plasminogen activator inhibitor 1


Summary: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.

Top Publications

  1. Ferroni P, Roselli M, Portarena I, Formica V, Riondino S, La Farina F, et al. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in breast cancer - relationship with clinical outcome. Anticancer Res. 2014;34:1153-61 pubmed
    ..5, p=0.021) and overall survival (hazard ratio=2.7, p=0.002). Determination of plasma PAI-1 levels might provide important prognostic information in risk stratification and survival outcomes for patients with breast cancer. ..
  2. Samarakoon R, Overstreet J, Higgins P. TGF-? signaling in tissue fibrosis: redox controls, target genes and therapeutic opportunities. Cell Signal. 2013;25:264-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting ROS and ROS-activated cellular events is likely to have therapeutic implications in the management of fibrotic disorders, particularly in the context of prolonged TGF-?1 signaling. ..
  3. Sakamoto M, Suzuki H, Hayashi T, Iuchi H, Isaka T, Sakamoto N, et al. Effects of candesartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on inflammatory parameters and their relationship to pulse pressure. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:118 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with pulse pressure <60?mmHg might receive protective benefits by candesartan. UMIN000007921. ..
  4. Sashindranath M, Sales E, Daglas M, Freeman R, Samson A, Cops E, et al. The tissue-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 complex promotes neurovascular injury in brain trauma: evidence from mice and humans. Brain. 2012;135:3251-64 pubmed publisher
  5. Elzi D, Lai Y, Song M, Hakala K, Weintraub S, Shiio Y. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1--insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 cascade regulates stress-induced senescence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12052-7 pubmed publisher inhibited by tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated proteolysis, which is counteracted by plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), another secreted mediator of senescence...
  6. Kenny S, Gamble J, Lyons S, Vlatkovic N, Dimaline R, Varro A, et al. Gastric expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is associated with hyperphagia and obesity in mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, gastric expression of PAI-1 is associated with hyperphagia, moderate obesity, and resistance to the satiating effects of CCK indicating a new role in suppressing signals from the upper gut that inhibit food intake...
  7. Ichimura A, Matsumoto S, Suzuki S, Dan T, Yamaki S, Sato Y, et al. A small molecule inhibitor to plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 inhibits macrophage migration. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:935-42 pubmed publisher
  8. Magdoud K, Herbepin V, Touraine R, Almawi W, Mahjoub T. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 4G/5G and -844G/A variants in idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2013;70:246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and -844G/4G (P = 0.011) haplotypes with increased RPL risk. 4G/5G, but not -844G/A, PAI-1 variant is associated with an increased risk of RPL. ..
  9. Barreto D, Coester A, Struijk D, Krediet R. Can effluent matrix metalloproteinase 2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 be used as biomarkers of peritoneal membrane alterations in peritoneal dialysis patients?. Perit Dial Int. 2013;33:529-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated intraperitoneal levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) have been demonstrated to be present in patients with intra-abdominal adhesions...

More Information


  1. Spruss A, Henkel J, Kanuri G, Blank D, Püschel G, Bischoff S, et al. Female mice are more susceptible to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: sex-specific regulation of the hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase-plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 cascade, but not the hepatic endotoxin response. Mol Med. 2012;18:1346-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Portal endotoxin levels and markers of Kupffer cell activation and insulin resistance, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (pAMPK ) were measured ..
  2. Trelle M, Hirschberg D, Jansson A, Ploug M, Roepstorff P, Andreasen P, et al. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry reveals specific changes in the local flexibility of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 upon binding to the somatomedin B domain of vitronectin. Biochemistry. 2012;51:8256-66 pubmed publisher
    The native fold of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) represents an active metastable conformation that spontaneously converts to an inactive latent form...
  3. Perés Wingeyer S, Cunto E, Nogueras C, San Juan J, Gomez N, De Larrañaga G. Biomarkers in sepsis at time zero: intensive care unit scores, plasma measurements and polymorphisms in Argentina. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2012;6:555-62 pubmed
    ..In the future, ICU scores may be further improved by adding certain genomic or plasma data.  ..
  4. Harbeck N, Schmitt M, Meisner C, Friedel C, Untch M, Schmidt M, et al. Ten-year analysis of the prospective multicentre Chemo-N0 trial validates American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)-recommended biomarkers uPA and PAI-1 for therapy decision making in node-negative breast cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:1825-35 pubmed publisher
    ..They thus support the guideline-based routine use of uPA/PAI-1 for risk-adapted individualised therapy decisions in N0 breast cancer. ..
  5. Van De Craen B, Declerck P, Gils A. The Biochemistry, Physiology and Pathological roles of PAI-1 and the requirements for PAI-1 inhibition in vivo. Thromb Res. 2012;130:576-85 pubmed publisher
  6. Fang H, PLACENCIO V, DeClerck Y. Protumorigenic activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 through an antiapoptotic function. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104:1470-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that PAI-1 exerts a protective effect against tumor cell apoptosis by a mechanism that, in part, involves plasmin activation and inhibition of Fas/Fas-L-mediated apoptosis and may be a promising therapeutic target. ..
  7. Peluso J, Yuan A, Liu X, Lodde V. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein interacts with progesterone receptor membrane component 1 to regulate progesterone's ability to maintain the viability of spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells and rat granulosa cells. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:20 pubmed publisher
    ..PGRMC1 interacts with plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein (PAIRBP1), but the functional significance of this interaction is unknown...
  8. Gonzalez M, Del Mar Bibiloni M, Pons A, Llompart I, Tur J. Inflammatory markers and metabolic syndrome among adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:1141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured...
  9. Ahmed W, Malik M, Saeed I, Khan A, Sadeque A, Kaleem U, et al. Role of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor polymorphism in myocardial infarction. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:2541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..72, OR=3.7 (95% CI=1.71-8.18)) and lower HDL levels (P<0.05) were found to be significantly associated with the disease. In conclusion the PAI-1 gene polymorphism was found to have a gender specific role in the female MI patients. ..
  10. Schmitt M, Harbeck N, Brunner N, Janicke F, Meisner C, Mühlenweg B, et al. Cancer therapy trials employing level-of-evidence-1 disease forecast cancer biomarkers uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2011;11:617-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The therapeutic effect of a uPA-derived small-size synthetic peptide (Å6) is tested in advanced ovarian cancer patients. ..
  11. Gogitidze Joy N, Hedrington M, Briscoe V, Tate D, Ertl A, Davis S. Effects of acute hypoglycemia on inflammatory and pro-atherothrombotic biomarkers in individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy individuals. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that acute hypoglycemia can result in complex vascular effects including activation of prothrombotic, proinflammatory, and pro-atherogenic mechanisms in individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy individuals. ..
  12. Cho S, Kang J, Lyttle C, Harris K, Daley B, Grammer L, et al. Association of elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels with diminished lung function in patients with asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;106:371-7 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) was upregulated in human asthmatic airways and promotes airway fibrosis in an allergen-challenged murine model of asthma...
  13. Padilla Gutiérrez J, Palafox Sánchez C, Valle Y, Orozco Barocio G, Oregon Romero E, Vazquez Del Mercado M, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 polymorphisms (-844 G>A and HindIII C>G) in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with clinical variables. Clin Exp Med. 2011;11:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1, 95% CI, 1.45-6.52; P = 0.003). The AC haplotype of the -844 and HindIII PAI-1 polymorphism might be an additional susceptibility factor to SLE in Mexicans. ..
  14. Li H, Zhang X, Guan X, Cui X, Wang Y, Chu H, et al. Advanced glycation end products impair the migration, adhesion and secretion potentials of late endothelial progenitor cells. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence that AGEs play an important role in impairing late EPC functions, which could contribute to the development of vascular diseases in diabetes. ..
  15. Bernot D, Stalin J, Stocker P, Bonardo B, Scroyen I, Alessi M, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 is an intracellular inhibitor of furin proprotein convertase. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:1224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the serine protease inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) forms an SDS-stable complex with the PC furin, which leads to the inhibition of the intra-..
  16. Patel N, Tahara S, Malik P, Kalra V. Involvement of miR-30c and miR-301a in immediate induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by placental growth factor in human pulmonary endothelial cells. Biochem J. 2011;434:473-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, plasma levels of miR-30c and miR-301a were significantly down-regulated in patients with SCA compared with normal controls. These results provide a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of PlGF-induced PAI-1 elevation. ..
  17. Ashavaid T, Todur S, Kondkar A, Nair K, Shalia K, Dalal J, et al. Platelet polymorphisms: frequency distribution and association with coronary artery disease in an Indian population. Platelets. 2011;22:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to evaluate the role of gene polymorphisms in both the thrombotic and fibrinolytic pathway in the Indian population and suggests that tPA I/D polymorphism confers CAD risk in our population. ..
  18. Mengele K, Napieralski R, Magdolen V, Reuning U, Gkazepis A, Sweep F, et al. Characteristics of the level-of-evidence-1 disease forecast cancer biomarkers uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2010;10:947-62 pubmed publisher
  19. Shapiro N, Schuetz P, Yano K, Sorasaki M, Parikh S, Jones A, et al. The association of endothelial cell signaling, severity of illness, and organ dysfunction in sepsis. Crit Care. 2010;14:R182 pubmed publisher
    ..An improved understanding of endothelial response and associated biomarkers may lead to strategies to more accurately predict outcome and develop novel endothelium-directed therapies in sepsis. ..
  20. Hultman K, Tjarnlund Wolf A, Odeberg J, Eriksson P, Jern C. Allele-specific transcription of the PAI-1 gene in human astrocytes. Thromb Haemost. 2010;104:998-1008 pubmed publisher
  21. Weng C, Tsai C, Chen Y, Hsieh Y, Lin C, Liu Y, et al. Evaluation of the association of urokinase plasminogen activator system gene polymorphisms with susceptibility and pathological development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:3394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that PAI-1 genotypes could be an important factor contributing to increased susceptibility and pathological development of HCC in Taiwanese population. ..
  22. Muth M, Hussein K, Jacobi C, Kreipe H, Bock O. Hypoxia-induced down-regulation of microRNA-449a/b impairs control over targeted SERPINE1 (PAI-1) mRNA - a mechanism involved in SERPINE1 (PAI-1) overexpression. J Transl Med. 2011;9:24 pubmed publisher
    ..After publication of our article 1, we realized the need for posting a correction note in order to prevent i) overinterpretation of some results by the readers and ii) concerns about potentially unintended misguidance by the authors. ..
  23. Teng H, Chopp M, Hozeska Solgot A, Shen L, Lu M, Tang C, et al. Tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 contribute to sonic hedgehog-induced in vitro cerebral angiogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33444 pubmed publisher
    ..This was associated with increases in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activation and reduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1)...
  24. Märkl B, Renk I, Oruzio D, Jähnig H, Schenkirsch G, Schöler C, et al. Tumour budding, uPA and PAI-1 are associated with aggressive behaviour in colon cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2010;102:235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..007 and P = 0.004, respectively). The results of our study show that tumour budding and the plasmin/plasminogen system are related. PAI-1 was independently predictive for the occurrence of distant metastasis. ..
  25. Alessi M, Nicaud V, Scroyen I, Lange C, Saut N, Fumeron F, et al. Association of vitronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels with the risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results from the D.E.S.I.R. prospective cohort. Thromb Haemost. 2011;106:416-22 pubmed publisher
    ..0009). In conclusion, baseline plasma vitronectin is a marker of incident MetS at nine years. Its predictive ability for MetS and T2DM should not be assessed independently of PAI-1 levels. ..
  26. Su C, Yeh K, Yeh C, Wang P, Ho E, Chou M, et al. Genetic polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2011;104:755-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Individuals with PAI-1 rs1799889 4G/4G genotype were at significantly higher risk of endometrial cancer in this study. ..
  27. Bicakcigil M, Tasan D, Tasdelen N, Mutlu N, Yavuz S. Role of fibrinolytic parameters and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) promoter polymorphism on premature atherosclerosis in SLE patients. Lupus. 2011;20:1063-71 pubmed publisher
    ..006) compared with 4G5G/5G5G genotypes. The present study suggests that measuring fibrinolytic parameters would have little additional benefit beyond traditional and novel risk factors in predicting coronary artery disease (CAD). ..
  28. Schmitt M, Mengele K, Napieralski R, Magdolen V, Reuning U, Gkazepis A, et al. Clinical utility of level-of-evidence-1 disease forecast cancer biomarkers uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2010;10:1051-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, small synthetic molecules targeting uPA are currently in Phase II clinical trials in patients afflicted with advanced cancer of the ovary, breast or pancreas. ..
  29. Brogren H, Wallmark K, Deinum J, Karlsson L, Jern S. Platelets retain high levels of active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26762 pubmed publisher
    The vascular fibrinolytic system is crucial for spontaneous lysis of blood clots. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), the principal inhibitor of the key fibrinolytic enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), is present in ..
  30. Ju H, Lim B, Kim M, Noh S, Kim W, Ihm C, et al. SERPINE1 intron polymorphisms affecting gene expression are associated with diffuse-type gastric cancer susceptibility. Cancer. 2010;116:4248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..An association between SERPINE1 and DGC susceptibility was observed with 4 correlated polymorphisms in intron 7 rather than the 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter, although all polymorphisms affected gene expression. ..
  31. Alvarez M, DISTEFANO J. Functional characterization of the plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 gene (PVT1) in diabetic nephropathy. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18671 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PVT1 may mediate the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy through mechanisms involving ECM accumulation. ..
  32. Al Hamodi Z, Ismail I, Saif Ali R, Ahmed K, Muniandy S. Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in Malaysian subjects. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:23 pubmed publisher
    ..319, P = 9.9 × 10?¹²; R² = -0.228, P = 3.4 × 10??) in diabetic subjects. PAI-1 and tPA activities and antigens were associated with diabetes and MetS parameters in Malaysian subjects. ..
  33. Lanktree M, Johansen C, Anand S, Davis A, Miller R, Yusuf S, et al. Genetic variation in hyaluronan metabolism loci is associated with plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration. Blood. 2010;116:2160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein products of 2 of these loci, hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2) and hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL1), play key roles in hyaluronan metabolism, providing genetic evidence to link these pathways. ..
  34. Hyland N, Chambers A, Keenan C, Pittman Q, Sharkey K. Differential adipokine response in genetically predisposed lean and obese rats during inflammation: a role in modulating experimental colitis?. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G869-77 pubmed
  35. Wong H. Genetics and genomics in pediatric septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2012;40:1618-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Pediatric sepsis and septic shock are increasingly being studied by genetic and genomic approaches and the accumulating data hold the promise of enhancing our future approach to this ongoing clinical problem. ..
  36. Tee Y, Wang P, Tsai H, Lin L, Lin H, Yang S, et al. Genetic polymorphism of urokinase-type plasminogen activator is interacting with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 to raise risk of cervical neoplasia. J Surg Oncol. 2012;106:204-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined polymorphism of uPA/PAI-1 might diminish the ability of PAI-1 to inhibiting cervical cancer carcinogenesis when PAI-1 alone as the role of inhibitor. ..
  37. Bayram B, Sayin E, Erkasap N, Onlü H, Ozkurt M, Sahin F, et al. Lack of association between plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G polymorphism and osteoarthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32:259-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has established that 4G/5G polymorphism genotypes of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 gene do not play a role in the development of osteoarthritis in the Turkish population. ..
  38. Nørsett K, Steele I, Duval C, Sammut S, Murugesan S, Kenny S, et al. Gastrin stimulates expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in gastric epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;301:G446-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that elevated plasma gastrin concentrations are associated with increased expression of gastric PAI-1, which may act to restrain gastrin-stimulated cell migration and invasion. ..
  39. Fersching D, Nagel D, Siegele B, Salat C, Heinemann V, Holdenrieder S, et al. Apoptosis-related biomarkers sFAS, MIF, ICAM-1 and PAI-1 in serum of breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:2047-58 pubmed
    ..factor (MIF), soluble cell death receptor sFAS, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as well as the oncological biomarkers carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate ..
  40. Raeven P, Feichtinger G, Weixelbaumer K, Atzenhofer S, Redl H, van Griensven M, et al. Compartment-specific expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 correlates with severity/outcome of murine polymicrobial sepsis. Thromb Res. 2012;129:e238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymicrobial sepsis caused a gradual circulating PAI-1 release and highly variable gene expression response pattern in organs. Only circulating PAI-1 and PAI-1 expression in the LCVC correlated with response severity and/or outcome. ..
  41. Samarakoon R, Overstreet J, Higgins S, Higgins P. TGF-?1 ? SMAD/p53/USF2 ? PAI-1 transcriptional axis in ureteral obstruction-induced renal fibrosis. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;347:117-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanisms discussed here appear to be operative in other renal fibrotic disorders and are relevant to the global issue of tissue fibrosis, regardless of organ site. ..
  42. Jiang Q, Gingles N, Olivier M, Miles L, Parmer R. The anti-fibrinolytic SERPIN, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), is targeted to and released from catecholamine storage vesicles. Blood. 2011;117:7155-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, PAI-1 is expressed in chromaffin cells, sorted into the regulated pathway of secretion (into catecholamine storage vesicles), and coreleased, by exocytosis, with catecholamines in response to secretogogues...
  43. Han H, Wecker T, Grehn F, Schlunck G. Elasticity-dependent modulation of TGF-? responses in human trabecular meshwork cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2889-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, changes in TM elasticity and mechanical load may have a significant role in primary open-angle glaucoma. ..
  44. Munoz Garcia B, Madrigal Matute J, Moreno J, Martin Ventura J, Lopez Franco O, Sastre C, et al. TWEAK-Fn14 interaction enhances plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and tissue factor expression in atherosclerotic plaques and in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;89:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..examined whether TWEAK regulates expression of prothrombotic factors such as tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) in atherosclerotic plaques as well as in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (hASMCs) ..
  45. Saucy F, Probst H, Alonso F, Berard X, Deglise S, Dunoyer Geindre S, et al. Ex vivo pulsatile perfusion of human saphenous veins induces intimal hyperplasia and increased levels of the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Eur Surg Res. 2010;45:50-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In our EVVSS model, the activity as well as the mRNA and protein expression levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, the inhibitor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (..
  46. Simon D, Martín Bermejo M, Gallego Hernández M, Pastrana E, García Escudero V, García Gómez A, et al. Expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by olfactory ensheathing glia promotes axonal regeneration. Glia. 2011;59:1458-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support an important role for the thrombin system in regulating adult axonal regeneration by OEGs. ..
  47. Paulus P, Jennewein C, Zacharowski K. Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction: can they help us deciphering systemic inflammation and sepsis?. Biomarkers. 2011;16 Suppl 1:S11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides an overview of the most important endothelial biomarkers and their possible use in sepsis. ..
  48. Zmijewski J, Bae H, Deshane J, Peterson C, Chaplin D, Abraham E. Inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis by PAI-1. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;301:L247-54 pubmed publisher
    Increased circulating and tissue levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) are often present in severe inflammatory states associated with neutrophil activation and accumulation and correlate with poor clinical outcome from ..
  49. D Elia A, Fabbro D, Driul L, Barillari G, Marchesoni D, Damante G. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene polymorphisms in pre-eclampsia. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2011;37:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The most relevant association studies between PAI-1 gene polymorphisms and P-EC are reviewed. Results indicate that the 4G/4G genotype of the -675 4G/5G polymorphism represents a weak risk factor for P-EC. ..
  50. Malinowsky K, Böllner C, Hipp S, Berg D, Schmitt M, Becker K. UPA and PAI-1 analysis from fixed tissues - new perspectives for a known set of predictive markers. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17:4370-7 pubmed
  51. Brown N. Therapeutic potential of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 inhibitors. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;4:315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of PAI-1 is a potential therapeutic strategy in these diseases. ..
  52. Haiko J, Laakkonen L, Juuti K, Kalkkinen N, Korhonen T. The omptins of Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica cleave the reactive center loop of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:4553-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) and a key molecule that regulates fibrinolysis by inactivating human plasminogen activators...
  53. Lee M, Hammad S, Semler A, Luttrell L, Lopes Virella M, Klein R. HDL3, but not HDL2, stimulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 release from adipocytes: the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:2619-28 pubmed publisher