chemotactic factors


Summary: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.

Top Publications

  1. Gaggar A, Jackson P, Noerager B, O Reilly P, McQuaid D, Rowe S, et al. A novel proteolytic cascade generates an extracellular matrix-derived chemoattractant in chronic neutrophilic inflammation. J Immunol. 2008;180:5662-9 pubmed
    ..These experiments highlight unique protease interactions with structural proteins regulating innate immunity and support a role for these peptides as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for chronic, neutrophilic lung diseases. ..
  2. Garcia G, Rericha E, Heger C, Goldsmith P, Parent C. The group migration of Dictyostelium cells is regulated by extracellular chemoattractant degradation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3295-304 pubmed publisher
  3. Grant G, Rokach J, Powell W. 5-Oxo-ETE and the OXE receptor. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2009;89:98-104 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of a selective antagonist would help to clarify the role of 5-oxo-ETE and may be of therapeutic benefit. ..
  4. Burnett L, Anderson D, Rawls A, Bieber A, Chandler D. Mouse sperm exhibit chemotaxis to allurin, a truncated member of the cysteine-rich secretory protein family. Dev Biol. 2011;360:318-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that sperm have retained the ability to bind and respond to truncated Crisp proteins over 300 million years of vertebrate evolution...
  5. Kalinin Y, Jiang L, Tu Y, Wu M. Logarithmic sensing in Escherichia coli bacterial chemotaxis. Biophys J. 2009;96:2439-48 pubmed publisher
  6. Schraufstatter I, DiScipio R, Zhao M, Khaldoyanidi S. C3a and C5a are chemotactic factors for human mesenchymal stem cells, which cause prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. J Immunol. 2009;182:3827-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a present in injured tissues contribute to the recruitment of MSCs and regulation of their behavior. ..
  7. Giuffre C, Hinow P, Vogel R, Ahmed T, Stocker R, Consi T, et al. The ciliate Paramecium shows higher motility in non-uniform chemical landscapes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15274 pubmed publisher
    ..It has the potential to be applied to the study of other aquatic chemosensitive organisms as well. This may result in better diagnostic devices for environmental pollutants. ..
  8. Graham K, Zabel B, Loghavi S, Zuniga L, Ho P, Sobel R, et al. Chemokine-like receptor-1 expression by central nervous system-infiltrating leukocytes and involvement in a model of autoimmune demyelinating disease. J Immunol. 2009;183:6717-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CMKLR1 participates in the inflammatory mechanisms of EAE and represents a potential therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis. ..
  9. Schmied W, Takken W, Killeen G, Knols B, Smallegange R. Evaluation of two counterflow traps for testing behaviour-mediating compounds for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. under semi-field conditions in Tanzania. Malar J. 2008;7:230 pubmed publisher
    ..However, for rapid screening of different baits in a contained semi-field system, the superior discriminatory power of the MM-X trap is advantageous. ..

More Information


  1. Neumann S, Hansen C, Wingreen N, Sourjik V. Differences in signalling by directly and indirectly binding ligands in bacterial chemotaxis. EMBO J. 2010;29:3484-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data suggest that the distinction between signalling by directly and indirectly binding ligands is more physiologically important than the traditional distinction between high- and low-abundance receptors. ..
  2. Gakamsky A, Armon L, Eisenbach M. Behavioral response of human spermatozoa to a concentration jump of chemoattractants or intracellular cyclic nucleotides. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:1152-63 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these observations, we propose a potential model for the chemotactic response of spermatozoa in a spatial chemoattractant gradient. ..
  3. Kalinin Y, Neumann S, Sourjik V, Wu M. Responses of Escherichia coli bacteria to two opposing chemoattractant gradients depend on the chemoreceptor ratio. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:1796-800 pubmed publisher
  4. Wang C, Wang Z, Fang Z, Zhang D, Gu L, Liu L, et al. Attraction of pinewood nematode to endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola. Curr Microbiol. 2010;60:387-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested that the attractive substances were consisted of avolatile exudative and volatile diffusing compounds...
  5. Muruganandan S, Roman A, Sinal C. Role of chemerin/CMKLR1 signaling in adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis of bone marrow stem cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:222-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a potential role for this signaling pathway as a modulator of bone mass. ..
  6. Luangsay S, Wittamer V, Bondue B, De Henau O, Rouger L, Brait M, et al. Mouse ChemR23 is expressed in dendritic cell subsets and macrophages, and mediates an anti-inflammatory activity of chemerin in a lung disease model. J Immunol. 2009;183:6489-99 pubmed publisher
  7. Zhang S, Charest P, Firtel R. Spatiotemporal regulation of Ras activity provides directional sensing. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1587-1593 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings suggest that Ras is part of the cell's compass and that the RasGAP-mediated regulation of Ras activity affects directional sensing. ..
  8. Shiba K, Baba S, Inoue T, Yoshida M. Ca2+ bursts occur around a local minimal concentration of attractant and trigger sperm chemotactic response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19312-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that Ca(2+) bursts induced around a local minimal SAAF concentration trigger a sequence of flagellar responses comprising quick turning followed by straight swimming to direct spermatozoa efficiently toward eggs...
  9. Wang C, Bergmann A, Lin B, Kim K, Levchenko A. Diverse sensitivity thresholds in dynamic signaling responses by social amoebae. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra17 pubmed publisher
  10. Kralisch S, Weise S, Sommer G, Lipfert J, Lossner U, Bluher M, et al. Interleukin-1beta induces the novel adipokine chemerin in adipocytes in vitro. Regul Pept. 2009;154:102-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we show that chemerin is upregulated in fat cells by IL-1beta and might modulate the effects of IL-1beta on adipocyte metabolism and insulin sensitivity. ..
  11. Goldman J, Levin M, Bray D. Signal amplification in a lattice of coupled protein kinases. Mol Biosyst. 2009;5:1853-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We test this idea with detailed, molecular-based stochastic simulations and show that it gives an accurate reproduction of signalling in this system, including ligand-specific adaptation. ..
  12. Cash J, Christian A, Greaves D. Chemerin peptides promote phagocytosis in a ChemR23- and Syk-dependent manner. J Immunol. 2010;184:5315-24 pubmed publisher
  13. Seymour J, Simó R, Ahmed T, Stocker R. Chemoattraction to dimethylsulfoniopropionate throughout the marine microbial food web. Science. 2010;329:342-5 pubmed publisher
  14. Smallegange R, Schmied W, van Roey K, Verhulst N, Spitzen J, Mukabana W, et al. Sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Malar J. 2010;9:292 pubmed publisher
    ..Yeast-produced CO2 can effectively replace industrial CO2 for sampling of An. gambiae s.s.. This will significantly reduce costs and allow sustainable mass-application of odour-baited devices for mosquito sampling in remote areas. ..
  15. Muruganandan S, Parlee S, Rourke J, Ernst M, Goralski K, Sinal C. Chemerin, a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) target gene that promotes mesenchymal stem cell adipogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:23982-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings support a fundamental role for chemerin/CMKLR1 signaling in clonal expansion during adipocyte differentiation as well as a role for PPAR? in regulating chemerin expression. ..
  16. Zimmer R, Riffell J. Sperm chemotaxis, fluid shear, and the evolution of sexual reproduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Because egg signaling and sperm response may be tuned to meet specific fluid-dynamic constraints, shear could act as a critical selective pressure that drives gamete evolution and determines fitness. ..
  17. Bondue B, Vosters O, de Nadai P, Glineur S, De Henau O, Luangsay S, et al. ChemR23 dampens lung inflammation and enhances anti-viral immunity in a mouse model of acute viral pneumonia. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002358 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemerin/ChemR23 system plays important roles in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, and might therefore be considered as a therapeutic target for anti-viral and anti-inflammatory therapies...
  18. Ernst M, Issa M, Goralski K, Sinal C. Chemerin exacerbates glucose intolerance in mouse models of obesity and diabetes. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1998-2007 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that chemerin influences glucose homeostasis and may contribute to the metabolic derangements characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes. ..
  19. Freitas T, Pearce E. Growth factors and chemotactic factors from parasitic helminths: molecular evidence for roles in host-parasite interactions versus parasite development. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:761-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review growth factors and chemotactic factors expressed by parasitic helminths and discuss their recognised and potential roles in immunomodulation and/..
  20. Parlee S, Ernst M, Muruganandan S, Sinal C, Goralski K. Serum chemerin levels vary with time of day and are modified by obesity and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2590-602 pubmed publisher
    ..We corroborate the finding of elevated chemerin in obese humans by identifying elevated serum levels of total chemerin in two obese mouse models with a corresponding alteration in the rhythmic pattern of serum chemerin levels. ..
  21. Kresch M, Block M, Karim M, Zhu L, Hussain N, Thrall R, et al. Surfactant protein A stimulates release of neutrophil chemotactic factors by alveolar type II pneumocytes. Lung. 2010;188:491-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A (SP-A) is an autocrine factor that stimulates alveolar type II epithelial cell release of neutrophil chemotactic factors by binding to the SP-A receptor expressed by these cells...
  22. Klesius P, Pridgeon J, Aksoy M. Chemotactic factors of Flavobacterium columnare to skin mucus of healthy channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;310:145-51 pubmed publisher
    To gain an insight into the chemotactic factors involved in chemotaxis, we exposed a virulent strain of Flavobacterium columnare to various treatments, followed by analysis of its chemotactic activity. The chemotactic activity of F...
  23. Reinhardt S, Scott I, Simpson H. Neutrophil and eosinophil chemotactic factors in the excretory/secretory products of sheep abomasal nematode parasites: NCF and ECF in abomasal nematodes. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:627-35 pubmed publisher
  24. Demoor T, Bracke K, Dupont L, Plantinga M, Bondue B, Roy M, et al. The role of ChemR23 in the induction and resolution of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. J Immunol. 2011;186:5457-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a role for ChemR23 in directing innate and adaptive immune cells to CS-exposed lungs. ..
  25. Kulig P, Kantyka T, Zabel B, Banas M, Chyra A, Stefanska A, et al. Regulation of chemerin chemoattractant and antibacterial activity by human cysteine cathepsins. J Immunol. 2011;187:1403-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Cathepsins may therefore contribute to host defense by activating chemerin to directly inhibit bacterial growth and to recruit pDC to sites of infection. ..
  26. Jaiswal P, Soldati T, Thewes S, Baskar R. Regulation of aggregate size and pattern by adenosine and caffeine in cellular slime molds. BMC Dev Biol. 2012;12:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the aggregation process is conserved among different lineages of cellular slime molds despite using unrelated signalling molecules for aggregation. ..
  27. Kashikar N, Alvarez L, Seifert R, Gregor I, Jäckle O, Beyermann M, et al. Temporal sampling, resetting, and adaptation orchestrate gradient sensing in sperm. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:1075-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Orchestration of temporal sampling, resetting, and adaptation might control gradient sensing in such organisms as well. ..
  28. Rao C, Ordal G. The molecular basis of excitation and adaptation during chemotactic sensory transduction in bacteria. Contrib Microbiol. 2009;16:33-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The one shared with E. coli, the receptor methylation system, is vastly different, as is the mechanism for conveying signals across the membrane. ..
  29. Dyer K, Percopo C, Fischer E, Gabryszewski S, Rosenberg H. Pneumoviruses infect eosinophils and elicit MyD88-dependent release of chemoattractant cytokines and interleukin-6. Blood. 2009;114:2649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that eosinophils are targets of virus infection and may have varied and complex contributions to the pathogenesis and resolution of pneumovirus disease. ..
  30. Bozaoglu K, Bolton K, McMillan J, Zimmet P, Jowett J, Collier G, et al. Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4687-94 pubmed
    ..Here we report, for the first time, that chemerin is an adipokine, and circulating levels of chemerin are associated with several key aspects of metabolic syndrome. ..
  31. Gakamsky A, Schechtman E, Caplan S, Eisenbach M. Analysis of chemotaxis when the fraction of responsive cells is small--application to mammalian sperm guidance. Int J Dev Biol. 2008;52:481-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of the newly measured parameter and the special analysis provides a highly sensitive method for the detection of a chemotactic response, even a very small one. ..
  32. Huttenlocher A, Poznansky M. Reverse leukocyte migration can be attractive or repulsive. Trends Cell Biol. 2008;18:298-306 pubmed publisher
  33. Van Haastert P, Veltman D. Chemotaxis: navigating by multiple signaling pathways. Sci STKE. 2007;2007:pe40 pubmed
    ..In addition, selective pseudopod growth and retraction are more important in directing cell movement than is the place where new pseudopodia are formed. ..
  34. Grus W, Shi P, Zhang J. Largest vertebrate vomeronasal type 1 receptor gene repertoire in the semiaquatic platypus. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:2153-7 pubmed
    ..Our results challenge the view that olfaction is unimportant to aquatic mammals and call for further study into the role of vomeronasal reception in platypus physiology and behavior...
  35. Zhao L, Wei W, Kang L, Sun J. Chemotaxis of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to volatiles associated with host pine, Pinus massoniana, and its vector Monochamus alternatus. J Chem Ecol. 2007;33:1207-16 pubmed
    ..Capture of J(III) with terpene-baited trap tubes deployed for 2 hr in the field was demonstrated. This technique may lead to the development of rapid sampling methodologies for use at either ports-of-entry or in the field...
  36. Ozaki Y, Nishimura M, Sekiya K, Suehiro F, Kanawa M, Nikawa H, et al. Comprehensive analysis of chemotactic factors for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2007;16:119-29 pubmed
  37. Takahashi M, Takahashi Y, Takahashi K, Zolotaryov F, Hong K, Kitazawa R, et al. Chemerin enhances insulin signaling and potentiates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, chemerin potentiated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake concomitant with enhanced insulin signaling in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data establish that chemerin is a novel adipokine that regulates adipocyte function. ..
  38. Rutkowski J, Swartz M. A driving force for change: interstitial flow as a morphoregulator. Trends Cell Biol. 2007;17:44-50 pubmed
  39. Mello B, Tu Y. Effects of adaptation in maintaining high sensitivity over a wide range of backgrounds for Escherichia coli chemotaxis. Biophys J. 2007;92:2329-37 pubmed
  40. Zhang X, Hunt J, Shin D, Chen Z. Down-regulation of S100A2 in lymph node metastases of head and neck cancer. Head Neck. 2007;29:236-43 pubmed
    ..S100A2 was down-regulated in lymph node metastasis of SCCHN, suggesting that instead of being a putative tumor suppressor, S100A2 may play a role in the metastasis of SCCHN. ..
  41. Lin L, Wakabayashi T, Oikawa T, Sato T, Ogurusu T, Shingai R. Caenorhabditis elegans mutants having altered preference of chemotaxis behavior during simultaneous presentation of two chemoattractants. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:2754-8 pubmed
    ..The chemotaxis behavior of chep-2(qr2) mutant in simultaneous presentation suggests a function of chep-2 gene products within the chemosensory informational integration pathway as well as in the chemosensory pathway. ..
  42. Kennedy T, Wang H, Marshall W, Tessier Lavigne M. Axon guidance by diffusible chemoattractants: a gradient of netrin protein in the developing spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8866-74 pubmed
    ..The detection of a gradient of netrin-1 protein supports the operation of long-range chemotropic mechanisms in the developing nervous system. ..
  43. Roh S, Song S, Choi K, Katoh K, Wittamer V, Parmentier M, et al. Chemerin--a new adipokine that modulates adipogenesis via its own receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362:1013-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the adipokine chemerin likely regulates adipocyte function by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. ..
  44. Eisenbach M. A hitchhiker's guide through advances and conceptual changes in chemotaxis. J Cell Physiol. 2007;213:574-80 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes some of these surprises and previously unasked or overlooked questions, and as such it offers a guided tour through conceptual changes in chemotaxis. ..
  45. Falco A, Brocal I, Perez L, Coll J, Estepa A, Tafalla C. In vivo modulation of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response by the human alpha defensin 1, HNP1. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;24:102-12 pubmed
  46. Janetopoulos C, Firtel R. Directional sensing during chemotaxis. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2075-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we highlight the overlapping functions of many signaling components in diverse processes beyond chemotaxis, including random cell motility and cell division. ..
  47. Lin S, Yang J, Everett A, Clevenger C, Koneru M, Mishra P, et al. The isolation of novel mesenchymal stromal cell chemotactic factors from the conditioned medium of tumor cells. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:3107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Two proteins, cyclophilin B and hepatoma-derived growth factor were then further characterized and shown to promote MSC chemotaxis. ..
  48. Goralski K, McCarthy T, Hanniman E, Zabel B, Butcher E, Parlee S, et al. Chemerin, a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:28175-88 pubmed
    ..We conclude that chemerin is a novel adipose-derived signaling molecule that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism. ..
  49. Shirokova E, Raguse J, Meyerhof W, Krautwurst D. The human vomeronasal type-1 receptor family--detection of volatiles and cAMP signaling in HeLa/Olf cells. FASEB J. 2008;22:1416-25 pubmed
    ..While a biological function of human vomeronasal type-1 receptors is still elusive, our data show that their major functional characteristics are similar to those of odorant receptors. ..
  50. Cash J, Hart R, Russ A, Dixon J, Colledge W, Doran J, et al. Synthetic chemerin-derived peptides suppress inflammation through ChemR23. J Exp Med. 2008;205:767-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results show that chemerin-derived peptides may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases through ChemR23. ..
  51. Oren Benaroya R, Orvieto R, Gakamsky A, Pinchasov M, Eisenbach M. The sperm chemoattractant secreted from human cumulus cells is progesterone. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:2339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that progesterone is the main, if not the sole, chemoattractant secreted by human cumulus cells. ..
  52. Suarez S. Control of hyperactivation in sperm. Hum Reprod Update. 2008;14:647-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about exactly what triggers hyperactivation in human sperm. This information could enable clinicians to develop reliable fertility assays to assess normal hyperactivation in human sperm samples. ..
  53. Tsai W, Tsai S, Jin Y, Wu L. Cyclooxygenase-2 is involved in S100A2-mediated tumor suppression in squamous cell carcinoma. Mol Cancer Res. 2006;4:539-47 pubmed
    ..Although the interplay between S100A2 and COX-2 remains to be clarified, these findings first showed a potent antitumor role of S100A2 in squamous cell carcinoma partly via reduced expression of COX-2. ..