Summary: Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.

Top Publications

  1. Wright J, Harding J. Brain renin-angiotensin--a new look at an old system. Prog Neurobiol. 2011;95:49-67 pubmed publisher
    ..of an independent local brain RAS composed of the necessary functional components (angiotensinogen, peptidases, angiotensins and specific receptor proteins) significantly expanded the possible physiological and pharmacological functions ..
  2. Keizman D, Huang P, Eisenberger M, Pili R, Kim J, Antonarakis E, et al. Angiotensin system inhibitors and outcome of sunitinib treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a retrospective examination. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:1955-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiotensin system inhibitors may improve the outcome of sunitinib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. This should be investigated prospectively, and if validated applied in clinical practise and clinical trials. ..
  3. de Godoy M, Dunn S, Rattan S. Evidence for the role of angiotensin II biosynthesis in the rat internal anal sphincter tone. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:127-38 pubmed
    ..b>Angiotensins were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography/UV...
  4. Ferrario C, Varagic J, Habibi J, Nagata S, Kato J, Chappell M, et al. Differential regulation of angiotensin-(1-12) in plasma and cardiac tissue in response to bilateral nephrectomy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H1184-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Nephrectomy yielded divergent effects on circulating and cardiac angiotensins. Significant decreases in plasma ANG-(1-12), ANG I, and ANG II levels postnephrectomy accompanied increases in ..
  5. Varagic J, Trask A, Jessup J, Chappell M, Ferrario C. New angiotensins. J Mol Med (Berl). 2008;86:663-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on angiotensin-(1-7) and its important contribution to cardiovascular function and growth, while introducing angiotensin-(1-12) as a potential novel angiotensin precursor. ..
  6. Garabelli P, Modrall J, Penninger J, Ferrario C, Chappell M. Distinct roles for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and carboxypeptidase A in the processing of angiotensins within the murine heart. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:613-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the metabolism of angiotensins in wild-type (WT), ACE (ACE(-/-)) and ACE2 null mice (ACE2(-/-))...
  7. Shaltout H, Westwood B, Averill D, Ferrario C, Figueroa J, Diz D, et al. Angiotensin metabolism in renal proximal tubules, urine, and serum of sheep: evidence for ACE2-dependent processing of angiotensin II. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F82-91 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we investigated the metabolism of the angiotensins in isolated proximal tubules, urine, and serum from sheep...
  8. Gard P, Naylor C, Ali S, Partington C. Blockade of pro-cognitive effects of angiotensin IV and physostigmine in mice by oxytocin antagonism. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;683:155-60 pubmed publisher
  9. Nguyen Dinh Cat A, Touyz R. A new look at the renin-angiotensin system--focusing on the vascular system. Peptides. 2011;32:2141-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review highlights recent progress in the RAS field, focusing on the tissue system and particularly on the vascular RAS. ..

More Information


  1. Kehoe P, Miners S, Love S. Angiotensins in Alzheimer's disease - friend or foe?. Trends Neurosci. 2009;32:619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reviews molecular, genetic, experimental and clinical data as well as the therapeutic opportunities that relate to the involvement of the RAS in AD. ..
  2. Arnold A, Sakima A, Ganten D, Ferrario C, Diz D. Modulation of reflex function by endogenous angiotensins in older transgenic rats with low glial angiotensinogen. Hypertension. 2008;51:1326-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a novel mechanism for the preservation of baroreflex sensitivity during aging. ..
  3. Ahmed S, Fisher N, Stevanovic R, Hollenberg N. Body mass index and angiotensin-dependent control of the renal circulation in healthy humans. Hypertension. 2005;46:1316-20 pubmed
    ..Weight loss should be considered in the overweight or obese patient for renal protection. ..
  4. Kretowski A, McFann K, Hokanson J, Maahs D, Kinney G, Snell Bergeon J, et al. Polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system genes predict progression of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Diabetes. 2007;56:863-71 pubmed
  5. Pendergrass K, Pirro N, Westwood B, Ferrario C, Brosnihan K, Chappell M. Sex differences in circulating and renal angiotensins of hypertensive mRen(2). Lewis but not normotensive Lewis rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H10-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The enhanced activity of the RAAS in male congenics may contribute to the higher pressure and tissue injury evident in the strain. ..
  6. Wright J, Harding J. The brain renin-angiotensin system: a diversity of functions and implications for CNS diseases. Pflugers Arch. 2013;465:133-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of an independent local brain RAS composed of the necessary functional components (angiotensinogen, peptidases, angiotensins, and specific receptor proteins) significantly expanded the possible physiological and pharmacological ..
  7. Trask A, Jessup J, Chappell M, Ferrario C. Angiotensin-(1-12) is an alternate substrate for angiotensin peptide production in the heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H2242-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding further suggests that this angiotensinogen-derived product is a previously unrecognized important precursor peptide to the renin-angiotensin system cascade. ..
  8. Batenburg W, Krop M, Garrelds I, de Vries R, de Bruin R, Burckle C, et al. Prorenin is the endogenous agonist of the (pro)renin receptor. Binding kinetics of renin and prorenin in rat vascular smooth muscle cells overexpressing the human (pro)renin receptor. J Hypertens. 2007;25:2441-53 pubmed
    ..H(P)RRs preferentially bind prorenin, and such binding results in angiotensin generation, most likely because binding results in prorenin activation. ..
  9. Beyazit Y, Aksu S, Haznedaroglu I, Kekilli M, Misirlioglu M, Tuncer S, et al. Overexpression of the local bone marrow renin-angiotensin system in acute myeloid leukemia. J Natl Med Assoc. 2007;99:57-63 pubmed
  10. Rebas E, Zabczyńska J, Lachowicz A. The effect of angiotensin 1-7 on tyrosine kinases activity in rat anterior pituitary. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;347:581-5 pubmed
    ..The presence of PD123319 together with Ang 1-7 caused stronger inhibition PTKs activity than Ang 1-7 alone. These observations suggest that Ang 1-7 binds to the novel, unknown, specific for this peptide receptor. ..
  11. Senanayake P, Smeby R, Martins A, Moriguchi A, Kumagai H, Ganten D, et al. Adrenal, kidney, and heart angiotensins in female murine Ren-2 transfected hypertensive rats. Peptides. 1998;19:1685-94 pubmed
    ..In SD and transgenic rats kidney and adrenal angiotensins increased primarily during estrus or proestrus...
  12. De Mello W. Effect of extracellular and intracellular angiotensins on heart cell function; on the cardiac renin-angiotensin system. Regul Pept. 2003;114:87-90 pubmed
    In this manuscript, I presented up-to-date evidence that intracellular and extracellular angiotensins have an important regulatory effect on the processes of heart cell communication and inward calcium current and that aldosterone ..
  13. Valdes G, Germain A, Corthorn J, Berrios C, Foradori A, Ferrario C, et al. Urinary vasodilator and vasoconstrictor angiotensins during menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and lactation. Endocrine. 2001;16:117-22 pubmed
    ..49,p < 0.001). The progressive rise of Ang-(1-7) throughout gestation, probably modulated by estrogen and progesterone, suggests a physiologic counterregulation within the RAAS. ..
  14. Pawlikowski M, Mełeń Mucha G, Mucha S. The involvement of angiotensins in the control of prostatic epithelial cell proliferation in the rat. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2001;39:341-3 pubmed
    The effects of captopril (the inhibitor of the angiotensin-converting enzyme) and of angiotensins II and IV (3-8 fragment of angiotensin II) on cell proliferation of the prostatic epithelium was investigated in the rat...
  15. Okamura T, Clemens D, Inagami T. Renin, angiotensins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme in neuroblastoma cells: evidence for intracellular formation of angiotensins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:6940-3 pubmed
    ..19), angiotensin-converting enzyme (dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase; peptidyldipeptide hydrolase, EC, and angiotensins I and II...
  16. van den Eijnden M, Saris J, de Bruin R, de Wit E, Sluiter W, Reudelhuber T, et al. Prorenin accumulation and activation in human endothelial cells: importance of mannose 6-phosphate receptors. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21:911-6 pubmed
    ..Most likely, therefore, in the absence of angiotensinogen synthesis or endocytosis, M6P receptor-mediated prorenin internalization by endothelial cells represents prorenin clearance. ..
  17. Ino K, Shibata K, Kajiyama H, Nawa A, Nomura S, Kikkawa F. Manipulating the angiotensin system--new approaches to the treatment of solid tumours. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2006;6:243-55 pubmed
  18. Lienau J, Schmidt Bleek K, Peters A, Haschke F, Duda G, Perka C, et al. Differential regulation of blood vessel formation between standard and delayed bone healing. J Orthop Res. 2009;27:1133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates for the first time a differential regulation of blood vessel formation between standard and mechanically induced delayed healing in a sheep osteotomy model. ..
  19. Kooperberg C, Bis J, Marciante K, Heckbert S, Lumley T, Psaty B. Logic regression for analysis of the association between genetic variation in the renin-angiotensin system and myocardial infarction or stroke. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:334-43 pubmed
  20. Vlasenko R, Kotov A. [Effector peptides of the brain renin-angiotensin system in central mechanisms of learned and natural forms of drinking behavior in rats]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2006;56:102-10 pubmed
    ..b>Angiotensins modulated specific forms of thirst-associated behavior such as exploring, grooming, and ingestive behavior...
  21. Monkkonen L, Edgar J, Winters D, Heron S, Mackay C, Masselon C, et al. Screen-printed digital microfluidics combined with surface acoustic wave nebulization for hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1439:161-166 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, using SAWN-MS alone, the global HDX kinetics of ubiquitin were found to be similar to published NMR data and back exchange rates for the uncooled apparatus using high inlet capillary temperatures was less than 6%. ..
  22. Daugherty A, Poduri A, Chen X, Lu H, Cassis L. Genetic variants of the Renin Angiotensin system: effects on atherosclerosis in experimental models and humans. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2010;12:167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Few studies have reported links of genetic variants of angiotensin II receptors to human atherosclerotic diseases. Further genetic studies are needed to define the role of RAS in atherosclerosis. ..
  23. Hackam D, Duong Hua M, Mamdani M, Li P, Tobe S, Spence J, et al. Angiotensin inhibition in renovascular disease: a population-based cohort study. Am Heart J. 2008;156:549-55 pubmed publisher
    ..If the latter are selected in the management of RVD, renal function parameters should be assiduously followed. ..
  24. Sakamaki R, Uemoto M, Inui A, Asakawa A, Ueno N, Ishibashi C, et al. Melanin-concentrating hormone enhances sucrose intake. Int J Mol Med. 2005;15:1033-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that MCH may be an important regulator of sugar intake in normal as well as in obese diabetic animals. ..
  25. Helske S, Kupari M, Lindstedt K, Kovanen P. Aortic valve stenosis: an active atheroinflammatory process. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007;18:483-91 pubmed
    ..Evidence from prospective clinical studies is eagerly awaited. ..
  26. Augoustides J. Letter by Augoustides regarding article "Aprotinin does not increase the risk of renal failure in cardiac surgery patients". Circulation. 2008;117:e474; author reply e476 pubmed publisher
  27. Gard P, Rusted J. Angiotensin and Alzheimer's disease: therapeutic prospects. Expert Rev Neurother. 2004;4:87-96 pubmed
  28. Yasue S, Ebihara K, Nakao K. [Adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system in obese]. Nihon Rinsho. 2012;70:1550-5 pubmed
    ..We reported that adipose tissue-derived AGT is substantially augmented in obesity and may contribute to hypertension in humans, thereby highlighting a pivotal role of A-RAS in systemic RAS activation and resultant metabolic derangement. ..
  29. Ribeiro A, Palomino Z, Lima M, Souza L, Ferreira D, Pesquero J, et al. Characterization of the renal renin-angiotensin system in transgenic mice that express rat tonin. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2015;16:947-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang(1-7)) and Ang I levels were significantly lower in the TGM`(rTon). We suggest that the environment of tonin abundance may increase N-domain ACE activity liberated by a secretase able to cleave somatic ACE. ..
  30. Wilkinson Berka J. Diabetes and retinal vascular disorders: role of the renin-angiotensin system. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2004;6:1-18 pubmed
    ..This review examines the role of the RAS in diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, and the potential of RAS blockade as a treatment strategy for these vision-threatening diseases. ..
  31. Joglar B, Rodriguez Pallares J, Rodriguez Perez A, Rey P, Guerra M, Labandeira Garcia J. The inflammatory response in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease is mediated by brain angiotensin: relevance to progression of the disease. J Neurochem. 2009;109:656-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The brain angiotensin system may play a key role in the self-propelling mechanism of Parkinson's disease and constitutes an unexplored target for neuroprotection, as previously reported for vascular diseases. ..
  32. Mori J, Zhang L, Oudit G, Lopaschuk G. Impact of the renin-angiotensin system on cardiac energy metabolism in heart failure. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013;63:98-106 pubmed publisher
  33. Toshboltaeva S, Murtazina E. Role of serum renin and aldosterone in animal adaptation to high-altitude conditions. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011;150:557-8 pubmed
  34. Szafranek A, Jasinski M, Kolowca M, Gemel M, Wos S. Plasma ANP and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system as new parameters describing the hemodynamics of the circulatory system after implantation of stented or stentless aortic valves. J Heart Valve Dis. 2006;15:702-8; discussion 709 pubmed
    ..Natriuretic peptides appear to provide more sensitive (long-term) but less specific (short-term) assessment of circulatory system behavior than echocardiography. ..
  35. Kitos T, Drobnies A, Ng M, Wen Y, Cornell R. Contribution of lipid mediators to the regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by angiotensin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761:261-71 pubmed
    ..These results do not provide support for lipid mediators as direct stimulators of CCT and PC synthesis downstream of angiotensin, but give rise to the idea that angiotensin effects might be mediated via ERK1/2. ..
  36. Marin M, Máñez S. Pharmacological interventions on asymmetric dimethylarginine, a clinical marker of vascular disease. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:714-24 pubmed
    ..We have thus analyzed the mechanisms involved and reviewed potential trends in the therapeutic use of these drugs. ..
  37. Wong A, Zhou D, Rini J. The X-ray crystal structure of human aminopeptidase N reveals a novel dimer and the basis for peptide processing. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:36804-13 pubmed publisher
  38. Peterman S, Dufresne C, Horning S. The use of a hybrid linear trap/FT-ICR mass spectrometer for on-line high resolution/high mass accuracy bottom-up sequencing. J Biomol Tech. 2005;16:112-24 pubmed
    ..Comparisons of protein sequence coverage are presented for product ion detection in the linear trap and ICR cell. ..
  39. Lee S, Chu C, Huang E, Lu M, Liu J, Liu C, et al. Roles of insulin-like growth factor II in cardiomyoblast apoptosis and in hypertensive rat heart with abdominal aorta ligation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291:E306-14 pubmed
    ..The increased cardiac IGF-II, IGF-IIR, caspase 9, and cellular apoptosis were also found in hypertensive rats with abdominal aorta ligation...
  40. Lai C, Ng D, Pang H, Le Blanc J, Hager J, Fang D, et al. Laser-induced dissociation of singly protonated peptides at 193 and 266 nm within a hybrid linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2013;27:1119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..LID of [M+H](+) ions results in fragmentation channels that are comparable with those observed upon the CID of M(•+) ions, with a range of fascinating radical-induced fragmentations. ..
  41. Tolekova A, Hadzhibozheva P, Iliev R, Georgiev C, Trifonova K, Sandeva R, et al. Participation of extracellular Ca(2+) or ghrelin in peptide-mediated contraction of strips from rat urinary bladder. Regul Pept. 2010;162:79-83 pubmed publisher
    Many neuropeptides, like angiotensins and vasopressin, are involved in the regulation of urinary bladder contractile activity. They activate the inositol-triphosphate signal pathway and increase intracellular calcium concentration...
  42. Nguyen G. The (pro)renin receptor: pathophysiological roles in cardiovascular and renal pathology. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2007;16:129-33 pubmed
    ..The data also questioned the ability of soon available renin inhibitors to inhibit the activity of receptor-bound renin and prorenin, and the benefit of a new class of drug--(pro)renin receptor blockers--to prevent tissue damage. ..
  43. Zhu Y, Fang Q. Integrated droplet analysis system with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry using a hydrophilic tongue-based droplet extraction interface. Anal Chem. 2010;82:8361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2% RSD (n = 7) were obtained. The present device was further applied in the online monitoring of droplet-based microreaction for alkylation of peptide. ..
  44. Wong M, Takei Y. Molecular and evolutionary perspectives of the renin-angiotensin system from lamprey. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;257:137-142 pubmed publisher
    ..on the renin-angiotensin system in lamprey were summarized and we emphasized that presence of two types of angiotensins (Angs) in lamprey...
  45. Takenaka T, Mimura T, Kanno Y, Suzuki H. Qualification of arterial stiffness as a risk factor to the progression of chronic kidney diseases. Am J Nephrol. 2005;25:417-24 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results suggest that in addition to angiotensin, AI is a risk factor of progression of non-diabetic CKDs. ..
  46. Brosnihan K, Neves L, Chappell M. Does the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/ACE2 balance contribute to the fate of angiotensin peptides in programmed hypertension?. Hypertension. 2005;46:1097-9 pubmed
  47. Kazama K, Okada M, Hara Y, Yamawaki H. A novel adipocytokine, omentin, inhibits agonists-induced increases of blood pressure in rats. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:1029-34 pubmed
    ..In summary, we for the first time demonstrated that omentin inhibited agonists-induced increases in BP. The effect of omentin was suggested to be mediated likely via NO-dependent mechanism. ..
  48. Isa K, Garcia Espinosa M, Arnold A, Pirro N, Tommasi E, Ganten D, et al. Chronic immunoneutralization of brain angiotensin-(1-12) lowers blood pressure in transgenic (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R111-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The antihypertensive effects produced by endogenous neutralization of brain ANG-(1-12) suggest that ANG-(1-12) is functionally active in brain pathways regulating blood pressure. ..
  49. Bidani A, Griffin K. The benefits of renin-angiotensin blockade in hypertension are dependent on blood-pressure lowering. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2006;2:542-3 pubmed
  50. Takeda S, Sato N, Ogihara T, Morishita R. The renin-angiotensin system, hypertension and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: new therapeutic potential. Front Biosci. 2008;13:2253-65 pubmed
  51. DE Azevedo Delou J, Lopes A, Capella M. Effects of Angiotensin, vasopressin and aldosterone on proliferation of mcf-7 cells and their sensitivity to Doxorubicin. Anticancer Res. 2014;34:1843-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they increased intracellular doxorubicin accumulation, which could increase cytotoxicity. ..
  52. Gradman A, Pinto R. Vaccination: a novel strategy for inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2008;10:473-9 pubmed
    ..No serious adverse events were attributed to vaccine administration. Although questions remain regarding efficacy and safety, RAAS immunization represents an innovative and promising approach to hypertension treatment. ..
  53. Park J, Lee S, Cui W, Kim S, Koh G, Cho K. Activity of angiotensin peptides in clitoral cavernosum of alloxan induced diabetic rabbit. Eur Urol. 2005;48:1042-50 pubmed
    ..Enhancement of contractility in diabetic clitoral cavernosum may be related to the increased affinity to ANG II receptors for ANG peptides. ..
  54. Safar M. Pulse pressure and dual angiotensin blockade. Am J Hypertens. 2008;21:133 pubmed publisher
  55. Husková Z, Vaneckova I, Cervenka L. [The renin-angiotensin system]. Cesk Fysiol. 2006;55:138-47 pubmed
  56. Herath C, Warner F, Lubel J, Dean R, Jia Z, Lew R, et al. Upregulation of hepatic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin-(1-7) levels in experimental biliary fibrosis. J Hepatol. 2007;47:387-95 pubmed
    ..These results support the presence of an ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis in liver injury which may counteract the effects of angiotensin II. ..
  57. Shukla A, Kim J, Ahn S, Xiao K, Shenoy S, Liedtke W, et al. Arresting a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel: beta-arrestin 1 mediates ubiquitination and functional down-regulation of TRPV4. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:30115-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data provide the first evidence of a functional link between ?-arrestins and TRPV4 and uncovers an entirely novel mechanism to maintain appropriate intracellular Ca(2+) concentration to avoid excessive Ca(2+) signaling. ..
  58. Chikhladze N, Samedova K, Sudomoina M, Min K, Koliadina I, Litonova G, et al. [Comparative genetic analysis of different forms of low-renin arterial hypertension]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2008;42:588-98 pubmed
  59. Moynihan J, Moore H. Endocrine system dynamics and MS epidemiology. Med Hypotheses. 2010;74:814-7 pubmed publisher
  60. Slany J. [Hypertension and overweight]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2008;158:370-2 pubmed publisher
  61. Gabriel V. Transforming growth factor-beta and angiotensin in fibrosis and burn injuries. J Burn Care Res. 2009;30:471-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment and research implications are reviewed. The interaction between AT II and TGF-beta leading to fibrosis is well described in some human diseases. This pathway may be of importance in human burn scarring as well. ..
  62. Zhu Y, Pan J, Su Y, He Q, Fang Q. Fabrication of low-melting-point alloy microelectrode and monolithic spray tip for integration of glass chip with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Talanta. 2010;81:1069-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The performance of the emitter was evaluated in the analysis of reserpine, angiotensin II and myoglobin. A continuous experiment over 6h demonstrated good stability of the present system in long-term analysis. ..
  63. Entschladen F, Bastian P, Niggemann B, Zaenker K, Lang K. Inhibition of cell migration via G protein-coupled receptors to opioid peptides and angiotensin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1028:320-8 pubmed
  64. Mahrouf M, Ouslimani N, Peynet J, Djelidi R, Couturier M, Therond P, et al. Metformin reduces angiotensin-mediated intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in endothelial cells through the inhibition of protein kinase C. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;72:176-83 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that metformin exerted intracellular antioxidant properties by decreasing ROS production through the inhibition of PKC activity. ..
  65. Ptasinska Wnuk D, Mucha S, Lawnicka H, Fryczak J, Kunert Radek J, Pawlikowski M, et al. The effects of angiotensin peptides and angiotensin receptor antagonists on the cell growth and angiogenic activity of GH3 lactosomatotroph cells in vitro. Endocrine. 2012;42:88-96 pubmed publisher
    The local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is present in the pituitary gland, and inhibitory effects of angiotensins on the lactosomatotroph (GH3) cell growth have been revealed...
  66. Kayhan Z, Aldemir D, Mutlu H, Ogus E. Which is responsible for the haemodynamic response due to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation? Catecholamines, vasopressin or angiotensin?. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2005;22:780-5 pubmed
  67. Kuniyoshi A, Rocha M, Cajado Carvalho D, Juliano M, Juliano Neto L, Tambourgi D, et al. Angiotensin-degrading serine peptidase: a new chymotrypsin-like activity in the venom of Bothrops jararaca partially blocked by the commercial antivenom. Toxicon. 2012;59:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the antivenom presented a good neutralization of metallo peptidases but not of serine peptidases, indicating that further studies about serine peptidases immunogenicity are necessary to improve the antibothropic serum...
  68. Nishikaze T, Takayama M. Influence of charge state and amino acid composition on hydrogen transfer in electron capture dissociation of peptides. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2010;21:1979-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The extent of hydrogen transfer is discussed from the viewpoints of the structure of peptide ions, the possibility of internal hydrogen bonding and intermediate lifetime of complex [c' + z(·)]. ..
  69. Michel M, Hahntow I, Koopmans R. Multiple gene approaches to delineate the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in nephropathy. J Hypertens. 2005;23:269-72 pubmed
  70. Winiecka I, Jaworski P, Mazurek A, Marszałek D, Goldnik A, Sokulski D. Novel renin inhibitors containing derivatives of N-alkylleucyl-?-hydroxy-?-amino acids. J Pept Sci. 2016;22:106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The compound Boc-Phe(4-OMe)-MeLeu-AHPPA-Ahx-Iaa proved to be the most active (IC50?= 1.05 × 10(-9) M). The compounds Boc-Phe(4-OMe)-MeLeu-AHGHA-Ahx-Iaa and Boc-Phe(4-OMe)-MeLeu-AHPPA-Ahx-Iaa are resistant to chymotrypsin. ..
  71. Vallon V, Wyatt A, Klingel K, Huang D, Hussain A, Berchtold S, et al. SGK1-dependent cardiac CTGF formation and fibrosis following DOCA treatment. J Mol Med (Berl). 2006;84:396-404 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that SGK1 plays a decisive role in mineralocorticoid-induced CTGF expression and cardiac fibrosis. ..
  72. Charlton S, Whetstone J, Fayinka S, Read K, Illum L, Davis S. Evaluation of direct transport pathways of glycine receptor antagonists and an angiotensin antagonist from the nasal cavity to the central nervous system in the rat model. Pharm Res. 2008;25:1531-43 pubmed publisher
    ..It is proposed that the drug moved through the neuro-olfactory system, primarily via paracellular pathways. ..
  73. Schwacke J, Spainhour J, Ierardi J, Chaves J, Arthur J, Janech M, et al. Network modeling reveals steps in angiotensin peptide processing. Hypertension. 2013;61:690-700 pubmed publisher
  74. Yanes L, Romero D, Iles J, Iliescu R, Gomez Sanchez C, Reckelhoff J. Sexual dimorphism in the renin-angiotensin system in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R383-90 pubmed
  75. Raji I, Mugabo P, Obikeze K. Effect of Tulbaghia violacea on the blood pressure and heart rate in male spontaneously hypertensive Wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;140:98-106 pubmed publisher
  76. Yang K, Zhang T, Tian C, Jia L, Du J, Li H. Carboxyl terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiac remodeling. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25:994-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..CHIP plays an important role in regulating Ang II-triggered hypertensive cardiac apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. ..
  77. Chevalier R. Mechanisms of fetal and neonatal renal impairment by pharmacologic inhibition of angiotensin. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19:4572-80 pubmed
  78. Zhu F, Zhou Z, Liao Y. The renin-angiotensin system and therapeutic vaccines for hypertension. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2008;9:286-94 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the RAS as a target for the development of a hypertension vaccine, and evaluates the safety and efficacy of these vaccines. ..
  79. Burchill L, Velkoska E, Dean R, Griggs K, Patel S, Burrell L. Combination renin-angiotensin system blockade and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in experimental myocardial infarction: implications for future therapeutic directions. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012;123:649-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies that do augment ACE2 after MI may be a useful addition to standard RAS blockade after MI. ..
  80. Milei J. Alberto C. Taquini and the 'links' that led to the discovery of angiotensin: on the 100th anniversary of his birth. J Hypertens. 2005;23:1267-9 pubmed
  81. Karamyan V, Stockmeier C, Speth R. Human brain contains a novel non-AT1, non-AT2 binding site for active angiotensin peptides. Life Sci. 2008;83:421-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the novel non-AT1, non-AT2 binding site for angiotensins recently discovered in rodent brains occurs in the human brain...
  82. Frossard J, Mastrangelo D, Hadengue A, Pastor C. Hsp70 does not mediate the hyperthermia-associated hyporesponsiveness to angiotensin in isolated rat portal veins. Life Sci. 2005;78:41-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, hyperthermia increases Hsp70 expression but does not mediate the decreased response to AT(II). Hsp70 overexpression has no effect on the actin-myosin interaction in vascular smooth muscle. ..
  83. Madeddu P, Emanueli C, El Dahr S. Mechanisms of disease: the tissue kallikrein-kinin system in hypertension and vascular remodeling. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2007;3:208-21 pubmed
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