platelet factor 4

Summary

Summary: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.

Top Publications

  1. Selleng S, Malowsky B, Strobel U, Wessel A, Ittermann T, Wollert H, et al. Early-onset and persisting thrombocytopenia in post-cardiac surgery patients is rarely due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, even when antibody tests are positive. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We prospectively screened 581 cardiac surgery patients for heparin-dependent antibodies by platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin immunoassay and platelet-activation test, and performed daily platelet counts (until day 10) ..
  2. Sachais B, Turrentine T, Dawicki McKenna J, Rux A, Rader D, Kowalska M. Elimination of platelet factor 4 (PF4) from platelets reduces atherosclerosis in C57Bl/6 and apoE-/- mice. Thromb Haemost. 2007;98:1108-13 pubmed
    Activated platelets, which release platelet factor 4 (PF4) are present in patients with atherosclerosis. To date, no direct in-vivo evidence exists for the involvement of PF4 in atherogenesis...
  3. Krauel K, Pötschke C, Weber C, Kessler W, Fürll B, Ittermann T, et al. Platelet factor 4 binds to bacteria, [corrected] inducing antibodies cross-reacting with the major antigen in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood. 2011;117:1370-8 pubmed publisher
    ..heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), is induced by antibodies specific for complexes of the chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) and the polyanion heparin...
  4. Poruk K, Firpo M, Huerter L, Scaife C, Emerson L, Boucher K, et al. Serum platelet factor 4 is an independent predictor of survival and venous thromboembolism in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:2605-10 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4) has been proposed as a diagnostic biomarker for PDAC...
  5. Yang L, Rezaie A. Calcium-binding sites of the thrombin-thrombomodulin-protein C complex: possible implications for the effect of platelet factor 4 on the activation of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Thromb Haemost. 2007;97:899-906 pubmed
    ..exosite-2 of thrombin in complex with TM that lacks CS but not with TM that contains CS, and finally iii) platelet factor 4 can nonspecifically interact with the Gla domain of protein C and other coagulation factors to influence ..
  6. Adiguzel C, Bansal V, Litinas E, Cunanan J, Iqbal O, Nelson K, et al. Increased prevalence of antiheparin platelet factor 4 antibodies in patients may be due to contaminated heparin. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2009;15:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..2%) studied had an increased prevalence of AHPF4 antibodies. Subtyping of the all platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies documented showed a higher prevalence of immunoglobulin G antibodies as compared to their ..
  7. Kasperska Zajac A, Alicja K. Recovery of platelet factor 4 (PF-4) and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) plasma concentrations during remission in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Platelets. 2010;21:522-4 pubmed publisher
    ..As with earlier data, the findings point to platelet activity in AD increasing during flare, falling following therapy and normalizing upon remission. ..
  8. Greinacher A, Ittermann T, Bagemühl J, Althaus K, Fürll B, Selleng S, et al. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: towards standardization of platelet factor 4/heparin antigen tests. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:2025-31 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin enzyme-immunoassays (EIA) are a widely available surrogate for platelet-activating antibodies...
  9. Poncz M, Rauova L, Cines D. The role of surface PF4: glycosaminoglycan complexes in the pathogenesis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2006;35:46-9 pubmed

More Information

Publications62

  1. Lasagni L, Grepin R, Mazzinghi B, Lazzeri E, Meini C, Sagrinati C, et al. PF-4/CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 exhibit distinct subcellular localization and a differentially regulated mechanism of secretion. Blood. 2007;109:4127-34 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 exhibit a distinct subcellular localization and are secreted in a differentially regulated manner, suggesting distinct roles in inflammatory or homeostatic processes. ..
  2. Krauel K, Weber C, Brandt S, Zahringer U, Mamat U, Greinacher A, et al. Platelet factor 4 binding to lipid A of Gram-negative bacteria exposes PF4/heparin-like epitopes. Blood. 2012;120:3345-52 pubmed publisher
    The positively charged chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) forms immunogenic complexes with heparin and other polyanions. Resulting antibodies can induce the adverse drug effect heparin-induced thrombocytopenia...
  3. Prechel M, Jeske W, Walenga J. Physiological changes in membrane-expressed platelet factor 4: implications in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Res. 2010;125:e143-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus there can be differences in HIT antibody target availability among patients which may explain the variability in consequences of HIT antibody seropositivity. ..
  4. Greinacher A, Juhl D, Strobel U, Wessel A, Lubenow N, Selleng K, et al. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a prospective study on the incidence, platelet-activating capacity and clinical significance of antiplatelet factor 4/heparin antibodies of the IgG, IgM, and IgA classes. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:1666-73 pubmed
    ..However, only about half of EIA-positive patients are likely to have HIT. Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies of IgM/A class and non-PF4-dependent antigens have only a minor role in HIT. ..
  5. Mattioli A, Bonetti L, Carletti U, Ambrosio G, Mattioli G. Thrombotic events in patients with antiplatelet factor 4/heparin antibodies. Heart. 2009;95:1350-4 pubmed publisher
    Antibodies to the heparin/platelet factor 4 (PF4) complex are linked to the pathogenesis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II, and to the thrombotic complications associated with this syndrome...
  6. Trocme C, Marotte H, Baillet A, Pallot Prades B, Garin J, Grange L, et al. Apolipoprotein A-I and platelet factor 4 are biomarkers for infliximab response in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:1328-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The 28 kDa protein was characterised as apolipoprotein A-I and the 7.77 kDa biomarker was identified as platelet factor 4. Six plasma biomarkers are characterised, enabling the detection of patient response to infliximab with high ..
  7. Lippi G, Favaloro E. Recombinant platelet factor 4: a therapeutic, anti-neoplastic chimera?. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2010;36:558-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Although recombinant platelet factor 4 (PF4) was originally developed and evaluated as a clinical alternative to protamine for heparin ..
  8. Vandercappellen J, Liekens S, Bronckaers A, Noppen S, Ronsse I, Dillen C, et al. The COOH-terminal peptide of platelet factor-4 variant (CXCL4L1/PF-4var47-70) strongly inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses B16 melanoma growth in vivo. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:322-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CXCL4L1/PF-4var(47-70) is a potent antitumoral and antiangiogenic peptide. These results may represent the basis for the design of CXCL4L1/PF-4var COOH-terminal-derived peptidomimetic anticancer drugs. ..
  9. Schwartzkopff F, Grimm T, Lankford C, Fields K, Wang J, Brandt E, et al. Platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) facilitates human macrophage infection with HIV-1 and potentiates virus replication. Innate Immun. 2009;15:368-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Platelet factor 4 (CXCL4), a member of the CXC chemokine subfamily released in high amounts by activated platelets, has been identified as a monocyte survival factor that induces monocyte differentiation into macrophages...
  10. Srivastava K, Field D, Aggrey A, Yamakuchi M, Morrell C. Platelet factor 4 regulation of monocyte KLF4 in experimental cerebral malaria. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10413 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the platelet derived mediators we have identified as particularly important is platelet factor 4/CXCL4...
  11. Mueller A, Meiser A, McDonagh E, Fox J, Petit S, Xanthou G, et al. CXCL4-induced migration of activated T lymphocytes is mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR3. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:875-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In such a setting, antagonism of the CXCR3/CXCL4 axis may represent a useful, therapeutic intervention. ..
  12. von Hundelshausen P, Petersen F, Brandt E. Platelet-derived chemokines in vascular biology. Thromb Haemost. 2007;97:704-13 pubmed
    ..connective tissue activating protein III (CTAP-III) and its precursors, or truncation products (CXCL7), platelet factor 4, (PF4, CXCL4) and its variant PF4alt (CXCL4L1) or regulated upon activation and normal T cell expressed and ..
  13. Weiss B, Shumway N, Howard R, Ketchum L, Reid T. Optical density values correlate with the clinical probability of heparin induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2008;26:243-7 pubmed
    ..00 for these probability scores were 1.5%, 6.8%, and 36.8%, respectively (P < 0.0005). Heparin-PF4 ELISA optical density values increase with increasing probability of heparin induced thrombocytopenia. ..
  14. Hursting M, Pai P, McCracken J, Hwang F, Suvarna S, Lokhnygina Y, et al. Platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in blood bank donors. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;134:774-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibody, typically associated with heparin therapy, is reported in some heparin-naive people. Seroprevalence in the general population, however, remains unclear...
  15. Tiedt R, Schomber T, Hao Shen H, Skoda R. Pf4-Cre transgenic mice allow the generation of lineage-restricted gene knockouts for studying megakaryocyte and platelet function in vivo. Blood. 2007;109:1503-6 pubmed
    ..bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone by homologous recombination and replaced the first exon of the platelet factor 4 (Pf4), also called CXCL4, with a codon-improved Cre cDNA...
  16. Janatpour K, Gosselin R, Dager W, Lee A, Owings J, Zhou J, et al. Usefulness of optical density values from heparin-platelet factor 4 antibody testing and probability scoring models to diagnose heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007;127:429-33 pubmed
    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a complication caused by antibodies directed to the heparin-platelet factor 4 (PF4) complex with a seemingly paradoxical high risk of thrombosis...
  17. Avidan M, Smith J, Skrupky L, Hill L, Jacobsohn E, Burnside B, et al. The occurrence of antibodies to heparin-platelet factor 4 in cardiac and thoracic surgical patients receiving desirudin or heparin for postoperative venous thrombosis prophylaxis. Thromb Res. 2011;128:524-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary outcome measure was the incidence of new antibody formation directed against platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complex. Secondary outcomes included bleeding and thrombotic complications...
  18. Mosnier L. Platelet factor 4 inhibits thrombomodulin-dependent activation of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) by thrombin. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:502-10 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4), a platelet ?-granule protein and a soluble cofactor for TM-dependent protein C activation, stimulates ..
  19. Lambert M, Rauova L, Bailey M, Sola Visner M, Kowalska M, Poncz M. Platelet factor 4 is a negative autocrine in vivo regulator of megakaryopoiesis: clinical and therapeutic implications. Blood. 2007;110:1153-60 pubmed
    b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is a negative regulator of megakaryopoiesis in vitro. We have now examined whether PF4 regulates megakaryopoiesis in vivo by studying PF4 knockout mice and transgenic mice that overexpress human (h) PF4...
  20. Schiemann F, Grimm T, Hoch J, Gross R, Lindner B, Petersen F, et al. Mast cells and neutrophils proteolytically activate chemokine precursor CTAP-III and are subject to counterregulation by PF-4 through inhibition of chymase and cathepsin G. Blood. 2006;107:2234-42 pubmed
    The CXC chemokines platelet factor 4 (PF-4/CXCL4) and connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP-III) are released by activated human platelets in micromolar concentrations...
  21. Cervi D, Yip T, Bhattacharya N, Podust V, Peterson J, Abou Slaybi A, et al. Platelet-associated PF-4 as a biomarker of early tumor growth. Blood. 2008;111:1201-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that platelet-associated PF-4, but not its plasma counterpart, may represent a potential biomarker of early tumor presence. ..
  22. Greinacher A, Gopinadhan M, Günther J, Omer Adam M, Strobel U, Warkentin T, et al. Close approximation of two platelet factor 4 tetramers by charge neutralization forms the antigens recognized by HIT antibodies. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:2386-93 pubmed
    ..HIT) is a prothrombotic drug reaction caused by antibodies that recognize positively charged platelet factor 4 (PF4), bound to the polyanion, heparin. The resulting immune complexes activate platelets...
  23. McMorran B, Wieczorski L, Drysdale K, Chan J, Huang H, Smith C, et al. Platelet factor 4 and Duffy antigen required for platelet killing of Plasmodium falciparum. Science. 2012;338:1348-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the platelet molecule platelet factor 4 (PF4 or CXCL4) and the erythrocyte Duffy-antigen receptor (Fy) are necessary for platelet-mediated killing ..
  24. Thachil J. The prothrombotic potential of platelet factor 4. Eur J Intern Med. 2010;21:79-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This article explains the important role of PF4 released during platelet activation with the administration of heparin in the pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in HIT. ..
  25. Peterson J, Zurakowski D, Italiano J, Michel L, Connors S, Oenick M, et al. VEGF, PF4 and PDGF are elevated in platelets of colorectal cancer patients. Angiogenesis. 2012;15:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), platelet factor 4 (PF4), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and endostatin in 35 patients with colon cancer were compared with 84 age-..
  26. Warkentin T, Sheppard J, Moore J, Sigouin C, Kelton J. Quantitative interpretation of optical density measurements using PF4-dependent enzyme-immunoassays. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:1304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In our laboratory, the probability of HIT antibodies being present reached >or=50% only when the OD level was >or=1.40 units. ..
  27. Fiedler G, Leichtle A, Kase J, Baumann S, Ceglarek U, Felix K, et al. Serum peptidome profiling revealed platelet factor 4 as a potential discriminating Peptide associated with pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:3812-9 pubmed publisher
    ..00). Mass spectrometry-based m/z 3884 peak identification and following immunologic quantitation revealed platelet factor 4 as the corresponding peptide...
  28. Kasper B, Petersen F. Molecular pathways of platelet factor 4/CXCL4 signaling. Eur J Cell Biol. 2011;90:521-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of the studies reviewed here help to understand the molecular basis of CXCL4's functional diversity and provide insights into integrated signaling processes in general. ..
  29. Koenen R, von Hundelshausen P, Nesmelova I, Zernecke A, Liehn E, Sarabi A, et al. Disrupting functional interactions between platelet chemokines inhibits atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. Nat Med. 2009;15:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish the in vivo relevance of chemokine heteromers and show the potential of targeting heteromer formation to achieve therapeutic effects. ..
  30. Kawano H, Toyoda K, Miyata S, Yamamoto H, Okamoto A, Kakutani I, et al. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a serious complication of heparin therapy for acute stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2008;26:641-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of HIT was 0.5% based on both the clinical scoring systems and serological assays. Monitoring for HIT should be included in the medical management of stroke to avoid further complications. ..
  31. Aidoudi S, Bikfalvi A. Interaction of PF4 (CXCL4) with the vasculature: a role in atherosclerosis and angiogenesis. Thromb Haemost. 2010;104:941-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, while much is already known about PF4, its specific role in atherosclerosis and angiogenesis remains still to be clarified. ..
  32. Kowalska M, Rauova L, Poncz M. Role of the platelet chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) in hemostasis and thrombosis. Thromb Res. 2010;125:292-6 pubmed publisher
    ..or predominantly within platelets and released in large amounts at sites of platelet activation such as platelet factor 4 (PF4, CXCL4) and its closely related chemokine, platelet basic protein (PBP, CXCL7)...
  33. Dubrac A, Quemener C, Lacazette E, Lopez F, Zanibellato C, Wu W, et al. Functional divergence between 2 chemokines is conferred by single amino acid change. Blood. 2010;116:4703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations are not only of great significance for the antiangiogenic activity of CXCL4L1 and for its potential use in clinical development but also for other biologic processes such as inflammation, thrombosis or tissue repair. ..
  34. Srivastava K, Cockburn I, Swaim A, Thompson L, Tripathi A, Fletcher C, et al. Platelet factor 4 mediates inflammation in experimental cerebral malaria. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We now demonstrate that the platelet-derived chemokine, platelet factor 4 (PF4)/CXCL4, promotes the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM)...
  35. Arepally G, Hursting M. Platelet factor 4/heparin antibody (IgG/M/A) in healthy subjects: a literature analysis of commercial immunoassay results. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2008;26:55-61 pubmed publisher
    We determined the seroprevalence of platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies in healthy subjects...
  36. Kasper B, Brandt E, Brandau S, Petersen F. Platelet factor 4 (CXC chemokine ligand 4) differentially regulates respiratory burst, survival, and cytokine expression of human monocytes by using distinct signaling pathways. J Immunol. 2007;179:2584-91 pubmed
    b>Platelet factor 4 (PF4; CXCL4) is an abundant platelet alpha-granule CXC chemokine with unique functions...
  37. Struyf S, Salogni L, Burdick M, Vandercappellen J, Gouwy M, Noppen S, et al. Angiostatic and chemotactic activities of the CXC chemokine CXCL4L1 (platelet factor-4 variant) are mediated by CXCR3. Blood. 2011;117:480-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the in vivo data indicate that the angiostatic property of CXCL4L1 is equally important in retarding tumor growth. Thus, both CXCR3A and CXCR3B are implicated in the chemotactic and vascular effects of CXCL4L1. ..
  38. Juhl D, Eichler P, Lubenow N, Strobel U, Wessel A, Greinacher A. Incidence and clinical significance of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies of the IgG, IgM, and IgA class in 755 consecutive patient samples referred for diagnostic testing for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Eur J Haematol. 2006;76:420-6 pubmed
    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is usually caused by anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies, leading to intravascular platelet activation...
  39. Gleissner C, Shaked I, Little K, Ley K. CXC chemokine ligand 4 induces a unique transcriptome in monocyte-derived macrophages. J Immunol. 2010;184:4810-8 pubmed publisher
    ..presence of growth factors, such as macrophage colony-stimulation factor (M-CSF), and chemokines, such as platelet factor 4 (CXCL4)...
  40. Warkentin T, Cook R, Marder V, Greinacher A. Anti-PF4/heparin antibody formation postorthopedic surgery thromboprophylaxis: the role of non-drug risk factors and evidence for a stoichiometry-based model of immunization. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:504-12 pubmed publisher
  41. Kress D, Aronson S, McDonald M, Malik M, Divgi A, Tector A, et al. Positive heparin-platelet factor 4 antibody complex and cardiac surgical outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83:1737-43 pubmed
    ..This observational study was conducted to determine the incidence of preoperative heparin-platelet factor 4 (HPF4) antibodies and to assess the associated risk of postoperative adverse outcomes in a nonselected ..
  42. Pouplard C, Gueret P, Fouassier M, Ternisien C, Trossaert M, Regina S, et al. Prospective evaluation of the '4Ts' score and particle gel immunoassay specific to heparin/PF4 for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:1373-9 pubmed
    ..9% before assay to 0.6%, whereas a positive result did not substantially increase the likelihood for HIT. The use of the 4Ts score with PaGIA appears to be a reliable strategy to rule out HIT. ..
  43. Greinacher A, Kohlmann T, Strobel U, Sheppard J, Warkentin T. The temporal profile of the anti-PF4/heparin immune response. Blood. 2009;113:4970-6 pubmed publisher
  44. Tamagawa Mineoka R, Katoh N, Ueda E, Masuda K, Kishimoto S. Elevated platelet activation in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis: increased plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4. Allergol Int. 2008;57:391-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This work was performed to investigate plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) as platelet activation markers in patients with AD or psoriasis, and to determine the relationships ..
  45. Woller G, Brandt E, Mittelstädt J, Rybakowski C, Petersen F. Platelet factor 4/CXCL4-stimulated human monocytes induce apoptosis in endothelial cells by the release of oxygen radicals. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:936-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigate the impact of the platelet-derived CXC chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4) on the interaction of human monocytes and EC...
  46. Benny O, Kim S, Gvili K, Radzishevsky I, Mor A, Verduzco L, et al. In vivo fate and therapeutic efficacy of PF-4/CTF microspheres in an orthotopic human glioblastoma model. FASEB J. 2008;22:488-99 pubmed
    ..device that overcomes those barriers by providing sustained local delivery of a C-terminal fragment of platelet factor 4 (PF-4/CTF), an antiangiogenic agent...
  47. Matsuo T, Kobayashi H, Matsuo M, Wanaka K, Nakamoto H, Matsushima H, et al. Frequency of anti-heparin-PF4 complex antibodies (HIT antibodies) in uremic patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2006;35:445-50 pubmed
    ..In some patients on chronic intermittent dialysis carrying HIT antibodies, HIT may occur following rHuEPO treatment. The presence of HIT should be borne in mind in chronic dialysis patients carrying HIT antibodies for 3 months or more. ..
  48. Strutt J, Mackey J, Johnson S, Sylvia L. Assessment of the 4Ts pretest clinical scoring system as a predictor of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Pharmacotherapy. 2011;31:138-45 pubmed publisher
    ..immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed between December 1, 2008, and April 1, 2009, for detection of platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin antibodies...
  49. Kowalska M, Mahmud S, Lambert M, Poncz M, Slungaard A. Endogenous platelet factor 4 stimulates activated protein C generation in vivo and improves survival after thrombin or lipopolysaccharide challenge. Blood. 2007;110:1903-5 pubmed
    Pharmacologic infusion of activated protein C (APC) improves survival in severe sepsis, and platelet factor 4 (PF4) accelerates APC generation in a primate thrombin-infusion model...
  50. Poon T, Pang R, Chan K, Lee N, Chiu R, Tong Y, et al. Proteomic analysis reveals platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin as prognostic markers in severe acute respiratory syndrome. Electrophoresis. 2012;33:1894-900 pubmed publisher
    ..chromatography and gel electrophoresis, proteomic features of m/z 7769 and m/z 8865 were found to be platelet factor 4 (PF4) and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) by tandem mass spectrometry, respectively...
  51. Struyf S, Burdick M, Peeters E, Van den Broeck K, Dillen C, Proost P, et al. Platelet factor-4 variant chemokine CXCL4L1 inhibits melanoma and lung carcinoma growth and metastasis by preventing angiogenesis. Cancer Res. 2007;67:5940-8 pubmed
    ..These data confirm the clinical potential of locally released chemokines in cancer therapy. ..
  52. Tabruyn S, Griffioen A. Molecular pathways of angiogenesis inhibition. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;355:1-5 pubmed
    ..In the current review, these pathways are discussed. A thorough understanding of the mechanism of action of angiostatic agents is required to develop efficient anti-tumor therapies. ..
  53. Liu T, Zhang T, Fukuhara H, Kuroda T, Todo T, Martuza R, et al. Oncolytic HSV armed with platelet factor 4, an antiangiogenic agent, shows enhanced efficacy. Mol Ther. 2006;14:789-97 pubmed
    ..We examined the strategy of arming oncolytic HSV with an antiangiogenic transgene, platelet factor 4 (PF4)...