Summary: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.

Top Publications

  1. Roy D, McEvoy J, Blonigen M, Amundson M, Khan E. Seasonal variation and ex-situ nitrification activity of ammonia oxidizing archaea in biofilm based wastewater treatment processes. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:850-859 pubmed publisher
    ..In laboratory nitrification activity experiments, ammonia oxidation to nitrite decreased when AOA populations from the NTF and MBBR were ..
  2. Li J, Zhang L, Peng Y, Zhang Q. Effect of low COD/N ratios on stability of single-stage partial nitritation/anammox (SPN/A) process in a long-term operation. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:192-197 pubmed publisher
    ..heterotrophic organisms (OHO) was suppressed when influent COD was absent, leading to the promotion of nitrification even at a low DO (0.2mgL-1)...
  3. Wang J, Gong B, Wang Y, Wen Y, Zhou J, He Q. The potential multiple mechanisms and microbial communities in simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process treating high carbon and nitrogen concentration saline wastewater. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:708-715 pubmed publisher
    A simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process in sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was established to treat high carbon and nitrogen saline wastewater in this study...
  4. Le T, Zeunert S, Lorenz M, Meon G. Multivariate statistical assessment of a polluted river under nitrification inhibition in the tropics. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:13845-13862 pubmed publisher
    ..An important problem of the river is the inhibition of the nitrification. For the evaluation, different statistical techniques including cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (..
  5. Mannina G, Capodici M, Cosenza A, Cinà P, Di Trapani D, Puglia A, et al. Bacterial community structure and removal performances in IFAS-MBRs: A pilot plant case study. J Environ Manage. 2017;198:122-131 pubmed publisher
    ..The achieved nitrification efficiency was close to 98% for most of the experiments, suggesting that the biofilm in the aerobic ..
  6. Wen X, Gong B, Zhou J, He Q, Qing X. Efficient simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) system equipped with a real-time dissolved oxygen (DO) intelligent control system and microbial community shifts of different substrate concentrations. Water Res. 2017;119:201-211 pubmed publisher
    Simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process was studied in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) fed with synthetic wastewater in a range of 2200 mgN/L ? 50 mgN/L...
  7. Mekala C, Nambi I. Understanding the hydrologic control of N cycle: Effect of water filled pore space on heterotrophic nitrification, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium mechanisms in unsaturated soils. J Contam Hydrol. 2017;202:11-22 pubmed publisher
    ..A HYDRUS 2D model with constructed wetland (CW2D) module could simulate aerobic nitrification and anoxic denitrification well for both soils and estimated the reaction kinetics...
  8. Qian W, Peng Y, Li X, Zhang Q, Ma B. The inhibitory effects of free ammonia on ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria under anaerobic condition. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:1247-1250 pubmed publisher
    ..9%, while NOB decreased by 29.2%. After FA anaerobic treatment, nitrite was accumulated during nitrification. However, the nitrite accumulation disappeared on the sixth cycle of activity recovery tests with excessive ..
  9. Qian G, Hu X, Li L, Ye L, Lv W. Effect of iron ions and electric field on nitrification process in the periodic reversal bio-electrocoagulation system. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:382-390 pubmed publisher
    This study explored the nitrification mechanism of a periodic reversal bio-electrocoagulation system with Fe-C electrodes. The ammonia nitrogen removal was compared in four identical cylindrical sequencing bath reactors...

More Information


  1. Zhao J, Feng L, Yang G, Dai J, Mu J. Development of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) in biofilm reactors with partially coupled a novel biodegradable carrier for nitrogen-rich water purification. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:800-809 pubmed publisher
    Development of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) is a promising approach for nitrogen-rich water purification...
  2. Moradi S, Liu S, Chow C, Van Leeuwen J, Cook D, Drikas M, et al. Developing a chloramine decay index to understand nitrification: A case study of two chloraminated drinking water distribution systems. J Environ Sci (China). 2017;57:170-179 pubmed publisher
    The management of chloramine decay and the prevention of nitrification are some of the critical issues faced by water utilities that use chloramine as a disinfectant...
  3. Murray K, Parker W, Bragg L, Servos M. Fate of selected pharmaceutically active compounds in the integrated fixed film activated sludge process. Water Sci Technol. 2017;75:2680-2691 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Nitrification rate testing that was conducted to obtain insight into the biomass activity demonstrated that IFAS ..
  4. Yang Y, Xie L, Tao X, Hu K, Huang S. Municipal wastewater treatment by the bioaugmentation of Bacillus sp. K5 within a sequencing batch reactor. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178837 pubmed publisher
    ..K5 capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) within a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)...
  5. Soldatova E, Guseva N, Sun Z, Bychinsky V, Boeckx P, Gao B. Sources and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the shallow groundwater of agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China). J Contam Hydrol. 2017;202:59-69 pubmed publisher
    ..1‰ to 13.9‰ with an average value of 5.3 permille indicate a significant influence of nitrification on nitrogen balance...
  6. Ilyas H, Masih I. The performance of the intensified constructed wetlands for organic matter and nitrogen removal: A review. J Environ Manage. 2017;198:372-383 pubmed publisher
    ..than continuous aeration, as it facilitates the establishment of aerobic and anaerobic conditions suitable for nitrification and denitrification...
  7. Eduok S, Hendry C, Ferguson R, Martin B, Villa R, Jefferson B, et al. Insights into the effect of mixed engineered nanoparticles on activated sludge performance. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2015;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Competitive growth advantage of the nano-tolerant species influenced the removal processes and unlike other xenobiotic compounds, ENPs can hasten the natural selection of microbial species in AS. ..
  8. Angell I, Hanssen J, Rudi K. Prokaryote species richness is positively correlated with eukaryote abundance in wastewater treatment biofilms. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2017;65:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This study found that prokaryote species richness was nearly three times higher in the aerobe nitrification than in an anaerobe denitrification reactor, coinciding with the highest level of eukaryotes...
  9. Wang Z, Liu X, Ni S, Zhang J, Zhang X, Ahmad H, et al. Weak magnetic field: A powerful strategy to enhance partial nitrification. Water Res. 2017;120:190-198 pubmed publisher
    Partial nitrification (PN) combined with anaerobic ammonium oxidation process has been recognized as a promising technology for the removal of nitrogenous contaminants from wastewater...
  10. Xu Y, He T, Li Z, Ye Q, Chen Y, Xie E, et al. Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of Pseudomonas putida Y-9 Capable of Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification at Low Temperature. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:1429018 pubmed publisher
    ..The strain capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification could efficiently remove ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite at an average removal rate ..
  11. He Q, Gao S, Zhang S, Zhang W, Wang H. Chronic responses of aerobic granules to zinc oxide nanoparticles in a sequencing batch reactor performing simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that ZnO NPs stimulated COD removal, whereas caused inhibition to both nitrification and denitrification. However, biological phosphorus removal remained effective and stable...
  12. Boiocchi R, Gernaey K, Sin G. A novel fuzzy-logic control strategy minimizing N2O emissions. Water Res. 2017;123:479-494 pubmed publisher
    ..More specifically, the ratio will indicate if there is a complete nitrification. In case nitrification is not complete, the controller will adjust the aeration level of the plant in order to ..
  13. Zhang M, Bai S, Tang L, Zhang Y, Teng Y, Xu Z. Linking potential nitrification rates, nitrogen cycling genes and soil properties after remediating the agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metal and fungicide. Chemosphere. 2017;184:892-899 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to evaluate changes of soil properties, potential nitrification rates (PNRs), and functional gene abundances and link their relationships after remediating co-contaminated ..
  14. Ma W, Han Y, Ma W, Han H, Zhu H, Xu C, et al. Enhanced nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in an oxygen-limited aeration sequencing batch biofilm reactor. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:84-91 pubmed publisher
    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) for treating coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was achieved successfully in a lab-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) by oxygen-limited aeration...
  15. Wang B, Gu Y, Chen J, Yao Q, Li H, Peng D, et al. Is polymeric substrate in influent an indirect impetus for the nitrification process in an activated sludge system?. Chemosphere. 2017;177:128-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, some links between PS and nitrification process can be expected...
  16. He Q, Zhou J, Song Q, Zhang W, Wang H, Liu L. Elucidation of microbial characterization of aerobic granules in a sequencing batch reactor performing simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal at varying carbon to phosphorus ratios. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:127-133 pubmed publisher
    An aerobic granules simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR) system was evaluated in terms of the reactor performance and microbial population dynamics with decreasing C/P ratios from 50 to 16...
  17. Kirchman D. Marine archaea take a short cut in the nitrogen cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:17732-3 pubmed publisher
  18. Young B, Delatolla R, Kennedy K, Laflamme E, Stintzi A. Post carbon removal nitrifying MBBR operation at high loading and exposure to starvation conditions. Bioresour Technol. 2017;239:318-325 pubmed publisher
    ..During starvation conditions, the relative abundance of AOBs decreased and Nitrospira increased corresponding to an NOB/AOB ratio of 5.2-12.1. ..
  19. Tatari K, Gulay A, Thamdrup B, Albrechtsen H, Smets B. Challenges in using allylthiourea and chlorate as specific nitrification inhibitors. Chemosphere. 2017;182:301-305 pubmed publisher
  20. He T, Xie D, Li Z, Ni J, Sun Q. Ammonium stimulates nitrate reduction during simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process by Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10. Bioresour Technol. 2017;239:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..All experimental results indicated that A. arilaitensis Y-10 could remove ammonium, nitrate and nitrite at 15°C from wastewater, and could also perform simultaneous nitrification and denitrification under aerobic condition.
  21. Li J, Huang B, Wang Q, Li Y, Fang W, Yan D, et al. Effect of fumigation with chloropicrin on soil bacterial communities and genes encoding key enzymes involved in nitrogen cycling. Environ Pollut. 2017;227:534-542 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides useful information for environmental safety assessments of CP in China. ..
  22. Dong Q, Liu Y, Shi H, Huang X. Effects of graphite nanoparticles on nitrification in an activated sludge system. Chemosphere. 2017;182:231-237 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the effects of GNPs on the nitrification process in activated sludge systems should be addressed...
  23. Rout P, Bhunia P, Dash R. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen and phosphorous from domestic wastewater using Bacillus cereus GS-5 strain exhibiting heterotrophic nitrification, aerobic denitrification and denitrifying phosphorous removal. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:484-495 pubmed publisher
    A newly isolated GS-5 strain exhibiting heterotrophic nitrification, aerobic denitrification and denitrifying phosphorous removal was identified as Bacillus cereus GS-5 based on its phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics...
  24. Scarascia G, Cheng H, Harb M, Hong P. Application of hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE) to assess relative abundances of ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:85 pubmed publisher
    ..nitrite oxidizers (comammox) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), is important for ensuring the efficiency of nitrification in water treatment systems...
  25. Zhang S, Huang Z, Lu S, Zheng J, Zhang X. Nutrients removal and bacterial community structure for low C/N municipal wastewater using a modified anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (mA2/O) process in North China. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:975-985 pubmed publisher
    ..93%), suggested that Nitrosospira performed well under low temperature for nitrification. Additionally, both known Rhodocyclus-related PAOs and GAOs Competibacter were not detected possibly due to ..
  26. Chen J, Ying G, Liu Y, Wei X, Liu S, He L, et al. Nitrogen removal and its relationship with the nitrogen-cycle genes and microorganisms in the horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with different design parameters. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2017;52:804-818 pubmed publisher
    ..mesocosm-scale CWs were incapable to achieve high removals of TN and NH3-N due to inefficient nitrification process in the systems...
  27. De Mandal S, Chatterjee R, Kumar N. Dominant bacterial phyla in caves and their predicted functional roles in C and N cycle. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:90 pubmed publisher
    ..4%) in the KEGG pathways. Genes responsible for carbon degradation, carbon fixation, methane metabolism, nitrification, nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation were also predicted in the present study...
  28. Sun N, Ge C, Ahmad H, Gao B, Ni S. Realization of microbial community stratification for single-stage nitrogen removal in a sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:681-691 pubmed publisher
    A permanent microbial stratified nitrogen removal system coupling anammox with partial nitrification (SNAP) in a sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor (SBBGR) was successfully constructed for the treatment of ammonia-rich ..
  29. Jia Y, Khanal S, Zhang H, Chen G, Lu H. Sulfamethoxazole degradation in anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria sludge system. Water Res. 2017;119:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, SRB sludge system could play an important role in SMX biodegradation, especially in Sulfate-reduction Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated (SANI) process for sewage treatment.
  30. Zhang S, Sun X, Fan Y, Qiu T, Gao M, Wang X. Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by Diaphorobacter polyhydroxybutyrativorans SL-205 using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) as the sole carbon source. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:500-507 pubmed publisher
    ..SL-205 can utilize nitrate and nitrite for denitrification and ammonium for nitrification using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as the carbon source under aerobic conditions...
  31. Yang Y, Chen Z, Wang X, Zheng L, Gu X. Partial nitrification performance and mechanism of zeolite biological aerated filter for ammonium wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:473-481 pubmed publisher
    ..biological aerated filter (ZBAF) with continuous feeding was successfully applied for achieving stable partial nitrification. Excellent nitrite accumulation (higher than 98...
  32. Coskun D, Britto D, Shi W, Kronzucker H. Nitrogen transformations in modern agriculture and the role of biological nitrification inhibition. Nat Plants. 2017;3:17074 pubmed publisher
    ..These losses are driven by volatilization of NH3 and by a matrix of nitrification and denitrification reactions catalysed by soil microorganisms (chiefly bacteria and archaea)...
  33. Wang G, Xu X, Zhou L, Wang C, Yang F. A pilot-scale study on the start-up of partial nitrification-anammox process for anaerobic sludge digester liquor treatment. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:181-189 pubmed publisher
    Treatment of sludge digester liquor was successfully accomplished using a pilot-scale partial nitrification-anammox (PN/A) reactor with a nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 1.23kgN/m3/d...
  34. Dong H, Zhang K, Han X, Du B, Wei Q, Wei D. Achievement, performance and characteristics of microbial products in a partial nitrification sequencing batch reactor as a pretreatment for anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Chemosphere. 2017;183:212-218 pubmed publisher
    ..was carried out to evaluate achievement, performance and characteristics of microbial products in a partial nitrification sequencing batch reactor as a pretreatment for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox)...
  35. Fan H, Qi L, Liu G, Zhang Y, Fan Q, Wang H. Aeration optimization through operation at low dissolved oxygen concentrations: Evaluation of oxygen mass transfer dynamics in different activated sludge systems. J Environ Sci (China). 2017;55:224-235 pubmed publisher
    ..than those cultivated under high DO conditions, as indicated by the oxygen half-saturation constant and nitrification ability...
  36. Zhang J, Zhang Q, Li X, Miao Y, Sun Y, Zhang M, et al. Rapid start-up of partial nitritation and simultaneously phosphorus removal (PNSPR) granular sludge reactor treating low-strength domestic sewage. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:660-666 pubmed publisher
    ..07%. The average particle size of sludge increased from 114 to 421?m, indicating the formation of PNSPR granules. The high phosphorus content in sludge and phosphorus removal facilitated rapid granulation. ..
  37. Hassan M, Pous N, Xie B, Colprim J, Balaguer M, Puig S. Employing Microbial Electrochemical Technology-driven electro-Fenton oxidation for the removal of recalcitrant organics from sanitary landfill leachate. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:949-956 pubmed publisher
    ..Two different MET configuration systems were operated using effluent from partial nitrification-anammox reactor treating mature leachate...
  38. Ramos C, Amorim C, Mesquita D, Ferreira E, Carrera J, Castro P. Simultaneous partial nitrification and 2-fluorophenol biodegradation with aerobic granular biomass: Reactor performance and microbial communities. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:232-240 pubmed publisher
    ..The inoculum was collected from a bioreactor performing simultaneous partial nitrification and aromatic compounds biodegradation. From day-56 onwards, 2-fluorophenol (2-FP) (12...
  39. Kinh C, Suenaga T, Hori T, Riya S, Hosomi M, Smets B, et al. Counter-diffusion biofilms have lower N2O emissions than co-diffusion biofilms during simultaneous nitrification and denitrification: Insights from depth-profile analysis. Water Res. 2017;124:363-371 pubmed publisher
    ..2 ± 11%), Rhizobium (10.9 ± 6.6%), Stenotrophomonas (6.8 ± 2.7%), Sphingobacteria (3.2 ± 1.1%) and Brevundimonas (2.5 ± 1.0%) as potential N2O-reducing bacteria in the MABR. ..
  40. Bao P, Wang S, Ma B, Zhang Q, Peng Y. Achieving partial nitrification by inhibiting the activity of Nitrospira-like bacteria under high-DO conditions in an intermittent aeration reactor. J Environ Sci (China). 2017;56:71-78 pubmed publisher
    ..It is generally accepted that a low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is more beneficial for achieving partial nitrification than high-DO...