Summary: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.

Top Publications

  1. Wang J, Song M, Chen B, Wang L, Zhu R. Effects of pH and H2O2 on ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate transformations during UV254nm irradiation: Implications to nitrogen removal and analysis. Chemosphere. 2017;184:1003-1011 pubmed publisher
  2. Zhang M, Bai S, Tang L, Zhang Y, Teng Y, Xu Z. Linking potential nitrification rates, nitrogen cycling genes and soil properties after remediating the agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metal and fungicide. Chemosphere. 2017;184:892-899 pubmed publisher
    ..alfalfa plantings also enhanced the abundances of functional genes related to soil nitrification and denitrification, with the sole exception of nosZ gene...
  3. Lu Y, Li N, Ding Z, Fu L, Bai Y, Sheng G, et al. Tracking the activity of the Anammox-DAMO process using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Water Res. 2017;122:624-632 pubmed publisher
  4. Wang Q, Chen Q, Chen J. Optimizing external carbon source addition in domestics wastewater treatment based on online sensoring data and a numerical model. Water Sci Technol. 2017;75:2716-2725 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale pre-denitrification reactor at a Nanjing WWTP in China...
  5. Liu Y, Niu Q, Wang S, Ji J, Zhang Y, Yang M, et al. Upgrading of the symbiosis of Nitrosomanas and anammox bacteria in a novel single-stage partial nitritation-anammox system: Nitrogen removal potential and Microbial characterization. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:463-472 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel single-stage partial nitritation-anammox process equipped with functional suspended carriers was shown to have good potential for the nitrogen-rich wastewater treatment. ..
  6. Jia Y, Khanal S, Zhang H, Chen G, Lu H. Sulfamethoxazole degradation in anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria sludge system. Water Res. 2017;119:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, SRB sludge system could play an important role in SMX biodegradation, especially in Sulfate-reduction Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated (SANI) process for sewage treatment.
  7. Wang S, Wang L, Deng L, Zheng D, Zhang Y, Jiang Y, et al. Performance of autotrophic nitrogen removal from digested piggery wastewater. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:465-472 pubmed publisher
    ..7%), sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (9.4%) and methanogens (40.8%). ..
  8. Sun H, Wu Q, Yu P, Zhang L, Ye L, Zhang X, et al. Denitrification using excess activated sludge as carbon source: Performance and the microbial community dynamics. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:624-632 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the feasibility of using excess activated sludge as carbon source for denitrification to remove low concentrations of nitrate from wastewater was investigated...
  9. Pelaz L, Gomez A, Garralon G, Letona A, Fdz Polanco M. Denitrification of the anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) effluent with alternative electron donors in domestic wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:1173-1179 pubmed publisher
    A fixed film bioreactor for the denitrification of the effluent from an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating domestic wastewater was designed, built and investigated...

More Information


  1. Wei H, Wang J, Hassan M, Han L, Xie B. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation-denitrification synergistic interaction of mature landfill leachate in aged refuse bioreactor: Variations and effects of microbial community structures. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:1149-1158 pubmed publisher
    In this work, anammox-denitrification process was verified by 15N stable isotopic tracing methods and variations and effects of microbial community structures were studied using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and Quantitative ..
  2. Jia S, Han Y, Zhuang H, Han H, Li K. Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from coal gasification wastewater RO concentrate and microorganisms succession in a MBR. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:517-524 pubmed publisher
    ..1%), respectively. High salinity and intermittent aeration represented different influence on the denitrifying genus, and non-aeration phase provided feasible dissolved oxygen condition for denitrifying genera realizing denitrification.
  3. Zhang S, Sun X, Fan Y, Qiu T, Gao M, Wang X. Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by Diaphorobacter polyhydroxybutyrativorans SL-205 using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) as the sole carbon source. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:500-507 pubmed publisher
    ..SL-205 can utilize nitrate and nitrite for denitrification and ammonium for nitrification using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as the carbon source ..
  4. Tian Q, Zhuang L, Ong S, Wang Q, Wang K, Xie X, et al. Phosphorus (P) recovery coupled with increasing influent ammonium facilitated intracellular carbon source storage and simultaneous aerobic phosphorus & nitrogen removal. Water Res. 2017;119:267-275 pubmed publisher
    ..A putative N and P removal pattern via simultaneous nitrification and PHA-based denitrification, as well as P accumulation in the biofilm was proposed...
  5. Chen J, Ying G, Liu Y, Wei X, Liu S, He L, et al. Nitrogen removal and its relationship with the nitrogen-cycle genes and microorganisms in the horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with different design parameters. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2017;52:804-818 pubmed publisher
    ..This was demonstrated by the lower abundance of the nitrification genes (AOA and AOB) than the denitrification genes (nirK and nirS), and the less diverse nitrification microorganisms than the denitrification ..
  6. Wu Y, Li Y, Ontiveros Valencia A, Ordaz Díaz L, Liu J, Zhou C, et al. Enhancing denitrification using a novel in situ membrane biofilm reactor (isMBfR). Water Res. 2017;119:234-241 pubmed publisher
    ..the addition of organic matter (represented as chemical oxygen demand, COD) can stimulate N removal by denitrification, direct supplementation of COD creates unacceptable risks to effluent quality...
  7. Rogge A, Vogts A, Voss M, Jürgens K, Jost G, Labrenz M. Success of chemolithoautotrophic SUP05 and Sulfurimonas GD17 cells in pelagic Baltic Sea redox zones is facilitated by their lifestyles as K- and r-strategists. Environ Microbiol. 2017;19:2495-2506 pubmed publisher
  8. Ishii S, Ashida N, Ohno H, Segawa T, Yabe S, Otsuka S, et al. Noviherbaspirillum denitrificans sp. nov., a denitrifying bacterium isolated from rice paddy soil and Noviherbaspirillum autotrophicum sp. nov., a denitrifying, facultatively autotrophic bacterium isolated from rice paddy soil and proposal to reclass. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:1841-1848 pubmed publisher
    ..While strain TSA66T was able to grow autotrophically by H2-dependent denitrification, strain TSA40T could not...
  9. Wen X, Gong B, Zhou J, He Q, Qing X. Efficient simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) system equipped with a real-time dissolved oxygen (DO) intelligent control system and microbial community shifts of different substrate concentrations. Water Res. 2017;119:201-211 pubmed publisher
    Simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process was studied in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) fed with synthetic wastewater in a range of 2200 mgN/L ? 50 mgN/L...
  10. Mannina G, Capodici M, Cosenza A, Cinà P, Di Trapani D, Puglia A, et al. Bacterial community structure and removal performances in IFAS-MBRs: A pilot plant case study. J Environ Manage. 2017;198:122-131 pubmed publisher
    ..The bacterial strains isolated from aerobic tank are wastewater bacteria known for exhibiting efficient heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification and producing biofilm.
  11. Rout P, Bhunia P, Dash R. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen and phosphorous from domestic wastewater using Bacillus cereus GS-5 strain exhibiting heterotrophic nitrification, aerobic denitrification and denitrifying phosphorous removal. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:484-495 pubmed publisher
    A newly isolated GS-5 strain exhibiting heterotrophic nitrification, aerobic denitrification and denitrifying phosphorous removal was identified as Bacillus cereus GS-5 based on its phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics...
  12. Liu Y, Liu C, Nelson W, Shi L, Xu F, Liu Y, et al. Effect of Water Chemistry and Hydrodynamics on Nitrogen Transformation Activity and Microbial Community Functional Potential in Hyporheic Zone Sediment Columns. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;51:4877-4886 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that denitrification, DNRA, and nitrification rates and products changed quickly in response to changes in water and sediment ..
  13. Dai H, Wu Y, Peng L, Dai Z, Li X, Lu X. Effects of calcium on the performance, bacterial population and microbial metabolism of a denitrifying phosphorus removal system. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:828-835 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term Ca2+ loading had a reversible effect on the denitrifying phosphorus removal system as it could revive after a 50-day recovery process. ..
  14. Dasgupta S, Wu S, Goel R. Coupling autotrophic denitrification with partial nitritation-anammox (PNA) for efficient total inorganic nitrogen removal. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:700-707 pubmed publisher
    ..lab scale set up comprising of a PN/A bioreactor and an elemental sulfur-supported packed bed autotrophic denitrification (ESSAD) are reported. The PN/A reactor exhibited an average removal rate of 0.56±0...
  15. Yang Y, Xie L, Tao X, Hu K, Huang S. Municipal wastewater treatment by the bioaugmentation of Bacillus sp. K5 within a sequencing batch reactor. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178837 pubmed publisher
    ..K5 capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) within a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)...
  16. Paulo A, Aydin R, Dimitrov M, Vreeling H, Cavaleiro A, Garcia Encina P, et al. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) degradation by nitrate-reducing bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:5163-5173 pubmed publisher
    ..degradation is well studied, little is known about the fate of this compound in anoxic environments, such as denitrification tanks of WWTPs, nor about the bacteria involved in the anoxic biodegradation...
  17. Polesel F, Torresi E, Loreggian L, Casas M, Christensson M, Bester K, et al. Removal of pharmaceuticals in pre-denitrifying MBBR - Influence of organic substrate availability in single- and three-stage configurations. Water Res. 2017;123:408-419 pubmed publisher
    ..sets of batch experiments (day 100 and 471) were performed to quantify and compare pharmaceutical removal and denitrification kinetics in the different MBBRs. Experimental results revealed the possible influence of retransformation (e...
  18. Pan J, Qi S, Sun Y, Jiang Y, Zhao N, Huang L, et al. Nitrogen removal and nitrogen functional gene abundances in three subsurface wastewater infiltration systems under different modes of aeration and influent C/N ratios. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:1162-1167 pubmed publisher
    ..1%). The results suggested that intermittent aeration was a reliable option to achieve high TN removal in SWISs, especially under high influent C/N ratio. ..
  19. Boiocchi R, Gernaey K, Sin G. A novel fuzzy-logic control strategy minimizing N2O emissions. Water Res. 2017;123:479-494 pubmed publisher
    ..adjust the aeration level of the plant in order to inhibit the production of N2O from AOB and HB denitrification. The controller was implemented using the fuzzy logic approach...
  20. Dong H, Wang W, Song Z, Dong H, Wang J, Sun S, et al. A high-efficiency denitrification bioreactor for the treatment of acrylonitrile wastewater using waterborne polyurethane immobilized activated sludge. Bioresour Technol. 2017;239:472-481 pubmed publisher
    The performance of a laboratory-scale, high-efficiency denitrification bioreactor (15L) using activated sludge immobilized by waterborne polyurethane in treating acrylonitrile wastewater with high concentration of nitrate nitrogen (249mg/..
  21. Qin Y, Han B, Cao Y, Wang T. Impact of substrate concentration on anammox-UBF reactors start-up. Bioresour Technol. 2017;239:422-429 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that after going through a higher NLR acclimation process during start-up period, stronger resistant capability against high impact nitrogen load and greater anammox activity were obtained by R2. ..
  22. Christianson L, Lepine C, Sibrell P, Penn C, Summerfelt S. Denitrifying woodchip bioreactor and phosphorus filter pairing to minimize pollution swapping. Water Res. 2017;121:129-139 pubmed publisher
    ..2, 18, and 51 h; P-filter HRTs of 7.6-59 min). Woodchip denitrification columns were placed either upstream or downstream of P-filters filled with either medium...
  23. Meng H, Wu R, Wang Y, Gu J. A comparison of denitrifying bacterial community structures and abundance in acidic soils between natural forest and re-vegetated forest of Nanling Nature Reserve in southern China. J Environ Manage. 2017;198:41-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Denitrification plays a key role in converting reactive nitrogen species to dinitrogen gas back into the atmosphere to maintain the equilibrium of nitrogen cycling in ecosystems...
  24. Li W, Sun Y, Bian R, Wang H, Zhang D. N2O emissions from an intermittently aerated semi-aerobic aged refuse bioreactor: Combined effect of COD and NH4+-N in influent leachate. Waste Manag. 2017;69:242-249 pubmed publisher
    ..The carbon-nitrogen ratio (COD/NH4+-N) is an important factor affecting nitrification and denitrification in wastewater treatment; this factor also influences nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions...
  25. Zhao J, Feng L, Yang G, Dai J, Mu J. Development of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) in biofilm reactors with partially coupled a novel biodegradable carrier for nitrogen-rich water purification. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:800-809 pubmed publisher
    Development of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) is a promising approach for nitrogen-rich water purification...
  26. Liu C, Li W, Li X, Zhao D, Ma B, Wang Y, et al. Nitrite accumulation in continuous-flow partial autotrophic denitrification reactor using sulfide as electron donor. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:1237-1240 pubmed publisher
    ..An integrated partial autotrophic denitrification-anaerobic ammonia oxidation-aeration process for handling the ammonia and sulfide-laden wastewaters is ..
  27. Ma W, Han Y, Ma W, Han H, Zhu H, Xu C, et al. Enhanced nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in an oxygen-limited aeration sequencing batch biofilm reactor. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:84-91 pubmed publisher
    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) for treating coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was achieved successfully in a lab-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) by oxygen-limited aeration...
  28. Qin Y, Cao Y, Ren J, Wang T, Han B. Effect of glucose on nitrogen removal and microbial community in anammox-denitrification system. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:33-39 pubmed publisher
    The effect of glucose on nitrogen removal and microbial communities in the anammox-denitrification systems was investigated. The optimal nitrogen removal could be achieved when the influent glucose concentration was 56.4mgL-1...
  29. Zhang X, Zhang N, Fu H, Chen T, Liu S, Zheng S, et al. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on nitrogen removal, microbial activity and microbial community of CANON process in a membrane bioreactor. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:93-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibition threshold of ZnO NPs on CANON process was 10mgL-1, and the profitable concentration was 1mgL-1. ..
  30. Jin Z, Ji F, He Y, Zhao M, Xu X, Zheng X. Evaluating the efficiency of carbon utilisation via bioenergetics between biological aerobic and denitrifying phosphorus removal systems. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187007 pubmed publisher
    ..8% compared to CPR sludge through the coupling of denitrification with dephosphatation.
  31. Di Capua F, Milone I, Lakaniemi A, Hullebusch E, Lens P, Esposito G. Effects of different nickel species on autotrophic denitrification driven by thiosulfate in batch tests and a fluidized-bed reactor. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:534-541 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of increasing concentrations (5-200mgNi/L) of NiEDTA2- and NiCl2 on autotrophic denitrification with thiosulfate (S2O32-) in batch tests and a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR)...
  32. Xu Y, He T, Li Z, Ye Q, Chen Y, Xie E, et al. Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of Pseudomonas putida Y-9 Capable of Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification at Low Temperature. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:1429018 pubmed publisher
    ..The strain capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification could efficiently remove ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite at an average removal rate of 2.85?mg, 1.60?mg, and 1...
  33. Lilja E, Johnson D. Metabolite toxicity determines the pace of molecular evolution within microbial populations. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:52 pubmed publisher
    ..The metabolite nitrite accumulates during denitrification and has pH-dependent toxic effects, which allowed us to evolve P...
  34. Tong S, Stocks J, Rodriguez Gonzalez L, Feng C, Ergas S. Effect of oyster shell medium and organic substrate on the performance of a particulate pyrite autotrophic denitrification (PPAD) process. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:296-303 pubmed publisher
    The use of pyrite as an electron donor for biological denitrification has the potential to reduce alkalinity consumption and sulfate by-product production compared with sulfur oxidizing denitrification...
  35. Sabba F, Picioreanu C, Nerenberg R. Mechanisms of nitrous oxide (N2 O) formation and reduction in denitrifying biofilms. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017;114:2753-2761 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetic model included formation and consumption of key denitrification species, including nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), nitric oxide (NO), and N2 O...
  36. Subedi G, Taylor J, Hatam I, Baldwin S. Simultaneous selenate reduction and denitrification by a consortium of enriched mine site bacteria. Chemosphere. 2017;183:536-545 pubmed publisher
    ..from a mine impacted natural marsh sediment that was capable of simultaneous selenate reduction and denitrification. Selenate reduction followed first order kinetics with respect to the concentration of total dissolved ..
  37. He Q, Zhou J, Song Q, Zhang W, Wang H, Liu L. Elucidation of microbial characterization of aerobic granules in a sequencing batch reactor performing simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal at varying carbon to phosphorus ratios. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:127-133 pubmed publisher
    An aerobic granules simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR) system was evaluated in terms of the reactor performance and microbial population dynamics with decreasing C/P ratios from 50 to 16...
  38. Yang Y, Li X, Yang X, He Z. Enhanced nitrogen removal by membrane-aerated nitritation-anammox in a bioelectrochemical system. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:22-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These results encourage further investigation of membrane-aerated nitritation-anammox in BES for optimization and potential applications with actual wastewater. ..
  39. Arfken A, Song B, Bowman J, Piehler M. Denitrification potential of the eastern oyster microbiome using a 16S rRNA gene based metabolic inference approach. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185071 pubmed publisher
    ..oyster microbiomes have not been integrated into any of the services, particularly nitrogen removal through denitrification. We investigated the composition and denitrification potential of oyster microbiomes with an approach that ..
  40. Szymczycha B, Kroeger K, Crusius J, Bratton J. Depth of the vadose zone controls aquifer biogeochemical conditions and extent of anthropogenic nitrogen removal. Water Res. 2017;123:794-801 pubmed publisher
  41. Zhang Y, Wang L, Han W, Wang X, Guo Z, Peng F, et al. Nitrate removal, spatiotemporal communities of denitrifiers and the importance of their genetic potential for denitrification in novel denitrifying bioreactors. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:552-562 pubmed publisher
    Nitrate treatment performance and denitrification activity were compared between denitrifying biological filters (DNBFs) based on dewatered alum sludge (DAS) and neutralized used acid (NUA)...
  42. Liu S, Li L, Li H, Wang H, Yang P. Study on ammonium and organics removal combined with electricity generation in a continuous flow microbial fuel cell. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:1087-1096 pubmed publisher
    ..739kg/m3d COD were removed from anode chamber and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) occurred in cathode chamber resulting in COD, TN removal rate of 88.53%, 71.35% respectively...
  43. Sun N, Ge C, Ahmad H, Gao B, Ni S. Realization of microbial community stratification for single-stage nitrogen removal in a sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:681-691 pubmed publisher
    ..Although we have predicted the possible pathways of nitrogen transformation, further studies are needed to validate the pathways in enzymology. ..
  44. Li X, Huang Y, Yuan Y, Bi Z, Liu X. Startup and operating characteristics of an external air-lift reflux partial nitritation-ANAMMOX integrative reactor. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:657-665 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this type of integrative reactor may create the environments needed for the partial nitritation-ANAMMOX processing. ..
  45. Cui B, Liu X, Yang Q, Li J, Zhou X, Peng Y. Achieving partial denitrification through control of biofilm structure during biofilm growth in denitrifying biofilter. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:223-231 pubmed publisher
    Partial denitrification was one of most effective ways to provide nitrite for annamox; whereas very limited research has been done to achieve nitrite accumulation in biofilm system...
  46. Cheng Y, Zhang Y, Shen Q, Gao J, Zhuang G, Zhuang X. Effects of exogenous short-chain N-acyl homoserine lactone on denitrifying process of Paracoccus denitrificans. J Environ Sci (China). 2017;54:33-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The denitrification activity of these cells was monitored by measuring denitrification products (including nitrate, nitrite, and ..
  47. Tsementzi D, Wu J, Deutsch S, Nath S, Rodriguez R L, Burns A, et al. SAR11 bacteria linked to ocean anoxia and nitrogen loss. Nature. 2016;536:179-83 pubmed
    ..nar genes were experimentally verified to encode proteins catalysing the nitrite-producing first step of denitrification and constituted ~40% of OMZ nar transcripts, with transcription peaking in the anoxic zone of maximum nitrate ..
  48. Zhang Z, Xu J, Shi Z, Bai Y, Cheng Y, Hu H, et al. Unraveling the impact of nanoscale zero-valent iron on the nitrogen removal performance and microbial community of anammox sludge. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:883-892 pubmed publisher
    ..The abundance of gene families that are related to the assimilation and utilization of iron was down-regulated in response to the stress of high-level NZVI. ..
  49. Liu J, Wu Y, Wu C, Muylaert K, Vyverman W, Yu H, et al. Advanced nutrient removal from surface water by a consortium of attached microalgae and bacteria: A review. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:1127-1137 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research should focus on the selection and engineering of robust microbial species, mathematical modelling of the composition and functionality of the consortium, and novel photobioreactor configurations. ..
  50. Hu R, Zheng X, Xin J, Sun Z, Zheng T. Selective enhancement and verification of woody biomass digestibility as a denitrification carbon source. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:313-319 pubmed publisher
    The denitrification efficiency of woody biomass as carbon source is low because of its poor carbon availability...
  51. Kinh C, Suenaga T, Hori T, Riya S, Hosomi M, Smets B, et al. Counter-diffusion biofilms have lower N2O emissions than co-diffusion biofilms during simultaneous nitrification and denitrification: Insights from depth-profile analysis. Water Res. 2017;124:363-371 pubmed publisher
    ..2 ± 11%), Rhizobium (10.9 ± 6.6%), Stenotrophomonas (6.8 ± 2.7%), Sphingobacteria (3.2 ± 1.1%) and Brevundimonas (2.5 ± 1.0%) as potential N2O-reducing bacteria in the MABR. ..
  52. Ward B. Oceans. How nitrogen is lost. Science. 2013;341:352-3 pubmed publisher
  53. Rubio Rincón F, Lopez Vazquez C, Welles L, van Loosdrecht M, Brdjanovic D. Cooperation between Candidatus Competibacter and Candidatus Accumulibacter clade I, in denitrification and phosphate removal processes. Water Res. 2017;120:156-164 pubmed publisher
    ..Such discrepancy could be due to other microbial groups performing partial denitrification from nitrate to nitrite...