global warming


Summary: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.

Top Publications

  1. Schmidt C. Out of equilibrium? The world's changing ice cover. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:A20-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Korner C, Basler D. Plant science. Phenology under global warming. Science. 2010;327:1461-2 pubmed publisher
  3. Tollefson J. Climate e-mail rerun. Nature. 2010;464:149 pubmed publisher
  4. McCoy D, Hoskins B. The science of anthropogenic climate change: what every doctor should know. BMJ. 2014;349:g5178 pubmed publisher
  5. Subramanian M. Global health: Deadly dinners. Nature. 2014;509:548-51 pubmed publisher
  6. Chowdhury F, Nur Z, Hassan N, von Seidlein L, Dunachie S. Pandemics, pathogenicity and changing molecular epidemiology of cholera in the era of global warming. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2017;16:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Meta-analysis and mathematical modelling have demonstrated that due to global warming the burden of vector-borne diseases like malaria, leishmaniasis, meningococcal meningitis, viral encephalitis, ..
  7. Reyna K, Burggren W. Altered embryonic development in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) induced by pre-incubation oscillatory thermal stresses mimicking global warming predictions. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184670 pubmed publisher
    b>Global warming is likely to alter reproductive success of ground-nesting birds that lay eggs normally left unattended for days or even weeks before actual parental incubation, especially in already warm climates...
  8. Sheldon K, Tewksbury J. The impact of seasonality in temperature on thermal tolerance and elevational range size. Ecology. 2014;95:2134-43 pubmed
    ..Additionally, beetles with greater thermal tolerance had larger elevational ranges. Our results support a mechanistic framework linking variation in realized temperature to physiology and distributions. ..
  9. de la Fuente A, Rojas M, Mac Lean C. A human-scale perspective on global warming: Zero emission year and personal quotas. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179705 pubmed publisher
    ..These are references years that provide an order of magnitude of the time that is left to reverse the global warming trend...

More Information


  1. Foster T, Stolen E, Hall C, Schaub R, Duncan B, Hunt D, et al. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182605 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities, including important xeric upland communities, as a foundation for management decisions and future modeling. ..
  2. Weinhold B. Americas' dengue escalation is real--and shifting. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:A 117 pubmed publisher
  3. Perez T, Stroud J, Feeley K. ECOLOGY. Thermal trouble in the tropics. Science. 2016;351:1392-3 pubmed publisher
  4. Brandt A, Heath G, Kort E, O SULLIVAN F, Pétron G, Jordaan S, et al. Energy and environment. Methane leaks from North American natural gas systems. Science. 2014;343:733-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Saintilan N, Rogers K. Woody plant encroachment of grasslands: a comparison of terrestrial and wetland settings. New Phytol. 2015;205:1062-70 pubmed
    ..These broad-scale vegetation shifts may represent a new stable state, reinforced by positive feedbacks between global change drivers and endogenic mechanisms of persistence in the landscape. ..
  6. Victor D, Leape J. Global climate agreement: After the talks. Nature. 2015;527:439-41 pubmed publisher
  7. Baum V, Willschke H, Marciniak B. Is nitrous oxide necessary in the future?. Paediatr Anaesth. 2012;22:981-7 pubmed publisher
  8. Antiñolo M, Ocaña A, Aranguren J, Lane S, Albaladejo J, Jimenez E. Atmospheric degradation of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether, allyl ether and allyl ethyl ether: Kinetics with OH radicals and UV photochemistry. Chemosphere. 2017;181:232-240 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, from ?(?˜) and ?OH, the global warming potential of each unsaturated ether was calculated to be almost zero...
  9. Taylor C, Belušić D, Guichard F, Parker D, Vischel T, Bock O, et al. Frequency of extreme Sahelian storms tripled since 1982 in satellite observations. Nature. 2017;544:475-478 pubmed publisher
    The hydrological cycle is expected to intensify under global warming, with studies reporting more frequent extreme rain events in many regions of the world, and predicting increases in future flood frequency...
  10. Schmidt C. Black carbon: the dark horse of climate change drivers. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:A172-5 pubmed publisher
  11. Donner S, Rickbeil G, Heron S. A new, high-resolution global mass coral bleaching database. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175490 pubmed publisher
  12. Pincebourde S, Casas J. Warming tolerance across insect ontogeny: influence of joint shifts in microclimates and thermal limits. Ecology. 2015;96:986-97 pubmed
    ..Therefore, errors are expected when predicting persistence and distribution shifts of ectotherms in changing climates using macroclimate rather than microclimate. ..
  13. Huey R, Losos J, Moritz C. Ecology. Are lizards toast?. Science. 2010;328:832-3 pubmed publisher
  14. Sherwood S, Fu Q. Climate change. A drier future?. Science. 2014;343:737-9 pubmed publisher
  15. Medhaug I, Stolpe M, Fischer E, Knutti R. Reconciling controversies about the 'global warming hiatus'. Nature. 2017;545:41-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon, often termed the 'global warming hiatus', caused doubt in the public mind about how well anthropogenic climate change and natural variability ..
  16. Bylenga C, Cummings V, Ryan K. High resolution microscopy reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification and warming on larval shell development in Laternula elliptica. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175706 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the overall impacts on larval shell quality and integrity with concurrent ocean acidification would likely overshadow any beneficial results from warmer temperatures, limiting populations of this prevalent Antarctic species. ..
  17. Kumar A, Sharma M. Estimation of green house gas emissions from Koteshwar hydropower reservoir, India. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:240 pubmed publisher
    The emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) from soils are of significant importance for global warming. The biological and physico-chemical characteristics of soil affect the GHG emissions from soils of different land use types...
  18. Yu C, Zhang Y, Claus H, Zeng R, Zhang X, Wang J. Ecological and environmental issues faced by a developing Tibet. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:1979-80 pubmed publisher
  19. Hillenbrand C, Smith J, Hodell D, Greaves M, Poole C, Kender S, et al. West Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat driven by Holocene warm water incursions. Nature. 2017;547:43-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These results increase confidence in the predictive capability of current ice-sheet models. ..
  20. Hughes T, Kerry J, Álvarez Noriega M, Álvarez Romero J, Anderson K, Baird A, et al. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature. 2017;543:373-377 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, past exposure to bleaching in 1998 and 2002 did not lessen the severity of bleaching in 2016. Consequently, immediate global action to curb future warming is essential to secure a future for coral reefs. ..
  21. Bellassen V, Luyssaert S. Carbon sequestration: managing forests in uncertain times. Nature. 2014;506:153-5 pubmed
  22. Vuorinen K, Oksanen L, Oksanen T, Pyykönen A, Olofsson J, Virtanen R. Open tundra persist, but arctic features decline-Vegetation changes in the warming Fennoscandian tundra. Glob Chang Biol. 2017;23:3794-3807 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventing trees and shrubs from invading the tundra is thus not sufficient for conserving arctic biota in the changing climate. The only dependable cure is to stop the global warming.
  23. Seneviratne S. Climate science: Historical drought trends revisited. Nature. 2012;491:338-9 pubmed publisher
  24. Gratten J, Wilson A, McRae A, Beraldi D, Visscher P, Pemberton J, et al. No evidence for warming climate theory of coat colour change in Soay sheep: a comment on Maloney et al. Biol Lett. 2010;6:678-9; discussion 680-1 pubmed publisher
  25. Roth T, Strebel N, Amrhein V. Estimating unbiased phenological trends by adapting site-occupancy models. Ecology. 2014;95:2144-54 pubmed
    ..Our method could be applied to temporally and spatially extensive data from a wide range of monitoring programs and citizen science projects, to help unravel how species and communities respond to global warming.
  26. Conley D. Ecology: save the Baltic Sea. Nature. 2012;486:463-4 pubmed publisher
  27. McMichael A, Dear K. Climate change: heat, health, and longer horizons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9483-4 pubmed publisher
  28. Palmer P, Smith M. Earth systems: Model human adaptation to climate change. Nature. 2014;512:365-6 pubmed publisher
  29. Karbowiak G. The occurrence of the Dermacentor reticulatus tick--its expansion to new areas and possible causes. Ann Parasitol. 2014;60:37-47 pubmed
    ..In summary, the expansion of D. reticulatus into new areas could be the synergistic effect of many favourable factors. ..
  30. Jiménez Bremont J, Rodríguez Kessler M, Liu J, Gill S. Plant stress and biotechnology. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:170367 pubmed publisher
  31. Morán X, Gasol J, Pernice M, Mangot J, Massana R, Lara E, et al. Temperature regulation of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes increases latitudinally as a breach between bottom-up and top-down controls. Glob Chang Biol. 2017;23:3956-3964 pubmed publisher
    ..temperature regulation towards the Equator, regardless of the oceanic basin, suggests that the impact of global warming on marine microbes and their biogeochemical function will be more intense at higher latitudes...
  32. Romero Olivares A, Allison S, Treseder K. Decomposition of recalcitrant carbon under experimental warming in boreal forest. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179674 pubmed publisher
    ..decomposition rates of recalcitrant C might differ from those of non-recalcitrant C in their sensitivities to global warming. We decomposed leaf litter in a warming experiment in Alaskan boreal forest, and measured mass loss of ..
  33. Dinasquet J, Richert I, Logares R, Yager P, Bertilsson S, Riemann L. Mixing of water masses caused by a drifting iceberg affects bacterial activity, community composition and substrate utilization capability in the Southern Ocean. Environ Microbiol. 2017;19:2453-2467 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, in a context of global warming, increased frequency of drifting icebergs in polar regions holds the potential to affect carbon and nutrient ..
  34. Montemayor S, Melo M, Scattolini M, Pocco M, Del Río M, Dellapé G, et al. The fate of endemic insects of the Andean region under the effect of global warming. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186655 pubmed publisher
  35. Goggins W, Ren C, Ng E, Yang C, Chan E. Effect modification of the association between meteorological variables and mortality by urban climatic conditions in the tropical city of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Geospat Health. 2013;8:37-44 pubmed
    ..Urban planning measures designed to improve climatic conditions could reduce excess mortality resulting from extreme hot weather. ..
  36. . Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core. Nature. 2013;493:489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..With additional warming, surface melt might become more common in the future. ..
  37. Stocker T. Climate change. The closing door of climate targets. Science. 2013;339:280-2 pubmed publisher
  38. Frid A, Quarmby L. Policy: take direct action on climate inaction. Nature. 2012;487:38 pubmed publisher
  39. Heffernan O. Earth science: The climate machine. Nature. 2010;463:1014-6 pubmed publisher
  40. Kurz W. An ecosystem context for global gross forest cover loss estimates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9025-6 pubmed publisher
  41. Schiermeier Q. Increased flood risk linked to global warming. Nature. 2011;470:316 pubmed publisher
  42. Chung J, Meltzer D. Estimate of the carbon footprint of the US health care sector. JAMA. 2009;302:1970-2 pubmed publisher
  43. Schmidt C. Communication gap: the disconnect between what scientists say and what the public hears. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:A548-51 pubmed
  44. Kahan D. Fixing the communications failure. Nature. 2010;463:296-7 pubmed publisher
  45. Fang J. Wildlife service plans for a warmer world. Nature. 2010;464:332-3 pubmed publisher
  46. Monllor Hurtado A, Pennino M, Sánchez Lizaso J. Shift in tuna catches due to ocean warming. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178196 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that as populations shift towards higher latitudes the catches of these tropical species did not increase. Thus, at least in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, tropical tuna catches have reduced in tropical areas. ..
  47. Ibáñez I, Katz D, Lee B. The contrasting effects of short-term climate change on the early recruitment of tree species. Oecologia. 2017;184:701-713 pubmed publisher
    ..there is little empirical evidence that this approach provides reliable estimates of short-term responses to global warming. Under this premise, we analyzed 8 years of early recruitment data, seed production and seedling ..
  48. Li Q, Song A, Peng W, Jin Z, Muller W, Wang X. Contribution of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria to total organic carbon pool in aquatic system of subtropical karst catchments, Southwest China: evidence from hydrochemical and microbiological study. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2017;93: pubmed publisher
    ..860, 0.747 and 0.813, respectively) in the Maocun watershed. The results suggest that Polynucleobacter might be involved in the production of organic carbon and might act as the negative feedback on global warming.
  49. Huntington H. Arctic science: The local perspective. Nature. 2011;478:182-3 pubmed publisher
  50. Cooney C. Managing the risks of extreme weather: IPCC Special Report. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:a58 pubmed publisher
  51. Khansaritoreh E, Dulamsuren C, Klinge M, Ariunbaatar T, Bat Enerel B, Batsaikhan G, et al. Higher climate warming sensitivity of Siberian larch in small than large forest islands in the fragmented Mongolian forest steppe. Glob Chang Biol. 2017;23:3675-3689 pubmed publisher
  52. Hughes T, Barnes M, Bellwood D, Cinner J, Cumming G, Jackson J, et al. Coral reefs in the Anthropocene. Nature. 2017;546:82-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Successful navigation of this transition will require radical changes in the science, management and governance of coral reefs. ..
  53. Tillett T. Climate change and children's health: protecting and preparing our youngest. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:a132 pubmed publisher
  54. Goldenberg S, Nagelkerken I, Ferreira C, Ullah H, Connell S. Boosted food web productivity through ocean acidification collapses under warming. Glob Chang Biol. 2017;23:4177-4184 pubmed publisher
  55. Eya J, Yossa R, Perera D, Okubajo O, Gannam A. Combined effects of diets and temperature on mitochondrial function, growth and nutrient efficiency in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;212:1-11 pubmed publisher
  56. Caldeira K. Avoiding mangrove destruction by avoiding carbon dioxide emissions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14287-8 pubmed publisher
  57. Vezzulli L, Pezzati E, Brettar I, Höfle M, Pruzzo C. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology. Microbiol Spectr. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    ..which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases...
  58. Jiang H, Wan S, Ma X, Zhong N, Zhao D. End-member modeling of the grain-size record of Sikouzi fine sediments in Ningxia (China) and implications for temperature control of Neogene evolution of East Asian winter monsoon. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186153 pubmed publisher
    ..trends can be successively correlated in seven stages with the integrated benthic ?18O record, implying that global warming weakened the EAWM from 20.1 to 17 Ma and global cooling has stepwise strengthened the EAWM since 17 Ma...
  59. Fairley P. Introduction: Next generation biofuels. Nature. 2011;474:S2-5 pubmed publisher
  60. Soh W, Wright I, Bacon K, Lenz T, Steinthorsdottir M, Parnell A, et al. Palaeo leaf economics reveal a shift in ecosystem function associated with the end-Triassic mass extinction event. Nat Plants. 2017;3:17104 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use a deep-time case study to evaluate the impact of a well-constrained CO2-induced global warming event on the ecological functioning of dominant plant communities...
  61. Oliver J. The Biology of Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiol Spectr. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    ..geographic distribution, importance of salinity and water temperature, increasing incidence associated with global warming. This article includes some of our findings as presented at the "Vibrios in the Environment 2010" ..