and effect of AngIV on glucose-induced epithelial transport in human jejunal mucosa. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2015;16:1101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate if key components for the Angiotensin III (AngIII) and IV (AngIV) formation enzymes and the AngIV receptor, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), ..
  21. Reaux Le Goazigo A, Iturrioz X, Fassot C, Claperon C, Roques B, Llorens Cortes C. Role of angiotensin III in hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2005;7:128-34 pubmed
    ..This justifies the development of potent systemically active APA inhibitors, such as RB150, as prototypes of a new class of antihypertensive agents for the treatment of certain forms of hypertension. ..
  22. Hu C, Kang B, Megyesi J, Kaushal G, Safirstein R, Mehta J. Deletion of LOX-1 attenuates renal injury following angiotensin II infusion. Kidney Int. 2009;76:521-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study suggests that LOX-1 is a key modulator in the development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension and subsequent renal damage. ..
  23. Daugherty A, Rateri D, Lu H, Inagami T, Cassis L. Hypercholesterolemia stimulates angiotensin peptide synthesis and contributes to atherosclerosis through the AT1A receptor. Circulation. 2004;110:3849-57 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that hypercholesterolemia-induced stimulation of angiotensin peptide production provides a basis for the marked effect of AT1A receptor deficiency in reducing atherosclerosis. ..
  24. Segawa M, Nakao S, Ogata Y, Sugiya H, Furuyama S. Angiotensin II induces prostaglandin E(2) release in human gingival fibroblasts. Life Sci. 2003;72:795-803 pubmed
    ..b>Angiotensin III also induced prostaglandin E(2) release, but the effect was weaker than that of angiotensin II...
  25. Rozenfeld R, Reaux A, Iturrioz X, Fassot C, Fournie Zaluski M, David C, et al. Aminopeptidase A, generating one of the main effector peptides of the brain renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin III, plays a key role in central control of blood pressure. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 2003;46:39-44 pubmed
  26. Ramírez Expósito M, Garcia M, Mayas M, Ramirez M, Martinez Martos J. Differential effects of dietary cholesterol on aminopeptidase A, B and M in the frontal cortex of male and female mice. Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4:461-8 pubmed
    ..Our results may indicate that the metabolism of angiotensin II to angiotensin III by aminopeptidase A is increased, but angiotensin III metabolism by aminopeptidases B and M is not modified ..
  27. Pesek J, Matyska M, Mauskar L. Separation of proteins and peptides by capillary electrochromatography in diol- and octadecyl-modified etched capillaries. J Chromatogr A. 1997;763:307-14 pubmed
  28. Chua H, Jois S, Sim M, Go M. Transport of angiotensin peptides across the Caco-2 monolayer. Peptides. 2004;25:1327-38 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the more hydrophilic angiotensin IV had less hydrogen bonding potential and a solution conformation characterized by a beta turn. These factors may influence the transport characteristics of DAAI and angiotensin IV. ..
  29. Rodriguez Campos M, Kadarian C, Rodano V, Bianciotti L, Fernandez B, Vatta M. AT-1 receptor and phospholipase C are involved in angiotensin III modulation of hypothalamic noradrenergic transmission. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2000;20:747-62 pubmed
    1. We previously reported that angiotensin III modulates noradrenergic neurotransmission in the hypothalamus of the rat...
  30. Wang H, Zhang Q, Zeng X, Wang W, Tang C, Zhang L. Effects of angiotensin III on protein, DNA, and collagen synthesis of neonatal cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2010;15:393-402 pubmed publisher
    This study compared angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin III (Ang III) for their effects on rat neonatal cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts in vitro and discussed the possible role of Ang III in the pathogenesis of cardiac ..
  31. Yugandhar V, Clark M. Angiotensin III: a physiological relevant peptide of the renin angiotensin system. Peptides. 2013;46:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, this review focuses on Ang III and the myriad of physiological effects that it produces in the body. ..
  32. Carey R. Blood Pressure and the Renal Actions of AT2 Receptors. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2017;19:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead of angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin III (Ang III) is the predominant endogenous agonist for this response...
  33. Vlasenko R, Kotov A. Effector peptides of the renin-angiotensin system in the central mechanisms of acquired and innate behavior in thirst in rats. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2007;37:263-70 pubmed
    ..of complex acquired drinking behavior, selectively modulating its key stages (initial, final), while angiotensin III was involved only in the mechanisms of reproduction of the complex skill...
  34. Odya C, Marinkovic D, Hammon K, Stewart T, Erdos E. Purification and properties of prolylcarboxypeptidase (angiotensinase C) from human kidney. J Biol Chem. 1978;253:5927-31 pubmed
    ..Cbz)-Pro-Phe, representing the COOH-terminal end of angiotensin II and des-Asp1-angiotensin II (angiotensin III), at a rate of 31 micronmol/h/mg of protein...
  35. Alghamri M, Morris M, Meszaros J, Elased K, Grobe N. Novel role of aminopeptidase-A in angiotensin-(1-7) metabolism post myocardial infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014;306:H1032-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus APA may serve as a potentially novel therapeutic target for management of tissue remodeling after MI. ..
  36. Yang R, Smolders I, Dupont A. Blood pressure and renal hemodynamic effects of angiotensin fragments. Hypertens Res. 2011;34:674-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we focus on the effects of these Ang on blood pressure, renal hemodynamics and sodium water handling, and discuss the receptors involved in these actions. ..
  37. Reyes R, Pulakat L, Miledi R, Martinez Torres A. Mammalian AT2 receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes couple to endogenous chloride channels and stimulate germinal vesicle break down. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;24:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of AT1 and AT2 receptors couple to similar metabolic cascades in Xenopus laevis oocytes. However, the pathway activated by AT2 diverges to induce oocyte maturation. ..
  38. Tabrizian T, Hataway F, Murray D, Shariat Madar Z. Prolylcarboxypeptidase gene expression in the heart and kidney: Effects of obesity and diabetes. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2015;13:113-23 pubmed
    ..It also modulates angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin III (Ang III), and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) physiological effects...
  39. Sharma R, Smith J, Moore G. Inhibition of bovine brain calmodulin-dependent cGMP phosphodiesterase by peptide and non-peptide angiotensin receptor ligands. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;179:85-9 pubmed
    ..The differential effects of ANG II and ANG III at target tissues may relate in part to the marked differences in cGMP PDE inhibition associated with these two peptides hormones. ..
  40. Butler D. Pressor responses to alligator Angiotensin I and some analogs in the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2006;147:150-7 pubmed
    ..These are the first experiments which test the cardiovascular responses to alligator ANG I and its analogues in any crocodilian species. ..
  41. Garrison E, Santiago J, Osei S, Kadowitz P. Analysis of responses to angiotensin peptides in the hindquarters vascular bed of the cat. Am J Physiol. 1995;268:H2418-25 pubmed
    ..The results also indicate that complete rapid local conversion of the substrates into active peptides occurs near the site of action within the hindquarters vascular bed. ..
  42. Cox S, Trendelenburg A, Starke K. Prejunctional angiotensin receptors involved in the facilitation of noradrenaline release in mouse tissues. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;127:1256-62 pubmed
    The effect of angiotensin II, angiotensin III, angiotensin IV and angiotensin-(1-7) on the electrically induced release of noradrenaline was studied in preparations of mouse atria, spleen, hippocampus, occipito-parietal cortex and ..
  43. Felten C, Foret F, Minarik M, Goetzinger W, Karger B. Automated high-throughput infusion ESI-MS with direct coupling to a microtiter plate. Anal Chem. 2001;73:1449-54 pubmed
    ..The infusion system was demonstrated in the analysis of preparative HPLC fractions from a small molecule combinatorial library. ..
  44. Lara L, Bica R, Sena S, Correa J, Marques Fernandes M, Lopes A, et al. Angiotensin-(1-7) reverts the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on the proximal tubule Na(+)-ATPase activity via a A779-sensitive receptor. Regul Pept. 2002;103:17-22 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that Ang-(1-7) reverts the stimulatory effect of Ang II on the Na(+)-ATPase activity in proximal tubule through a A779-sensitive receptor. ..
  45. Oki K, Kopf P, Campbell W, Luis Lam M, Yamazaki T, Gomez Sanchez C, et al. Angiotensin II and III metabolism and effects on steroid production in the HAC15 human adrenocortical cell line. Endocrinology. 2013;154:214-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, A-II was not converted to A-III in the HAC15 cell and is the more potent stimulator of aldosterone secretion and cortisol of the two. A-III stimulated aldosterone secretion but not cortisol secretion. ..
  46. Brust I, Printz M. Functional angiotensin receptor on cultured bovine chromaffin cells: secretory response to angiotensin II and angiotensin III. Clin Exp Hypertens A. 1988;10:1321-3 pubmed
    ..The present report examines whether the bovine chromaffin cell receptor responds to angiotensin III. We show in this report that angiotensin III is nearly equiactive with angiotensin II as a secretagogue in ..
  47. Smith R. Identification of atypical (non-AT1, non-AT2) angiotensin binding sites with high affinity for angiotensin I on IEC-18 rat intestinal epithelial cells. FEBS Lett. 1995;373:199-202 pubmed
  48. Skurk T, Lee Y, Hauner H. Angiotensin II and its metabolites stimulate PAI-1 protein release from human adipocytes in primary culture. Hypertension. 2001;37:1336-40 pubmed
    ..AT(1) receptor blockade reduces basal and abolishes Ang II-stimulated PAI-1 release from human adipocytes. ..
  49. Kim J, Knapp D. Miniaturized multichannel electrospray ionization emitters on poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices. Electrophoresis. 2001;22:3993-9 pubmed
  50. Satou R, Nakagawa T, Ido H, Tomomatsu M, Suzuki F, Nakamura Y. Angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II regulates water flow through aquaporins in a clam worm. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:1221-5 pubmed
    b>Angiotensin III has been reported to exist in various animals and tissues. The physiological role, however, is still unclear except that brain angiotensin III is a central regulator of vasopressin release...
  51. Sullards M, Reiter J. Primary and secondary locations of charge sites in angiotensin II (M + 2H)2+ ions formed by electrospray ionization. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2000;11:40-53 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, (b7" + OH)2+ product ions, like the (M + 2H)2+ ions of angiotensin II, are observed to have at least two different decomposing structures in which charge sites have a primary and secondary location. ..
  52. Rowe B, Dixon B. Angiotensin III depressor action in the conscious rabbit is blocked by losartan but not PD 123319. Hypertension. 2000;35:130-4 pubmed
    ..Large intravenous boluses of angiotensin III (15 nmol/kg) produced a predictable pressor peak (82+/-4 mm Hg) followed by a depressor phase (20+/-3 mm Hg), ..
  53. Hernández J, Segarra A, Ramirez M, Banegas I, de Gasparo M, Alba F, et al. Stress influences brain enkephalinase, oxytocinase and angiotensinase activities: a new hypothesis. Neuropsychobiology. 2009;59:184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..activity not only measures enkephalinase activity, it also reflects the angiotensinase-induced metabolism of angiotensin III to angiotensin IV...
  54. Plovsing R, Wamberg C, Sandgaard N, Simonsen J, Holstein Rathlou N, Hoilund Carlsen P, et al. Effects of truncated angiotensins in humans after double blockade of the renin system. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;285:R981-91 pubmed
  55. Mogielnicki A, Chabielska E, Pawlak R, Szemraj J, Buczko W. Angiotensin II enhances thrombosis development in renovascular hypertensive rats. Thromb Haemost. 2005;93:1069-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we examined the role of AT(1) receptor and Ang II metabolites: angiotensin III (Ang III) and angiotensin IV (Ang IV) in the mechanisms of Ang II action...
  56. Lijnen P, Petrov V, Diaz Araya G, Fagard R. Effect of bestatin on angiotensin I-, II- and III-induced collagen gel contraction in cardiac fibroblasts. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2004;5:183-8 pubmed
    ..inhibitor with broad specificity, bestatin, affects angiotensin I (Ang I)-, angiotensin II (Ang II)- or angiotensin III (Ang III)-stimulated collagen gel contraction in cardiac fibroblasts...
  57. Lancien F, Wong M, Arab A, Mimassi N, Takei Y, Le Mevel J. Central ventilatory and cardiovascular actions of angiotensin peptides in trout. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;303:R311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In the periphery, two ANG IIs and their COOH-terminal peptides may act as a circulating hormone preferentially involved in cardiovascular regulations. ..
  58. Wilson C, Gibson A, McDermott J. Purification and characterization of tripeptidylpeptidase-II from post-mortem human brain. Neurochem Res. 1993;18:743-9 pubmed
    ..Cholecystokinin octapeptide, angiotensin III and neurokinin A were the most rapidly hydrolysed...
  59. Grobe N, Elased K, Cool D, Morris M. Mass spectrometry for the molecular imaging of angiotensin metabolism in kidney. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E1016-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish the power of MALDI imaging as a highly specific and information-rich analytical technique that will further aid our understanding of the role and site of Ang II processing in cardiovascular and renal pathologies. ..
  60. Rabey F, Karamyan V, Speth R. Distribution of a novel binding site for angiotensins II and III in mouse tissues. Regul Pept. 2010;162:5-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that this novel angiotensin binding site may have a functional role in these tissues. ..
  61. Marc Y, Llorens Cortes C. The role of the brain renin-angiotensin system in hypertension: implications for new treatment. Prog Neurobiol. 2011;95:89-103 pubmed publisher
    ..This has led to the development of potent orally active APA inhibitors, such as RB150--the prototype of a new class of centrally acting antihypertensive agents. ..
  62. Lin K, Chan S, Chan J. Tonic suppression of spontaneous baroreceptor reflex by endogenous angiotensins via AT(2) subtype receptors at nucleus reticularis ventrolateralis in the rat. Synapse. 2001;40:85-94 pubmed
    ..Bilateral microinjection of angiotensin II (ANG II) or its active metabolite angiotensin III (ANG III) (5, 10, or 20 pmol) into the NRVL significantly suppressed the spontaneous BRR response, as ..
  63. Padia S, Kemp B, Howell N, Fournie Zaluski M, Roques B, Carey R. Conversion of renal angiotensin II to angiotensin III is critical for AT2 receptor-mediated natriuresis in rats. Hypertension. 2008;51:460-5 pubmed
    In the kidney, angiotensin II (Ang II) is metabolized to angiotensin III (Ang III) by aminopeptidase A (APA). In turn, Ang III is metabolized to angiotensin IV by aminopeptidase N (APN)...
  64. Claperon C, Banegas Font I, Iturrioz X, Rozenfeld R, Maigret B, Llorens Cortes C. Identification of threonine 348 as a residue involved in aminopeptidase A substrate specificity. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10618-26 pubmed publisher
    ..zinc metalloprotease cleaving in the brain the N-terminal aspartyl residue of angiotensin II to generate angiotensin III, which exerts a tonic stimulatory effect on the central control of blood pressure in hypertensive animals...
  65. Finnskog D, Ressine A, Laurell T, Marko Varga G. Integrated protein microchip assay with dual fluorescent- and MALDI read-out. J Proteome Res. 2004;3:988-94 pubmed
    ..A major advantage of the dual read-out PCPA approach is that both affinity binding and mass identity are derived. Detection limits for Ang II on the chip is as low as 500 zmol (Ang II). ..
  66. Gardiner S, Kemp P, March J, Bennett T. Regional haemodynamic effects of angiotensin II (3-8) in conscious rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;110:159-62 pubmed
    ..4. The results are consistent with AII (3-8) being a less effective agonist than All (or AIII) at the AT1-receptor, but provide no evidence for AII (3-8) interacting with a novel receptor that shows no affinity for losartan. ..
  67. Danziger R. Aminopeptidase N in arterial hypertension. Heart Fail Rev. 2008;13:293-8 pubmed
    ..APN is abundant in the kidneys and central nervous system. Identified substrates include Angiotensin III (Ang III); neuropeptides, including enkephalins and endorphins; and homones, including kallidan and ..
  68. del Pilar Carrera M, Ramírez Expósito M, Mayas M, Garcia M, Martínez Martos J. Mammary renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in rats with breast cancer. Tumour Biol. 2010;31:583-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the main effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system cascade, several of its catabolism products such as angiotensin III and angiotensin IV also possess biological functions...
  69. Bodineau L, Frugière A, Marc Y, Claperon C, Llorens Cortes C. Aminopeptidase A inhibitors as centrally acting antihypertensive agents. Heart Fail Rev. 2008;13:311-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This led to the development of potent, systematically active APA inhibitors, such as RB150, as a prototype of a new class of centrally acting antihypertensive agents for the treatment of certain forms of hypertension. ..
  70. Li Q, Pfaffendorf M, van Zwieten P. Different types of antagonism by losartan and irbesartan on the effects of angiotensin II and its degradation products in rabbit arteries. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2001;15:143-50 pubmed
    ..of losartan and irbesartan on the contractile effects of angiotensin II (AII) and its degradation products angiotensin III (AIII) and angiotensin IV (AIV) was determined in the rabbit isolated RA and femoral artery (FA)...
  71. Katugampola S, Davenport A. Radioligand binding reveals chymase as the predominant enzyme for mediating tissue conversion of angiotensin I in the normal human heart. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;102:15-21 pubmed
    ..ligands for the (125)I-[Sar(1),Ile(8)]angiotensin II binding site was CGP42112>angiotensin II> or =angiotensin III=angiotensin I>losartan...
  72. Moltzer E, Verkuil A, van Veghel R, Danser A, van Esch J. Effects of angiotensin metabolites in the coronary vascular bed of the spontaneously hypertensive rat: loss of angiotensin II type 2 receptor-mediated vasodilation. Hypertension. 2010;55:516-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This is attributable to the absence of counterregulatory Ang II type 2 receptor-mediated relaxation and/or a change of the Ang II type 2 receptor phenotype from relaxant to constrictor...
  73. Peral de Bruno M, Coviello A. Effects of angiotensin II antagonists on the contractile and hydrosmotic effect of AT II and AT III in the toad (Bufo arenarum). J Comp Physiol B. 1996;165:565-70 pubmed
    ..Both Leu8 angiotensin II (10(-8) mol.1(-1)) and DuP 753 (10(-6) mol.1(-1)) partially inhibited angiotensin III-induced contractions in toad aorta...
  74. van Esch J, Oosterveer C, Batenburg W, van Veghel R, Jan Danser A. Effects of angiotensin II and its metabolites in the rat coronary vascular bed: is angiotensin III the preferred ligand of the angiotensin AT2 receptor?. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;588:286-93 pubmed publisher
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