Genomes and Genes
Summary: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Publications103 found, 100 shown here
- Javaid A, Awan F, Azhar F, Khan I. Assessment of allelic diversity among drought-resistant cotton genotypes using microsatellite markers. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher..Overall, genetic diversity among the 22 cotton genotypes was low. More polymorphic SSR markers are needed to explore the workable genetic variation among the screened cotton genotypes in future studies. ..
- Song J, Mo X, Yang H, Yue L, Song J, Mo B. The U-box family genes in Medicago truncatula: Key elements in response to salt, cold, and drought stresses. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182402 pubmed publisher..The present findings strongly indicate that U-box proteins play critical roles in abiotic stress response in M. truncatula. ..
- Li X, Huang L, Zhang Y, Ouyang Z, Hong Y, Zhang H, et al. Tomato SR/CAMTA transcription factors SlSR1 and SlSR3L negatively regulate disease resistance response and SlSR1L positively modulates drought stress tolerance. BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14:286 pubmed publisher..cinerea and Pst DC3000 while SlSR1L is a positive regulator of drought stress tolerance in tomato. ..
- Jyothi Prakash P, Mohanty B, Wijaya E, Lim T, Lin Q, Loh C, et al. Identification of salt gland-associated genes and characterization of a dehydrin from the salt secretor mangrove Avicennia officinalis. BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14:291 pubmed publisher..qRT-PCR analysis showed that 10 of these were specifically enriched in the salt gland-rich tissues. Our data suggest that one of the selected genes, namely, AoDHN1 plays an important role to mitigate salt and drought stress responses. ..
- Zhou A, Ma H, Liu E, Jiang T, Feng S, Gong S, et al. Transcriptome Sequencing of Dianthus spiculifolius and Analysis of the Genes Involved in Responses to Combined Cold and Drought Stress. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher..spiculifolius to the combined stress. Functional characterization of these genes and pathways will provide new targets for enhancement of plant stress tolerance through genetic manipulation. ..
- Zhao W, Zhao X, Zhou T, Wu D, Tang B, Wei H. Climatic factors driving vegetation declines in the 2005 and 2010 Amazon droughts. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175379 pubmed publisherAlong with global climate change, the occurrence of extreme droughts in recent years has had a serious impact on the Amazon region...
- Ramírez Tobías H, Peña Valdivia C, Trejo C, Aguirre R J, Vaquera H H. Seed germination of Agave species as influenced by substrate water potential. Biol Res. 2014;47:11 pubmed publisher..Germination of seeds of Agave species is moderately affected by low water availability, is partially dependent of their ecological distribution, and is independent of seed mass. ..
- ANDERSON T, Ousterhout B, Peterman W, Drake D, Semlitsch R. Life history differences influence the impacts of drought on two pond-breeding salamanders. Ecol Appl. 2015;25:1896-910 pubmed
- Abedini R, GhaneGolmohammadi F, PishkamRad R, Pourabed E, Jafarnezhad A, Shobbar Z, et al. Plant dehydrins: shedding light on structure and expression patterns of dehydrin gene family in barley. J Plant Res. 2017;130:747-763 pubmed publisher..Overall, this information would be helpful for functional characterization of the Dhn family in plants. ..
- Nawaz F, Naeem M, Zulfiqar B, Akram A, Ashraf M, Raheel M, et al. Understanding brassinosteroid-regulated mechanisms to improve stress tolerance in plants: a critical review. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:15959-15975 pubmed publisher..Based on these insights, future research in the current direction can be helpful to increase our understanding of BR-mediated complex and interrelated processes under stress conditions. ..
- Ma Y, Shukla V, Merewitz E. Transcriptome analysis of creeping bentgrass exposed to drought stress and polyamine treatment. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175848 pubmed publisher..Differentially expressed transcripts identified here could be further investigated for use as molecular markers or for functional analysis in responses to drought and Spd...
- Liu D, Estiarte M, Ogaya R, Yang X, Penuelas J. Shift in community structure in an early-successional Mediterranean shrubland driven by long-term experimental warming and drought and natural extreme droughts. Glob Chang Biol. 2017;23:4267-4279 pubmed publisher..sensitivity to water limitation in this early-successional Mediterranean ecosystem, especially to natural extreme droughts. Our results suggest that the shifts in species assembles and community diversity and composition are accelerated ..
- de Lira Azevêdo E, Alves R, Dias T, Molozzi J. How do people gain access to water resources in the Brazilian semiarid (Caatinga) in times of climate change?. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:375 pubmed publisher..It is necessary sustainable use of water resources based on the realities of local populations. ..
- Wossen T, Abdoulaye T, Alene A, Feleke S, Menkir A, Manyong V. Measuring the impacts of adaptation strategies to drought stress: The case of drought tolerant maize varieties. J Environ Manage. 2017;203:106-113 pubmed publisher..The results point to the need for policies and programs aimed at enhancing adoption as an adaptation strategy to drought stress in Nigeria and beyond. ..
- Sen A, Alikamanoğlu S. Characterization of drought-tolerant sugar beet mutants induced with gamma radiation using biochemical analysis and isozyme variations. J Sci Food Agric. 2014;94:367-72 pubmed..Furthermore, CAT and APX isozymes were detected at different intensities on native gels. In vitro mutagenesis is a useful technique for improving plant tolerance against environmental stresses. ..
- Koerner S, Collins S. Interactive effects of grazing, drought, and fire on grassland plant communities in North America and South Africa. Ecology. 2014;95:98-109 pubmed..Overall, we found community and ecosystem convergence in NA and SA grasslands. Grazing and fire are as important as climate in controlling mesic grassland ecosystems on both continents. ..
- Tatli O, Sogutmaz Ozdemir B, Dinler Doganay G. Time-dependent leaf proteome alterations of Brachypodium distachyon in response to drought stress. Plant Mol Biol. 2017;94:609-623 pubmed publisher..Identified proteins will contribute to the studies involving development of drought-resistant crop species and lead to the delineation of molecular mechanisms in drought response. ..
- Obsa B, Eglinton J, Coventry S, March T, Guillaume M, Le T, et al. Quantitative trait loci for yield and grain plumpness relative to maturity in three populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown in a low rain-fall environment. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178111 pubmed publisher..Adjustment for maturity effects through co-variance analysis had no major effect on these yield QTL indicating that they control yield per se. ..
- Guo H, Ramos A, Macau E, Zou Y, Guan S. Constructing regional climate networks in the Amazonia during recent drought events. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186145 pubmed publisher..The results suggest that hub nodes in the regional climate network of Amazonia have fewer long-range connections when more severe drought conditions appeared in 2010 than that in 2005...
- Wang L, Li Q, Lei Q, Feng C, Zheng X, Zhou F, et al. Ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3, an aquaporin gene, increased fruit size and enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic tomatoes. BMC Plant Biol. 2017;17:246 pubmed publisher..Our research will contribute to apple production, by engineering apples with big fruits via efficient water transportation when well watered and enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic apples under water deficit. ..
- Guttery M, Dahlgren D, Messmer T, Connelly J, Reese K, Terletzky P, et al. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65582 pubmed publisher..Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival. ..
- Ma L, Hu L, Fan J, Amombo E, Khaldun A, Zheng Y, et al. Cotton GhERF38 gene is involved in plant response to salt/drought and ABA. Ecotoxicology. 2017;26:841-854 pubmed publisher..Together, our results revealed that GhERF38 functions as a novel regulator that is involved in response to salt/drought stress and ABA signaling during plant development. ..
- Wu Q, Hu Y, Sprague S, Kakeshpour T, Park J, Nakata P, et al. Expression of a monothiol glutaredoxin, AtGRXS17, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) enhances drought tolerance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:1034-1039 pubmed publisher..The findings demonstrate that expression of AtGRXS17 can simultaneously improve the tolerance of tomato, and possibly other agriculturally important crops, to drought, heat, and chilling stresses. ..
- Avramova V, AbdelGawad H, Asard H, Beemster G. The growth zone of maize leaves subjected to drought stress offers unique possibilities to confirm transcriptome analysis with cellular, physiological and biochemical measurements. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2014;79:111-4 pubmed
- Ogata T, Nagatoshi Y, Yamagishi N, Yoshikawa N, Fujita Y. Virus-induced down-regulation of GmERA1A and GmERA1B genes enhances the stomatal response to abscisic acid and drought resistance in soybean. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175650 pubmed publisher..Thus, the ALSV-VIGS system could constitute part of a next-generation molecular breeding pipeline to accelerate drought resistance breeding in soybean. ..
- He H, Yan J, Yu X, Liang Y, Fang L, Scheller H, et al. The NADPH-oxidase AtRbohI plays a positive role in drought-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:834-839 pubmed publisher..Moreover, more H2O2 accumulated in RbohI overexpressors than in wild type plants in response to mannitol stress. Our conclusion is that AtRbohI functions in drought-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana. ..
- Zhang X, Liu X, Zhang D, Tang H, Sun B, Li C, et al. Genome-wide identification of gene expression in contrasting maize inbred lines under field drought conditions reveals the significance of transcription factors in drought tolerance. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179477 pubmed publisher..Our results provide new insight into maize drought tolerance-related regulation systems and provide gene resources for subsequent studies and drought tolerance improvement. ..
- Cheng C, Wang Z, Ren Z, Zhi L, Yao B, Su C, et al. SCFAtPP2-B11 modulates ABA signaling by facilitating SnRK2.3 degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006947 pubmed publisher..3 overexpression lines. These results reveal a novel mechanism through which AtPP2-B11 specifically degrades SnRK2.3 to attenuate ABA signaling and the abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis. ..
- Muller M, Seifert S, Lübbe T, Leuschner C, Finkeldey R. De novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of differential gene expression in response to drought in European beech. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184167 pubmed publisher..This study gives first insights into the genomic drought stress response of European beech, and provides new genetic resources for adaptation research in this species. ..
- Liang D, Zhang Z, Wu H, Huang C, Shuai P, Ye C, et al. Single-base-resolution methylomes of Populus trichocarpa reveal the association between DNA methylation and drought stress. BMC Genet. 2014;15 Suppl 1:S9 pubmed publisher..These findings may provide valuable new insight into our understanding of the interaction between gene expression and methylation of drought responses in Populus. ..
- Delbiso T, Rodriguez Llanes J, Donneau A, Speybroeck N, Guha Sapir D. Drought, conflict and children's undernutrition in Ethiopia 2000-2013: a meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organ. 2017;95:94-102 pubmed publisher..Nutrition interventions should go beyond severe drought-prone areas to incorporate areas where moderate droughts occur...
- Belesini A, Carvalho F, Telles B, de Castro G, Giachetto P, Vantini J, et al. De novo transcriptome assembly of sugarcane leaves submitted to prolonged water-deficit stress. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher..There is still much to clarify on the molecular and physiological pattern of plants in response to drought. ..
- Pradhan S, Kant C, Verma S, Bhatia S. Genome-wide analysis of the CCCH zinc finger family identifies tissue specific and stress responsive candidates in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180469 pubmed publisher..The identified tissue specific and abiotic stress specific CCCH genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in development and stress. ..
- Liu C, Wu J, Wang L, Fan B, Cao Z, Su Q, et al. Quantitative trait locus mapping under irrigated and drought treatments based on a novel genetic linkage map in mungbean (Vigna radiata L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2017;130:2375-2393 pubmed publisher..The results of these analyses might facilitate the isolation of drought-related genes and help to clarify the mechanism of drought tolerance in mungbean. ..
- Li K, Liu X, Song W, Chang Y, Hu Y, Tian C. Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition at Two Sites in an Arid Environment of Central Asia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67018 pubmed publisher..8% on average) in an arid region of central Asia. Such high N deposition implies heavy environmental pollution and an important nutrient resource in arid regions. ..
- Carnwath G, Nelson C. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on resistance versus resilience of Douglas fir to drought. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185604 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that for Pseudotsuga menziesii resistance and resilience to drought are driven by different factors and vary at different spatial scales...
- Oliveira T, da Silva F, Bonatto D, Neves D, Morillon R, Maserti B, et al. Comparative study of the protein profiles of Sunki mandarin and Rangpur lime plants in response to water deficit. BMC Plant Biol. 2015;15:69 pubmed publisher..In addition, this work allows for a better understanding of the molecular basis of the response to water deficit in citrus. Further analysis is needed to elucidate the behaviors of the key target proteins involved in this response. ..
- Chen X, Lu X, Shu N, Wang D, Wang S, Wang J, et al. GhSOS1, a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter gene from upland cotton, enhances salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181450 pubmed publisher..Hence, GhSOS1 may be a potential target gene for enhancing salt tolerance in transgenic plants. ..
- Liu C, Xu Y, Long D, Cao B, Hou J, Xiang Z, et al. Plant G-protein ? subunits positively regulate drought tolerance by elevating detoxification of ROS. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:897-902 pubmed publisher..Additionally, transcript levels of the tobacco antioxidative genes, NtSOD and NtCAT, increased in drought-stressed transgenic tobacco plants. Thus, the heterotrimeric G-protein ? subunits positively regulate drought tolerance in plants. ..
- . Developing nutrition information systems in Eastern and Southern Africa. Food Nutr Bull. 2010;31:S272-86 pubmed
- Wang B, Guo X, Zhao P, Ruan M, Yu X, Zou L, et al. Molecular diversity analysis, drought related marker-traits association mapping and discovery of excellent alleles for 100-day old plants by EST-SSRs in cassava germplasms (Manihot esculenta Cranz). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177456 pubmed publisher..Our results on molecular diversity, locus association and differential expression under drought can prove beneficial to select excellent materials through marker assisted selection and for functional genes research in the future. ..
- Singh M, Khan M, Uddin M, Naeem M, Qureshi M. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180129 pubmed publisher..4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment). ..
- Lu X, Wang X, Chen X, Shu N, Wang J, Wang D, et al. Single-base resolution methylomes of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) reveal epigenome modifications in response to drought stress. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:297 pubmed publisher..Future crop-improvement strategies may benefit by taking into account not only the DNA genetic variations in cotton varieties but also the epigenetic modifications of the genome. ..
- Zhao D, Wang P, Zuo J, Zhang H, An S, Ramesh R. Are the traditional large-scale drought indices suitable for shallow water wetlands? An example in the Everglades. J Environ Manage. 2017;198:240-247 pubmed publisher..The significant and opposite correlations imply the unsuitability of the traditional large-scale drought indices in evaluating the effect of drought on shallow water wetlands. ..
- da Silva M, de Oliveira Silva R, Ferreira Neto J, Benko Iseppon A, Kido E. Genotype-dependent regulation of drought-responsive genes in tolerant and sensitive sugarcane cultivars. Gene. 2017;633:17-27 pubmed publisher..These genes should help breeders to identify accessions managing drought stress tolerance responses, showing better ethylene stress attenuation, energy allocation, amino acid transport, and protein homeostasis. ..
- Fernández Nóvoa D, Gómez Gesteira M, Mendes R, deCastro M, Vaz N, Dias J. Influence of main forcing affecting the Tagus turbid plume under high river discharges using MODIS imagery. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187036 pubmed publisher..Minimum plume extension associated with the lowest turbidity occurs during and after neap tides. ..
- Sekhwal M, Swami A, Sharma V, Sarin R. Identification of drought-induced transcription factors in Sorghum bicolor using GO term semantic similarity. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2015;20:1-23 pubmed publisher..These responses may be highly important in the modulation of plant growth and development. ..
- Barazani O, Waitz Y, Tugendhaft Y, Dorman M, Dag A, Hamidat M, et al. Testing the potential significance of different scion/rootstock genotype combinations on the ecology of old cultivated olive trees in the southeast Mediterranean area. BMC Ecol. 2017;17:3 pubmed publisher..Our results thus suggest that MLL1/MLL7 and MLL1/MLL1 combinations were selected by growers in traditional rain-fed cultivation under Mediterranean climate conditions in the southeast Mediterranean area. ..
- Guo X, Zhang L, Zhu J, Liu H, Wang A. Cloning and characterization of SiDHN, a novel dehydrin gene from Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir. that enhances cold and drought tolerance in tobacco. Plant Sci. 2017;256:160-169 pubmed publisher..In this study, we provided evidence that SiDHN can enhance plant cold and drought resistance, suggesting that SiDHN could be potentially used to genetically improve plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. ..
- Moradi P, Ford Lloyd B, Pritchard J. Metabolomic approach reveals the biochemical mechanisms underlying drought stress tolerance in thyme. Anal Biochem. 2017;527:49-62 pubmed publisher..The combination of metabolite profiling and physiological parameters assisted to understand precisely the mechanisms of plant response at volatile metabolome level. ..
- Li Y, Chen Q, Nan H, Li X, Lu S, Zhao X, et al. Overexpression of GmFDL19 enhances tolerance to drought and salt stresses in soybean. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179554 pubmed publisher..These results suggested that GmFDL19 is involved in soybean abiotic stress responses and has potential utilization to improve multiple stress tolerance in transgenic soybean. ..
- Kim J, To T, Matsui A, Tanoi K, Kobayashi N, Matsuda F, et al. Acetate-mediated novel survival strategy against drought in plants. Nat Plants. 2017;3:17097 pubmed publisher..Our findings highlight a radically new survival strategy that exploits an epigenetic switch of metabolic flux conversion and hormone signalling by which plants adapt to drought. ..
- Sena A, Ebi K, Freitas C, Corvalan C, Barcellos C. Indicators to measure risk of disaster associated with drought: Implications for the health sector. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181394 pubmed publisher..5 million persons, 12% of the country's population. This region experiences recurrent and extended droughts and is characterized by low economic development, scarcity of natural resources including water, and difficult ..
- Meng X, Chen Q, Fan H, Song T, Cui N, Zhao J, et al. Molecular characterization, expression analysis and heterologous expression of two translationally controlled tumor protein genes from Cucumis sativus. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184872 pubmed publisher..In a prokaryotic expression analysis, CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2 showed positive responses to salt and heat stresses and a negative response to drought and HgCl2 stresses. TCTP may exert multiple functions in various cellular processes...
- Das A, Mukhopadhyay M, Sarkar B, Saha D, Mondal T. Influence of drought stress on cellular ultrastructure and antioxidant system in tea cultivars with different drought sensitivities. J Environ Biol. 2015;36:875-82 pubmed..This indicated that tolerant cultivar exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and a stronger protective mechanism such that their ultrastructural integrity was better maintained during exposure to drought stress. ..
- Amundrud S, Srivastava D. Drought sensitivity predicts habitat size sensitivity in an aquatic ecosystem. Ecology. 2015;96:1957-65 pubmed..This finding suggests that physiological tolerance to environmental stress can be relevant in explaining the universal increase in species with habitat size...
- Nuccio M, Wu J, Mowers R, Zhou H, Meghji M, Primavesi L, et al. Expression of trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase in maize ears improves yield in well-watered and drought conditions. Nat Biotechnol. 2015;33:862-9 pubmed
- Zupin M, Sedlar A, Kidric M, Meglic V. Drought-induced expression of aquaporin genes in leaves of two common bean cultivars differing in tolerance to drought stress. J Plant Res. 2017;130:735-745 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that the ability of plants to conserve water during drought stress involves timely and sufficient down-regulation of gene expression of specific aquaporins. ..
- Wen F, Wu X, Li T, Jia M, Liu X, Li P, et al. Genome-wide survey of heat shock factors and heat shock protein 70s and their regulatory network under abiotic stresses in Brachypodium distachyon. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180352 pubmed publisher..Our genomics analysis of BdHsfs and BdHsp70s provides important evolutionary and functional characterization for further investigation of the accurate regulatory mechanisms among Hsfs and Hsp70s in herbaceous plants. ..
- Wu J, Wang L, Wang S. MicroRNAs associated with drought response in the pulse crop common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Gene. 2017;628:78-86 pubmed publisher..These miRNAs and target genes will be useful in future basic studies and in applied studies investigating how miRNA regulation can be used to enhance drought resistance in plant species. ..
- Sheng L, Hu X, Du Y, Zhang G, Huang H, Scheres B, et al. Non-canonical WOX11-mediated root branching contributes to plasticity in Arabidopsis root system architecture. Development. 2017;144:3126-3133 pubmed publisher..The discovery of WOX11-mediated root-derived roots reveals a previously uncharacterized pathway that confers plasticity during the generation of root system architecture in response to different inductive cues. ..
- Loisel J, Macdonald G, Thomson M. Little Ice Age climatic erraticism as an analogue for future enhanced hydroclimatic variability across the American Southwest. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186282 pubmed publisherThe American Southwest has experienced a series of severe droughts interspersed with strong wet episodes over the past decades, prompting questions about future climate patterns and potential intensification of weather disruptions under ..
- Zhu J, Hao P, Chen G, Han C, Li X, Zeller F, et al. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression profiling of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone BiP genes from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14:260 pubmed publisher..The expression of TaBiPs is developmentally regulated during seed development and early seedling growth, and under various abiotic stresses. ..
- Wang M, Li P, Li C, Pan Y, Jiang X, Zhu D, et al. SiLEA14, a novel atypical LEA protein, confers abiotic stress resistance in foxtail millet. BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14:290 pubmed publisher..We characterized a novel atypical LEA gene SiLEA14 from foxtail millet, which plays important roles in plant abiotic stress resistance. Modification of SiLEA14 expression may improve abiotic stress resistance in agricultural crops. ..
- Hussain R, Ali M, Feng X, Li X. The essence of NAC gene family to the cultivation of drought-resistant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars. BMC Plant Biol. 2017;17:55 pubmed publisher..This scientific inquiry has also revealed that cultivar genotypes tend to differ in their drought-induced gene expression. ..
- Al Jawad J, Tanyimboh T. Reservoir operation using a robust evolutionary optimization algorithm. J Environ Manage. 2017;197:275-286 pubmed publisher..The methodology and results will be useful to decision makers and water managers for setting the policy to manage the reservoir efficiently and sustainably. ..