Summary: A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.

Top Publications

  1. Hoepfl B, Rodenwaldt B, Pohl U, de Wit C. EDHF, but not NO or prostaglandins, is critical to evoke a conducted dilation upon ACh in hamster arterioles. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;283:H996-H1004 pubmed
  2. Nishibori M, Takahashi H, Mori S. The regulation of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 interaction by autacoids and statins: a novel strategy for controlling inflammation and immune responses. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003;92:7-12 pubmed
    ..The regulation of interaction mediated by adhesion molecules may provide a new target for controlling inflammatory and immune responses. ..
  3. Schwartzman M, Iserovich P, Gotlinger K, Bellner L, Dunn M, Sartore M, et al. Profile of lipid and protein autacoids in diabetic vitreous correlates with the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2010;59:1780-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate diabetes-specific changes in vitreous lipid autacoids including arachidonate and docosahexanoate-derived metabolites indicating an increase in inflammatory versus ..
  4. Leedom A, Sullivan A, Dong B, Lau D, Gronert K. Endogenous LXA4 circuits are determinants of pathological angiogenesis in response to chronic injury. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our findings and the prominent expression of 15-LOX and ALX in epithelial cells and macrophages place the LXA(4) circuit as an endogenous regulator of pathological angiogenesis. ..
  5. Serhan C, Yang R, Martinod K, Kasuga K, Pillai P, Porter T, et al. Maresins: novel macrophage mediators with potent antiinflammatory and proresolving actions. J Exp Med. 2009;206:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that maresins and this new metabolome may be involved in some of the beneficial actions of DHA and MPhis in tissue homeostasis, inflammation resolution, wound healing, and host defense. ..
  6. Walters W. Autacoids affecting vascular tone in the human fetal extracorporeal circulation. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1992;19:3-8 pubmed
    ..2. As this vasculature lacks innervation, autacoids have been postulated as being of great importance in controlling its tone. 3...
  7. Vanhoutte P. Endothelial adrenoceptors. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2001;38:796-808 pubmed
    ..Several beta-adrenergic blockers cause endothelium-dependent relaxation in vitro or augment the production of nitric oxide in vivo. However, these responses cannot be attributed to interactions with endothelial beta-adrenoceptors. ..
  8. Zielinski G, Podgórski J, Koziarski A, Siwik J, Zgliczynski W, Wieliczko W. [Preoperative administration of a slow releasing somatostatin analog (SR-lanreotide, BIM 23014) in patients with acromegaly in the course of GH-releasing adenoma]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2001;35:423-37 pubmed
    ..Lanreotide pretreatment significantly decreased mean serum GH and IGF-I level, shrinks the tumour and make it much softer and easier to be removed. ..
  9. Kondomerkos D, Kalamidas S, Kotoulas O. In vitro effects of hormones and autacoids on the activity of acid phosphatase in the lysates of endotoxin-activated rat peritoneal and bronchoalveolar macrophages. Histol Histopathol. 2003;18:1103-13 pubmed publisher endotoxin, exhibit alterations in the acid phosphatase activity of cell lysates when certain hormones or autacoids are present in the culture medium...

More Information


  1. Budsberg S. Outcome assessment in clinical trials involving medical management of osteoarthritis in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1997;27:815-23 pubmed
  2. Kolbel F, Schreiber V. Three autacoids--endogenous digitalis-like factor, clonidine-displacing substance, and quinidine-like immunoreactivity. Sb Lek. 1995;96:405-15 pubmed
    ..Its chemical formula was recently identified as agmatine. The potential presence of further autacoids like, e.g. endogenous quinidine-like substance remains to be clarified.
  3. Gutkina O, Natochin I. [Study of autacoids role in the regulation of circadian rhythm of the human renal function]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2005;91:1338-46 pubmed
    ..The obtained data are considered as an evidence for the role of renal autacoids, alongside with vasopressin, in regulation of the circadian rhythm of the kidney function.
  4. Hagopian G, Hoover D, Markham J. Teratology studies of compound LY171883 administered orally to rats and rabbits. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1988;10:672-81 pubmed
    ..LY171883 did not cause embryo/fetal toxicity or teratogenicity in rats or rabbits at doses up to and including those that were maternally toxic. ..
  5. Jauchem J. The role of autacoids and the autonomic nervous system in cardiovascular responses to radio-frequency energy heating. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2006;26:121-40 pubmed
    ..Release of autacoids and activity of the autonomic nervous system may influence (or be directly responsible for) some of the ..
  6. Bito L. A physiological approach to glaucoma management: the use of local hormones and the pharmacokinetics of prostaglandin esters. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989;312:329-47 pubmed
    ..naturally occurring ocular hypotensive agents, or at least agents that closely resemble such naturally occurring autacoids. Based on the temporal and spatial limitations of the various classes of receptor-mediated autacoids and on ..
  7. Stjernschantz J, Bito L. The ocular effects of eicosanoids and other autacoids: historic background and the need for a broader perspective. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989;312:1-13 pubmed
    ..has greatly hindered efforts to determine the specific ocular functions of each member of this family of autacoids. Furthermore, the absence of high-affinity ligands that are specific for individual eicosanoid receptors has ..
  8. Ohta Y, Kobayashi T, Inui K, Yoshino J, Nakazawa S. Repeated recurrence of gastric mucosal lesions in rats after a single treatment with compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60 Suppl 7:139-48 pubmed
  9. Gronert K. Lipid autacoids in inflammation and injury responses: a matter of privilege. Mol Interv. 2008;8:28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..One mechanism for regulating this duality is provided by lipid autacoids, which act to restrain leukocyte activation and to promote the resolution of inflammation...
  10. Canning B, Farmer D, Mori N. Mechanistic studies of acid-evoked coughing in anesthetized guinea pigs. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R454-63 pubmed
  11. Foxworthy P, Perry D, Hoover D, Eacho P. Changes in hepatic lipid metabolism associated with lipid accumulation and its reversal in rats given the peroxisome proliferator LY171883. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990;106:375-83 pubmed
    ..The more modest increases in fatty acid oxidation in rats given 0.1% LY171883 were not sufficient to reverse the lipid accumulation. ..
  12. Shore S, Stimler Gerard N, Smith E, Drazen J. A formyl peptide contracts guinea pig lung: role of arachidonic acid metabolites. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1987;63:2450-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that thromboxane A2 and leukotriene C4 generated in response to FMLP mediate a substantial fraction of the force induced by this peptide in guinea pig lung parenchymal strips. ..
  13. Huff J. Contact lens-induced edema in vitro. Ion transport and metabolic considerations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990;31:1288-93 pubmed
  14. Wasserman S. The lung mast cell: its physiology and potential relevance to defense of the lung. Environ Health Perspect. 1980;35:153-64 pubmed
  15. Jeon S, Kim J, Kim E, Ahn S, Kim B. Rat model of platelet-activating factor-induced rhinosinusitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2005;114:393-8 pubmed
    ..This rat model of PAF-induced rhinosinusitis may be applied for better understanding of the role of PAF in the pathogenesis of rhinosinusitis. ..
  16. Bartels U, Meyer S, Pündmann I, Rath W, Fleckenstein G, Osmers R, et al. [Reaction of umbilical cord arteries to PGF2 alpha and glycerol trinitrate during the first days post partum]. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch. 1995;35 Suppl 1:80-2 pubmed
    ..There is an increase of the reproducibility of these investigations in the second half of the first day after parturition. The higher standard deviation in the first 6 hours after parturition may be caused by endogenous autacoids.
  17. Bassenge E. Endothelial function in different organs. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1996;39:209-28 pubmed
    ..mediated changes in renal, splenic and hepatic function and in skeletal muscle perfusion) by generating various autacoids such as nitric oxide, prostaglandins, endothelins, hyperpolarizing factors, and so on...
  18. el Sayed A, Haylor J, El Nahas A. Mediators of the direct effects of amino acids on the rat kidney. Clin Sci (Lond). 1991;81:427-32 pubmed
    ..This does not, however, preclude further modification by additional stimuli generated in vivo. ..
  19. Ramsden C, Ringel A, Majchrzak Hong S, Yang J, Blanchard H, ZAMORA D, et al. Dietary linoleic acid-induced alterations in pro- and anti-nociceptive lipid autacoids: Implications for idiopathic pain syndromes?. Mol Pain. 2016;12: pubmed publisher
    ..predispose to physical pain by increasing the production of pro-nociceptive linoleic acid-derived lipid autacoids and by interfering with the production of anti-nociceptive lipid autacoids derived from n-3 fatty acids...
  20. Moore A, Heiderstadt N, Huang E, Howell N, Wang Z, Siragy H, et al. Selective inhibition of the renal angiotensin type 2 receptor increases blood pressure in conscious rats. Hypertension. 2001;37:1285-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the renal AT(2) receptor plays an important role in the regulation of BP via a bradykinin/cGMP vasodilator signaling cascade. ..
  21. Kruszewski J. [Inflammation mediators in asthma treatment]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2002;70 Suppl 1:66-72 pubmed
  22. Maeda Y, Terada Y, Nonoguchi H, Knepper M. Hormone and autacoid regulation of cAMP production in rat IMCD subsegments. Am J Physiol. 1992;263:F319-27 pubmed
    ..We conclude also that an adrenergic alpha 2-receptor is present in both IMCD segments, where its occupation inhibits AVP-induced cAMP production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  23. Biteman B, Hassan I, Walker E, Leedom A, Dunn M, Seta F, et al. Interdependence of lipoxin A4 and heme-oxygenase in counter-regulating inflammation during corneal wound healing. FASEB J. 2007;21:2257-66 pubmed
    ..mechanisms, which account for this striking property, remain to be clearly defined, but they likely include autacoids that control leukocyte activation...
  24. Esenabhalu V, Cerimagic M, Malli R, Osibow K, Levak Frank S, Frieden M, et al. Tissue-specific expression of human lipoprotein lipase in the vascular system affects vascular reactivity in transgenic mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;135:143-54 pubmed
    ..Thus, vascular LPL activity might represent a primary risk factor for atherosclerosis independently from cholesterol/LDL levels. ..
  25. Fredman G, Serhan C. Specialized proresolving mediator targets for RvE1 and RvD1 in peripheral blood and mechanisms of resolution. Biochem J. 2011;437:185-97 pubmed publisher a biochemically active process regulated in part by endogenous PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)-derived autacoids. Among these are a novel genus of SPMs (specialized proresolving mediators) that comprise novel families of ..
  26. KANE M, Folias A, Pingitore A, Perri M, Obrochta K, Krois C, et al. Identification of 9-cis-retinoic acid as a pancreas-specific autacoid that attenuates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21884-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish 9cRA as a pancreas-specific autacoid with multiple mechanisms of action and provide unique insight into GSIS. ..
  27. Kawamura K. [Can serum testosterone level measurement extend the intervals of administration of a long-acting LHRH agonist ?]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2010;56:301-4 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that using serum testosterone to guide LH-RH hormone dosing is efficacious and cost-effective. ..
  28. Wong A, Klassen G. A model of cytosolic calcium regulation and autacoids production in vascular endothelial cell. Basic Res Cardiol. 1992;87:317-32 pubmed
    ..The model explains satisfactorily the Ca2+ transient and autacoids production of the aortic endothelial cell without the need of calcium influx from extracellular space...
  29. Hoshino K, Kumasaka T. [Contractile responsiveness of the isolated guinea pig oviduct to autacoids at different phases of the sexual cycle or under ovarian steroid treatment]. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1991;43:429-36 pubmed
    Contraction of the longitudinal smooth muscle of the isolated guinea pig oviduct in response to autacoids was examined at different phases of the sex cycle or during ovarian steroid treatments...
  30. Ungar A, Castellani S, Di Serio C, Cantini C, Cristofari C, Vallotti B, et al. Changes in renal autacoids and hemodynamics associated with aging and isolated systolic hypertension. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2000;62:117-33 pubmed
    ..Further studies will elucidate whether antihypertensive treatment per se, or specific classes of antihypertensive drugs, are able to revert this impairment. ..
  31. Papp J. Cardiac responses to drugs at the extremes of age. Therapie. 1991;46:283-91 pubmed
    ..In the elderly human heart, pharmacodynamically-based alterations in responsiveness to drugs have so far been conclusively proven for adrenergic agents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  32. Bendele A, Hoover D, van Lier R, Foxworthy P, Eacho P. Effects of chronic treatment with the leukotriene D4-antagonist compound LY171883 on B6C3F1 mice. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1990;15:676-82 pubmed
    ..Hepatocellular adenomas were increased in females in the high dose group but not in males. All groups of treated females had increased nodular hepatocellular hyperplasia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  33. Ito K, Hayashi K, Nakashima T, Murakami T. Alteration of fate of vasoactive autacoids in pulmonary circulation following monocrotaline-induced lung vascular injury in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1988;94:1167-74 pubmed
    1. To learn how pulmonary vascular injury alters the ability of the lung to metabolize vasoactive autacoids, lung vascular lesions were produced in rats by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (90 mg kg-1), and the blood ..
  34. Kuga T, Ohara Y, Shimokawa H, Ibayashi S, Tomoike H, Takeshita A. Inhibitory effects of aspirin on coronary hyperreactivity to autacoids after arterial balloon injury in miniature pigs. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1995;25:273-81 pubmed
    We examined the effects of aspirin on coronary hyperreactivity to autacoids after arterial balloon injury in miniature pigs...
  35. Day R, Lemaire S, Nadeau D, Keith I, Lemaire I. Changes in autacoid and neuropeptide contents of lung cells in asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987;136:908-15 pubmed
    ..of this study was to determine if asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis in the rat can affect the levels of autacoids and peptides in freshly isolated lung cells...
  36. Spector S, Munjal I, Schmidt D. Endogenous morphine and codeine. Possible role as endogenous anticonvulsants. Brain Res. 2001;915:155-60 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that the endogenous alkaloids morphine and codeine are involved in the modulation of convulsions and that morphine and/or codeine may act as an endogenous anticonvulsant. ..
  37. Bassenge E. Flow-dependent regulation of coronary vasomotor tone. Eur Heart J. 1989;10 Suppl F:22-7 pubmed
    Large coronary artery calibres are regulated by humoral factors (autacoids) released from the endothelial cell lining...
  38. Pearl R, Prielipp R. Leukotriene synthesis inhibition and receptor blockade do not inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in sheep. Anesth Analg. 1991;72:169-76 pubmed
    ..A critical review of the literature supports a modulatory rather than an obligatory role for leukotrienes in HPV. ..
  39. Takahashi T, Sato K, Suzaki N, Goda Y, Takigawa N. [A case of severe bronchial mucosal injury caused by iron pill aspiration]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;48:123-7 pubmed
    ..She recovered and was discharged on day 15. A patient with severe bronchial mucosal injury caused by iron pill aspiration was successfully treated by bronchoscopic removal. ..
  40. Kahn M. [Does the general strategy for the treatment of rheumatoid polyarthritis need to be reviewed?]. Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic. 1990;57:292-6 pubmed
    ..Other fields of research need to be developed, namely on the remission-inducing agents observed during pregnancy. It is still impossible to know which approach will provide the absolute weapon against RA. ..
  41. Olson N, Kruse Elliott K, Johnson L. Effect of LY171883 on endotoxin-induced lung injury in pigs. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1990;69:1315-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that LTD4 and LTE4 are not important mediators of endotoxin-induced lung injury in anesthetized pigs, although they may contribute modestly to pulmonary vasoconstriction. ..
  42. Iwalewa E, Agbani E. Effects of autacoid inhibitors and of an antagonist on malaria infection in mice. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2004;37:1199-204 pubmed
    ..The study reveals that the production of autacoids in established infection renders autacoid inhibitors and an antagonist ineffective for radical cure in malarial ..
  43. Pomposiello S, Yang X, Liu Y, Surakanti M, Rhaleb N, Sevilla M, et al. Autacoids mediate coronary vasoconstriction induced by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1997;30:599-606 pubmed
    ..heart preparation, we tested the hypothesis that this vasoconstriction is caused by the unopposed effect of the autacoids prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) or thromboxane A2 (TxA2) or both through a mechanism that involves oxygen free radicals...
  44. Kondomerkos D, Kalamidas S, Kotoulas O. In vitro effects of hormones and autacoids on the hydrogen peroxide production and the morphology of endotoxin-activated rat peritoneal macrophages. Histol Histopathol. 2003;18:55-65 pubmed publisher
    ..of their capability to produce hydrogen peroxide after phorbol ester stimulation when certain hormones or autacoids are present in the culture medium...
  45. Liu J, Xu Y, Li Y, Xing F. Distribution of substance P-like immunoreactive fibers in feline temporomandibular joint. Chin J Dent Res. 2000;3:31-5 pubmed
    ..These results provide the morphological data for exploring the neurobiological mechanisms of temporomandibular joint disorder and its pain. ..
  46. Tabuchi Y, Kawarabayashi K, Komada T, Furuhama K. Protective effect of DS-4574 on gastric mucosal injury induced by acidified ethanol in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993;250:197-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that DS-4574 possesses protective actions against gastric injury including the reduction of degranulation of mucosal mast cells, which are different from those of LY171883. ..
  47. Kondomerkos D, Kalamidas S, Kotoulas O. Effects of cyclic AMP-elevating hormones and autacoids on LPS-activated rat peritoneal, bronchoalveolar and hepatic (Kupffer) macrophages. Cell Biochem Funct. 2006;24:245-56 pubmed
    ..exhibit alterations in nitric oxide production when certain hormones or other biologically active agents (autacoids) are present in the culture medium...
  48. McNamara P, Johnston S, Todhunter R. Slow-acting, disease-modifying osteoarthritis agents. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1997;27:863-81 pubmed
    ..Until more evidence becomes available, the use of tetracyclines as therapeutic agents for OA should be considered investigational. ..
  49. Tang Z, Wang Y, Xiao Y, Zhao M, Peng S. Anti-thrombotic activity of PDR, a newly synthesized L-Arg derivative, on three thrombosis models in rats. Thromb Res. 2003;110:127-33 pubmed
    ..of PDR in rats ex vivo, anti-thrombotic effects in three thrombosis models in rats and its effect on some autacoids (nitric oxide [NO], thromboxane [TXA2] and prostacyclin [PGI2]) were studied. PDR (i.g...
  50. Gross D, Ben Dahan J, Landau E, Krausz M. Effect of leukotriene inhibitor LY-171883 on the pulmonary response to Escherichia coli endotoxemia. Crit Care Med. 1990;18:190-7 pubmed
    ..5 to 35.2 ml/h (p less than .01), a decrease in PaO2 from 76 to 61 torr (p less than .01), and an increase in pulmonary shunt ratio (Qsp/Qt) from 16% to 31% (p less than .005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  51. Weg V, Watson M, Cordeiro R, Williams T. Histamine, leukotriene D4 and platelet-activating factor in guinea pig passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991;204:157-63 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that these allergic reactions involve several mediators and that the inability of an individual mediator antagonist to reduce responses does not necessarily rule out a role for that mediator. ..
  52. Campbell E, Serhan C, Colgan S. Antimicrobial aspects of inflammatory resolution in the mucosa: a role for proresolving mediators. J Immunol. 2011;187:3475-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These autacoids, derived from ?-6 and ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, are implicated in the initiation, progression, and ..
  53. Canning B. Overview of animal models of asthma. Curr Protoc Pharmacol. 2002;Chapter 5:Unit 5.25 pubmed publisher
    ..This unit provides an overview of animal models of asthma, including definitions, descriptions of available animal models, and discussion of numerous critical issues to consider before designing a model to study this complex disease. ..