antithrombin iii


Summary: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.

Top Publications

  1. Gritti D, Malinverno A, Gasparetto C, Wiedermann C, Ricevuti R. Attenuation of leukocyte beta 2-integrin expression by antithrombin-III. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2004;17:27-32 pubmed
    ..As leukocyte integrin expression is triggered by extracorporeal circulation, this observation may be of relevance for pharmacological treatment during cardiopulmonary bypass. ..
  2. Turpie A, Fisher W, Bauer K, Kwong L, Irwin M, Kalebo P, et al. BAY 59-7939: an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients after total knee replacement. A phase II dose-ranging study. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:2479-86 pubmed
    ..5-10 mg b.i.d. of BAY 59-7939, early in the postoperative period, showed potential efficacy and an acceptable safety profile, similar to enoxaparin, for the prevention of VTE in patients undergoing elective total knee replacement. ..
  3. Staikou C, Paraskeva A, Drakos E, Anastassopoulou I, Papaioannou E, Donta I, et al. Impact of graded hypothermia on coagulation and fibrinolysis. J Surg Res. 2011;167:125-30 pubmed publisher was to investigate the effect of graded hypothermia on markers of the anticoagulant system (antithrombin III and protein C) and fibrinolytic system (plasminogen, ?(2)-antiplasmin), and on vascular wall and other tissue ..
  4. Li T, Chen T, Lin H, Liou C, Liu J, Chen S, et al. Uncoupling of protein C and antithrombin III activity in cerebral ischemia patients associated with cutis marmorata. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2008;17:233-8 pubmed
    ..A total of 32 patients were found to have cutis marmorata. The blood protein C activity, protein S activity, antithrombin III activity, platelet count, fibrinogen and frequency of abnormal antiphospholipid antibody level were similar ..
  5. Asmal M, Seaman M, Lin W, Chung R, Letvin N, Geiben Lynn R. Inhibition of HCV by the serpin antithrombin III. Virol J. 2012;9:226 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that ATIII stimulates a novel innate antiviral host cell defense different from current treatment options. ..
  6. Miyazaki M, Kato M, Tanaka M, Tanaka K, Takao S, Kohjima M, et al. Antithrombin III injection via the portal vein suppresses liver damage. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:1884-91 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of antithrombin III (AT III) injection via the portal vein in acute liver failure...
  7. Oh D, Jang M, Lee S, Chong S, Kang M, Wada H. Evaluation of modified non-overt DIC criteria on the prediction of poor outcome in patients with sepsis. Thromb Res. 2010;126:18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..777) was significantly increased to 0.878 (P=0.018). However, neither AT nor PC increased the AUC. Addition of OSF to the ISTH criteria for non-overt DIC gives a better prediction of poor outcome in patients with sepsis. ..
  8. Hagiwara S, Iwasaka H, Shingu C, Matsumoto S, Uchida T, Noguchi T. High-dose antithrombin III prevents heat stroke by attenuating systemic inflammation in rats. Inflamm Res. 2010;59:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although anticoagulants, such as antithrombin III (AT III), inhibit inflammation resulting from various causes, their anti-inflammatory mechanism of action is ..
  9. El Beshlawy A, Alaraby I, Abou Hussein H, Abou Elew H, Mohamed Abdel Kader M. Study of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III in newborns with sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010;11:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of sepsis on the physiologic inhibition system of coagulation including protein S, protein C, and antithrombin III, and to study their further effect on thromboembolic accidents of septic newborns...

More Information


  1. Kaku B, Katsuda S, Taguchi T, Nitta Y, Hiraiwa Y. A case of acute myocardial infarction with repetitive stent thrombosis during emergent percutaneous coronary intervention. Transient decrease in antithrombin III activity and heparin resistance. Int Heart J. 2009;50:111-9 pubmed
    ..In the acute phase, a decrease in the antithrombin III activity (65%) was noted and with administration of argatroban, prolongation of the aPTT was achieved...
  2. Sawamura A, Gando S, Hayakawa M, Hoshino H, Kubota N, Sugano M. Effects of antithrombin III in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation diagnosed by newly developed diagnostic criteria for critical illness. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2009;15:561-6 pubmed publisher
    A study was conducted to test the hypotheses that antithrombin III (antithrombin) improves disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) when applied to DIC patients diagnosed by sensitive criteria and that the administration of high-dose ..
  3. Kawanaka H, Akahoshi T, Kinjo N, Konishi K, Yoshida D, Anegawa G, et al. Impact of antithrombin III concentrates on portal vein thrombosis after splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis and hypersplenism. Ann Surg. 2010;251:76-83 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the role of antithrombin III (AT-III) in portal vein thrombosis (PVT) after splenectomy in cirrhotic patients. There is no standard treatment for PVT after splenectomy in liver cirrhosis...
  4. Omasa T, Tanaka R, Doi T, Ando M, Kitamoto Y, Honda K, et al. Decrease in antithrombin III fucosylation by expressing GDP-fucose transporter siRNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biosci Bioeng. 2008;106:168-73 pubmed publisher
    ..When synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) against CHO GFT was introduced into human antithrombin III (AT-III)-producing recombinant CHO cells, defucosylated AT-III increased by 30-40% after 3-d incubation...
  5. Buller H, Lensing A, Prins M, Agnelli G, Cohen A, Gallus A, et al. A dose-ranging study evaluating once-daily oral administration of the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban in the treatment of patients with acute symptomatic deep vein thrombosis: the Einstein-DVT Dose-Ranging Study. Blood. 2008;112:2242-7 pubmed publisher
    ..8% of those receiving standard therapy. These results with simple fixed-dose oral regimens justify phase 3 evaluations ( no.NCT00395772). ..
  6. Koca U, Olguner C, Ozkardesler S, Karci A, Coker C, Tuncel P, et al. Antithrombin III pretreatment reduces neutrophil recruitment into the lung in a rat model of abdominal sepsis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005;49:203-8 pubmed
    b>Antithrombin III (AT III) is a serine protease inhibitor and the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action is still not understood...
  7. Jairajpuri M, Lu A, Desai U, Olson S, Bjork I, Bock S. Antithrombin III phenylalanines 122 and 121 contribute to its high affinity for heparin and its conformational activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15941-50 pubmed
    The dissociation equilibrium constant for heparin binding to antithrombin III (ATIII) is a measure of the cofactor's binding to and activation of the proteinase inhibitor, and its salt dependence indicates that ionic and non-ionic ..
  8. Hagiwara S, Iwasaka H, Matsumoto S, Noguchi T. High dose antithrombin III inhibits HMGB1 and improves endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:361-7 pubmed
    ..Previous work suggests that antithrombin III (ATIII) inhibits inflammation, but the mechanism of action is still poorly understood...
  9. Wiedermann C. Clinical review: molecular mechanisms underlying the role of antithrombin in sepsis. Crit Care. 2006;10:209 pubmed
    ..Final assessment of the drug's effectiveness, however, must await the availability of positive, prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled studies. ..
  10. Hackert T, Werner J, Uhl W, Gebhard M, Buchler M, Schmidt J. Reduction of ischemia/reperfusion injury by antithrombin III after experimental pancreas transplantation. Am J Surg. 2005;189:92-7 pubmed
    Graft pancreatitis is a major complication after pancreas transplantation. Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulatory and anti-inflammatory substance...
  11. Petitou M, van Boeckel C. A synthetic antithrombin III binding pentasaccharide is now a drug! What comes next?. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2004;43:3118-33 pubmed
    ..In the early 1980s it was discovered that a unique pentasaccharide domain in some heparin chains activates antithrombin III (AT-III), a serine protease inhibitor that blocks thrombin and factor Xa in the coagulation cascade...
  12. Geiben Lynn R, Brown N, Walker B, Luster A. Purification of a modified form of bovine antithrombin III as an HIV-1 CD8+ T-cell antiviral factor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42352-7 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that activated CD8(+) T-cells of HIV-1-seropositive individuals modify serum bovine antithrombin III into an HIV-1 inhibitory factor capable of suppressing the replication of X4 HIV-1...
  13. Frost C, Naude R, Muramoto K. Ostrich antithrombin III: kinetics and mechanism of inhibition of ostrich thrombin. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34:1164-71 pubmed
    ..b>Antithrombin III (ATIII) was purified from ostrich plasma by heparin-Sepharose and Super Q-650S chromatography...
  14. Kremser L, Brückner A, Heger A, Grunert T, Buchacher A, Josic D, et al. Characterization of antithrombin III from human plasma by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoretic methods. Electrophoresis. 2003;24:4282-90 pubmed
    The isoforms distribution of the glycoprotein antithrombin III (ATIII) derived from human plasma was investigated by means of isoelectric focusing (IEF) in polyacrylamide gels with immobilized pH gradients (IPG) and two-dimensional gel ..
  15. Kuberan B, Lech M, Beeler D, Wu Z, Rosenberg R. Enzymatic synthesis of antithrombin III-binding heparan sulfate pentasaccharide. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:1343-6 pubmed
    ..We rapidly and efficiently assembled the antithrombin III-binding pentasaccharide in just 6 steps, in contrast to the approximately 60 steps needed for its chemical ..
  16. Imberty A, Lortat Jacob H, Perez S. Structural view of glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions. Carbohydr Res. 2007;342:430-9 pubmed
    ..The example of interactions between heparin and antithrombin III illustrates how such a complex mechanism as the regulation of blood coagulation by a specific pentasaccharide ..
  17. Rublee D, Opal S, Schramm W, Keinecke H, Knaub S. Quality of life effects of antithrombin III in sepsis survivors: results from the KyberSept trial [ISRCTN22931023]. Crit Care. 2002;6:349-56 pubmed
    ..QoL data were used to evaluate the effects of intravenous antithrombin III treatment for severe sepsis measured for up to 90 days during the follow-up phase of the KyberSept phase III ..
  18. Jairajpuri M, Lu A, Bock S. Elimination of P1 arginine 393 interaction with underlying glutamic acid 255 partially activates antithrombin III for thrombin inhibition but not factor Xa inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:24460-5 pubmed
    The mechanism for heparin activation of antithrombin III has been postulated to involve disruption of interactions between its reactive loop P1 residue and Glu(255) on the underlying protein surface...
  19. Ohya T, Hayashi T, Kiyama E, Nishii H, Miki H, Kobayashi K, et al. Improved production of recombinant human antithrombin III in Chinese hamster ovary cells by ATF4 overexpression. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;100:317-24 pubmed
    To improve the production of recombinant human antithrombin III (AT-III) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the genes encoding transcription factors, ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) and XBP-1s (the spliced form of X-box ..
  20. Hamano A, Umeda M, Ueno Y, Tanaka S, Mimuro J, Sakata Y. Latex immunoturbidimetric assay for soluble fibrin complex. Clin Chem. 2005;51:183-8 pubmed
    ..8 (2.1) mg/L; P <0.001; n = 304]. In terms of linearity, precision, and sensitivity, the LIA, performed on a Hitachi 911 automated analyzer, may be useful for measurement of SFC in plasma. ..
  21. Lauterbach R, Pawlik D, Radziszewska R, Woźniak J, Rytlewski K. Plasma antithrombin III and protein C levels in early recognition of late-onset sepsis in newborns. Eur J Pediatr. 2006;165:585-9 pubmed
    The aim of this prospective, observational study was to establish the prognostic values of plasma antithrombin III (ATIII) and protein C (PC) functional levels, determined in 150 neonates with suspected late-onset sepsis...
  22. Duru S, Koca U, Oztekin S, Olguner C, Kar A, Coker C, et al. Antithrombin III pretreatment reduces neutrophil recruitment into the lung and skeletal muscle tissues in the rat model of bilateral lower limb ischemia and reperfusion: a pilot study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005;49:1142-8 pubmed
    Anti-inflammatory action of Antithrombin III (AT III) is still not well understood in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
  23. Feistritzer C, Mosheimer B, Tancevski I, Kaneider N, Sturn D, Patsch J, et al. Src tyrosine kinase-dependent migratory effects of antithrombin in leukocytes. Exp Cell Res. 2005;305:214-20 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Src tyrosine kinases linked to signaling of antithrombin-binding sites on leukocytes may play an important role in modulating effects on cells function. ..
  24. Elmaleh D, Brown N, Geiben Lynn R. Anti-viral activity of human antithrombin III. Int J Mol Med. 2005;16:191-200 pubmed
    ..CD8+ T-cell-modified antithrombin III (ATIII) accounts for some of the described CD8+ T-cell anti-viral activity...
  25. Zeerleder S, Hack C, Caliezi C, van Mierlo G, Eerenberg Belmer A, Wolbink A, et al. Activated cytotoxic T cells and NK cells in severe sepsis and septic shock and their role in multiple organ dysfunction. Clin Immunol. 2005;116:158-65 pubmed
    ..Activated cytotoxic cells reflected by elevated granzymes A and/or B were found in 50% of our sepsis patients. This group showed a higher mortality and a worse organ function. ..
  26. Torossian A, Graf J, Bauhofer A. Antithrombin III in critically ill patients. BMJ. 2007;335:1219-20 pubmed
  27. Aramaki O, Takayama T, Yokoyama T, Takano S, Akiyama Y, Shibutani S, et al. High dose of antithrombin III induces indefinite survival of fully allogeneic cardiac grafts and generates regulatory cells. Transplantation. 2003;75:217-20 pubmed
    The authors investigated whether antithrombin III (AT-III) could induce unresponsiveness to alloantigens...
  28. Avidan M, Levy J, Van Aken H, Feneck R, Latimer R, Ott E, et al. Recombinant human antithrombin III restores heparin responsiveness and decreases activation of coagulation in heparin-resistant patients during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;130:107-13 pubmed
    We sought to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant human antithrombin III for restoration of heparin responsiveness in heparin-resistant patients scheduled for cardiac surgery...
  29. Lu G, Broze G, Krishnaswamy S. Formation of factors IXa and Xa by the extrinsic pathway: differential regulation by tissue factor pathway inhibitor and antithrombin III. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17241-9 pubmed
    ..a system reconstituted with both X and IX and the principal physiologic inhibitors of this pathway TFPI and antithrombin III (AT)...
  30. Aytekin F, Tekin K, Kabay B, Erdem E, Guney Y, Firat P, et al. Antithrombin III attenuates pulmonary tissue injury caused by mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion. Am J Surg. 2005;189:161-6 pubmed
    ..A significant attenuation of intestinal I/R-related lung injury with the use of antithrombin concentrate warrants further studies to elucidate the potential role of this natural serine protease inhibitor in clinical settings. ..
  31. Pettila V, Pentti J, Pettilä M, Takkunen O, Jousela I. Predictive value of antithrombin III and serum C-reactive protein concentration in critically ill patients with suspected sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:271-5 pubmed
    To evaluate at admission the performance of serum antithrombin III, serum C-reactive protein, white blood cell and platelet counts, and thromboplastin time values in prediction of hospital mortality rates in critically ill patients with ..
  32. Brueckner S, Reinke U, Roth Isigkeit A, Eleftheriadis S, Schmucker P, Siemens H. Comparison of general and spinal anesthesia and their influence on hemostatic markers in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. J Clin Anesth. 2003;15:433-40 pubmed
    ..There were no significant differences in the timely course of the markers at any given time point. ..
  33. Messori A, Vacca F, Vaiani M, Trippoli S. Antithrombin III in patients admitted to intensive care units: a multicenter observational study. Crit Care. 2002;6:447-51 pubmed
    The administration of antithrombin III (ATIII) is useful in patients with congenital deficiency, but evidence for the other therapeutic indications of this drug is still uncertain...
  34. Osmanagaoglu M, Topçuoğlu K, Ozeren M, Bozkaya H. Coagulation inhibitors in preeclamptic pregnant women. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2005;271:227-30 pubmed
    ..The plasma value of antithrombin III (AT-III) activity, proteins C and S activity, PT, PTT, fibrinogen and platelet counts were determined...
  35. Sniecinski R, Chen E, Tanaka K. Reduced levels of fibrin (antithrombin I) and antithrombin III underlie coagulopathy following complex cardiac surgery. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2008;19:178-9 pubmed publisher
  36. Gugliucci A, Menini T. The botanical extracts of Achyrocline satureoides and Ilex paraguariensis prevent methylglyoxal-induced inhibition of plasminogen and antithrombin III. Life Sci. 2002;72:279-92 pubmed
    ..and oxidation, in this work, we study the effects of methylglyoxal on two model systems; plasminogen and antithrombin III (AT III), then we set out to unravel a possible antiglycation effect for extracts of the flavonoid-rich ..
  37. Cowan P, Aminian A, Barlow H, Brown A, Dwyer K, Filshie R, et al. Protective effects of recombinant human antithrombin III in pig-to-primate renal xenotransplantation. Am J Transplant. 2002;2:520-5 pubmed
    ..renal xenotransplantation model, we have tested the hypothesis that treatment with recombinant human antithrombin III would prevent or at least delay the onset of rejection and coagulopathy...
  38. Afshari A, Wetterslev J, Brok J, Møller A. Antithrombin III in critically ill patients: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. BMJ. 2007;335:1248-51 pubmed
    To evaluate the benefits and harms of antithrombin III in critically ill patients. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials...
  39. Koster A, Chew D, Kuebler W, Habazettl H, Hetzer R, Kuppe H. High antithrombin III levels attenuate hemostatic activation and leukocyte activation during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126:906-7 pubmed
  40. Kubitza D, Becka M, Zuehlsdorf M, Mueck W. Body weight has limited influence on the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, or pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939) in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;47:218-26 pubmed
    ..The area under the curve was unaffected by body weight or gender. No other clinically relevant differences were observed, suggesting that rivaroxaban is unlikely to require dose adjustment for body weight or gender. ..
  41. Guerrini M, Guglieri S, Beccati D, Torri G, Viskov C, Mourier P. Conformational transitions induced in heparin octasaccharides by binding with antithrombin III. Biochem J. 2006;399:191-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, for each AT binding sequence longer than AGA*IA, the interactions with the protein could differ and give to each heparin fragment a specific biological response. ..
  42. Harada N, Okajima K, Uchiba M, Kushimoto S, Isobe H. Antithrombin reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury in rats by activation of cyclooxygenase-1. Thromb Haemost. 2004;92:550-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, since TNF-alpha is capable of inducing COX-2, inhibition of TNF-alpha production by AT might inhibit COX-2-mediated PGE(2) production. These effects induced by AT might contribute to its anti-inflammatory activity. ..
  43. Shkumatov V, Adzerikho I, Lesnikovich J, Cherniavsky E. Effect of ultrasound on structure and functional properties of antithrombin III and proteins of PPSB complex. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004;69:195-200 pubmed
    ..4) on homogeneous antithrombin III was accompanied by formation of aggregates and a latent form of serpin...
  44. Kaneider N, Förster E, Mosheimer B, Sturn D, Wiedermann C. Syndecan-4-dependent signaling in the inhibition of endotoxin-induced endothelial adherence of neutrophils by antithrombin. Thromb Haemost. 2003;90:1150-7 pubmed
  45. Kienast J, Juers M, Wiedermann C, Hoffmann J, Ostermann H, Strauss R, et al. Treatment effects of high-dose antithrombin without concomitant heparin in patients with severe sepsis with or without disseminated intravascular coagulation. J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:90-7 pubmed
    ..The adapted ISTH DIC score may identify patients with severe sepsis who potentially benefit from high-dose AT treatment. ..
  46. Harada N, Okajima K, Yuksel M, Isobe H. Contribution of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons to antithrombin-induced reduction of ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury in rats. Thromb Haemost. 2005;93:48-56 pubmed
    ..In this process, CGRP-induced activation of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-1 might be critically involved. ..
  47. Feistritzer C, Kaneider N, Sturn D, Wiedermann C. Syndecan-4-dependent migration of human eosinophils. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34:696-703 pubmed
    ..Ligation of syndecan-4 with anti-thrombin III induces eosinophil migration and deactivates motility toward chemokines. These observations suggest that syndecan-4-dependent signalling may control eosinophil locomotion. ..
  48. Tsunoda T, Ohkuchi A, Izumi A, Watanabe T, Matsubara S, Sato I, et al. Antithrombin III activity and platelet count are more likely to decrease in twin pregnancies than in singleton pregnancies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002;81:840-5 pubmed
    It is not known whether antithrombin III activity and platelet count are more likely to decrease in women with twin pregnancies than singleton pregnancies...
  49. Wickstrom K, Edelstam G, Löwbeer C, Hansson L, Siegbahn A. Reference intervals for plasma levels of fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, free protein S and antithrombin during third-trimester pregnancy. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2004;64:31-40 pubmed
    ..Clearly, current reference values based on healthy non-pregnant subjects are not usable during late pregnancy and immediately postpartum. ..
  50. Ranucci M, Cazzaniga A, Soro G, Isgrò G, Frigiola A, Menicanti L. The antithrombin III-saving effect of reduced systemic heparinization and heparin-coated circuits. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2002;16:316-20 pubmed
    To investigate the perioperative changes of antithrombin III (AT-III) activity using reduced systemic heparinization and the possible role of AT-III in determining a better postoperative outcome. Prospective randomized study...
  51. Oelschläger C, Römisch J, Staubitz A, Stauss H, Leithäuser B, Tillmanns H, et al. Antithrombin III inhibits nuclear factor kappaB activation in human monocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Blood. 2002;99:4015-20 pubmed
    The serpin antithrombin III (AT III), the most important natural inhibitor of thrombin activity, has been shown to exert marked anti-inflammatory properties and proven to be efficacious in experimental models of sepsis, septic shock, and ..
  52. Swiatkiewicz A, Jurkowski P, Kotschy M, Ciecierski M, Jawien A. Level of antithrombin III, protein C, protein S and other selected parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis in the blood of the patients with recurrent deep venous thrombosis. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8:CR263-8 pubmed
    ..of hemostasis involving excessive coagulation system activation, reduction of anticoagulation system (antithrombin III, protein C, protein S, RAPC) or fibrinolytic activity...
  53. Haapaniemi E, Tatlisumak T, Soinne L, Syrjälä M, Kaste M. Natural anticoagulants (antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S) in patients with mild to moderate ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 2002;105:107-14 pubmed
    The role of the natural anticoagulants, antithrombin III (AT III), protein C (PC), and protein S (PS), in patients with mild to moderate ischemic stroke remains uncertain...