ca 125 antigen


Summary: A carbohydrate antigen that occurs in tumors of the ovary as well as in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. While it is tumor-associated, it is not tumor-specific and may have a protective function against particles and infectious agents at mucosal surfaces.

Top Publications

  1. Prat A, Parera M, Peralta S, Perez Benavente M, Garcia A, Gil Moreno A, et al. Nadir CA-125 concentration in the normal range as an independent prognostic factor for optimally treated advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:327-31 pubmed
    ..0001). The Cox model showed a highly significant impact on PFS and OS in relation to CA-125 nadir levels. The CA-125 nadir value is a strong independent prognostic factor for optimally treated adEOC after achieving a complete response. ..
  2. Menon U, Gentry Maharaj A, Hallett R, Ryan A, Burnell M, Sharma A, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of multimodal and ultrasound screening for ovarian cancer, and stage distribution of detected cancers: results of the prevalence screen of the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS). Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:327-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence screen has established that the screening strategies are feasible. The results of ongoing screening are awaited so that the effect of screening on mortality can be determined. ..
  3. Nossov V, Amneus M, Su F, Lang J, Janco J, Reddy S, et al. The early detection of ovarian cancer: from traditional methods to proteomics. Can we really do better than serum CA-125?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we hope to provide an overview of the early detection ovarian cancer from traditional methods to recent promises in the proteomics pipeline. ..
  4. Chan K, Tam K, Tse K, Ngan H. The role of regular physical examination in the detection of ovarian cancer recurrence. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;110:158-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine physical examination had a very limited additional role and could be possibly omitted as part of the routine follow up strategy. ..
  5. Chaudhry P, Srinivasan R, Patel F, Gopalan S, Majumdar S. Serum soluble Fas levels and prediction of response to platinum-based chemotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:1716-21 pubmed
    ..Progression-free survival rates in patients with sFas2/sFas1 ratio <1 exceeded those with ratio > or =1 (p = 0.004). In conclusion, serum sFas is a useful biomarker for predicting response to platinum-based chemotherapy in EOC. ..
  6. Boivin M, Lane D, Piche A, Rancourt C. CA125 (MUC16) tumor antigen selectively modulates the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to genotoxic drug-induced apoptosis. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;115:407-13 pubmed publisher
    ..CA125/MUC16 selectively modulates the sensitivity of EOC cells to genotoxic agents. The MUC16 CTD appears to be sufficient to promote cisplatin resistance. ..
  7. ARGUESO P, Guzman Aranguez A, Mantelli F, Cao Z, Ricciuto J, Panjwani N. Association of cell surface mucins with galectin-3 contributes to the ocular surface epithelial barrier. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23037-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that galectin-3 plays a key role in maintaining mucosal barrier function through carbohydrate-dependent interactions with cell surface mucins. ..
  8. Johnson C, Kessel B, Riley T, Ragard L, Williams C, Xu J, et al. The epidemiology of CA-125 in women without evidence of ovarian cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;110:383-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In post-menopausal women without ovarian cancer, CA-125 level is influenced by a number of factors, including race/ethnicity, age, hysterectomy, smoking history and obesity. ..
  9. Visintin I, Feng Z, Longton G, Ward D, Alvero A, Lai Y, et al. Diagnostic markers for early detection of ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:1065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Validation was performed with a blinded cohort. This novel multiplex platform has the potential for efficient screening in patients who are at high risk for ovarian cancer. ..

More Information


  1. Andersen M, Goff B, Lowe K, Scholler N, Bergan L, Dresher C, et al. Combining a symptoms index with CA 125 to improve detection of ovarian cancer. Cancer. 2008;113:484-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Osman N, O Leary N, Mulcahy E, Barrett N, Wallis F, Hickey K, et al. Correlation of serum CA125 with stage, grade and survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer at a single centre. Ir Med J. 2008;101:245-7 pubmed
    ..0001), tumour grade (p<0.0001) and overall survival (p=0.01). Reduced survival was noted with increasing age at the time of surgery (p=0.009) and bulk of the residual disease postoperatively (p=0.011). ..
  3. Hellstrom I, Hellstrom K. SMRP and HE4 as biomarkers for ovarian carcinoma when used alone and in combination with CA125 and/or each other. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;622:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective studies are needed to establish the clinical relevance of our findings. ..
  4. Wang Y, Cheon D, Lu Z, Cunningham S, Chen C, Luo R, et al. MUC16 expression during embryogenesis, in adult tissues, and ovarian cancer in the mouse. Differentiation. 2008;76:1081-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings document the presence of MUC16 in murine ovarian cancer and in normal tissues and provide a foundation for future functional studies. ..
  5. Lowe K, Shah C, Wallace E, Anderson G, Paley P, McIntosh M, et al. Effects of personal characteristics on serum CA125, mesothelin, and HE4 levels in healthy postmenopausal women at high-risk for ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:2480-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the influence of personal factors on levels of novel early detection markers in healthy, unaffected women may have clinical utility in interpreting biomarker levels. ..
  6. Moore R, McMeekin D, Brown A, Disilvestro P, Miller M, Allard W, et al. A novel multiple marker bioassay utilizing HE4 and CA125 for the prediction of ovarian cancer in patients with a pelvic mass. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;112:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3). An algorithm utilizing HE4 and CA125 successfully classified patients into high and low risk groups with 93.8% of EOC correctly classified as high risk. This model can be used to effectively triage patients to centers of excellence. ..
  7. Riedinger J, Eche N, Basuyau J, Dalifard I, Hacene K, Pichon M. Prognostic value of serum CA 125 bi-exponential decrease during first line paclitaxel/platinum chemotherapy: a French multicentric study. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;109:194-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Characteristics of CA 125 kinetics during first line paclitaxel/platinum chemotherapy have a strong and independent prognostic value. A CA 125 bi-exponential decrease is an indicator of bad prognosis. ..
  8. Chudecka Głaz A, Gorski B, Zielinska D, Błogowski W, Wojciechowska I, Bedner R, et al. Serum YKL-40 levels in patients with ovarian cancer and women with BRCA1 gene mutation--comparison to CA 125 antigen. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2009;30:668-71 pubmed
    ..More research is needed on carriers of the BRCA 1 gene muation in view of the elevated YKL-40 concentrations in this group. ..
  9. Edgell T, Barraclough D, Rajic A, Dhulia J, Lewis K, Armes J, et al. Increased plasma concentrations of anterior gradient 2 protein are positively associated with ovarian cancer. Clin Sci (Lond). 2010;118:717-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of elevated plasma concentrations of AGR2 may provide a useful biomarker to aid in the discrimination of normal and ovarian cancer patients particularly when used in combination with CA125. ..
  10. Gagnon A, Ye B. Discovery and application of protein biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2008;20:9-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review summarizes the main advances in the past year, with the lists of biomarkers/panels, their potential applications, and new strategies/lessons we learned based on the most important work published during this period. ..
  11. Gu P, Pan L, Wu S, Sun L, Huang G. CA 125, PET alone, PET-CT, CT and MRI in diagnosing recurrent ovarian carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Radiol. 2009;71:164-74 pubmed publisher
    ..However, regarding to diagnostic accuracy, interpreted CT images may have limited additional value on PET in detecting recurrent ovarian cancer. ..
  12. Moore R, Brown A, Miller M, Skates S, Allard W, Verch T, et al. The use of multiple novel tumor biomarkers for the detection of ovarian carcinoma in patients with a pelvic mass. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;108:402-8 pubmed
    ..As a single tumor marker, HE4 had the highest sensitivity for detecting ovarian cancer, especially Stage I disease. Combined CA125 and HE4 is a more accurate predictor of malignancy than either alone. ..
  13. Blalock T, Spurr Michaud S, Tisdale A, Gipson I. Release of membrane-associated mucins from ocular surface epithelia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:1864-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutrophil elastase and TNF, present in higher amounts in the tears of patients with dry eye, may cause MAM release, allowing rose bengal staining. ..
  14. Moore R, Brown A, Miller M, Badgwell D, Lu Z, Allard W, et al. Utility of a novel serum tumor biomarker HE4 in patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;110:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation of HE4 as a marker for early detection of recurrent endometrial cancer and monitoring response to therapy is warranted. ..
  15. Partridge E, Kreimer A, Greenlee R, Williams C, Xu J, Church T, et al. Results from four rounds of ovarian cancer screening in a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113:775-82 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect of screening on mortality is as yet unknown.,, NCT00002540 II. ..
  16. Gubbels J, Felder M, Horibata S, Belisle J, Kapur A, Holden H, et al. MUC16 provides immune protection by inhibiting synapse formation between NK and ovarian tumor cells. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:11 pubmed publisher
    ..The immune protection provided by MUC16 may lead to selective survival of ovarian cancer cells that are more efficient in metastasizing within the peritoneal cavity and also at overcoming anti-tumor innate immune responses. ..
  17. Gaarenstroom K, van der Hiel B, Tollenaar R, Vink G, Jansen F, van Asperen C, et al. Efficacy of screening women at high risk of hereditary ovarian cancer: results of an 11-year cohort study. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16 Suppl 1:54-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the efficacy of screening women at high risk of ovarian cancer seems poor because the majority of cancers were detected at an advanced stage. ..
  18. ARGUESO P, Tisdale A, Spurr Michaud S, Sumiyoshi M, Gipson I. Mucin characteristics of human corneal-limbal epithelial cells that exclude the rose bengal anionic dye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:113-9 pubmed
  19. Lambeck A, Crijns A, Leffers N, Sluiter W, ten Hoor K, Braid M, et al. Serum cytokine profiling as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in ovarian cancer: a potential role for interleukin 7. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:2385-91 pubmed
    ..IL-7 levels were found to be strongly associated with ovarian cancer and could be used in combination with CA-125 to distinguish between malignant and benign ovarian tumors. ..
  20. Gipson I, Blalock T, Tisdale A, Spurr Michaud S, Allcorn S, Stavreus Evers A, et al. MUC16 is lost from the uterodome (pinopode) surface of the receptive human endometrium: in vitro evidence that MUC16 is a barrier to trophoblast adherence. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:134-42 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that MUC16 is a membrane component of the nonreceptive luminal uterine surface, which prevents cell adhesion, and that its removal during uterodome formation facilitates adhesion of the trophoblast. ..
  21. Liang Q, Shi H, Qin X, Liang X, Jiang J, Yang H. Diagnostic accuracy of tumour markers for malignant pleural effusion: a meta-analysis. Thorax. 2008;63:35-41 pubmed
    ..The role of tumour markers such as carbohydrate antigen (CA) 125, CA 15-3, CA 19-9 and CYFRA 21-1 (a fragment of cytokeratin 19) in differentiating malignant pleural effusions (MPE) from benign effusions is not yet clear...
  22. Seeber B, Sammel M, Fan X, Gerton G, Shaunik A, Chittams J, et al. Panel of markers can accurately predict endometriosis in a subset of patients. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:1073-81 pubmed
    ..Using the serum concentration of four markers in a two-tiered decision rule, nearly half of the subjects in this population would have been diagnosed (and could have avoided surgery) with 93% accuracy. ..
  23. Antila R, Jalkanen J, Heikinheimo O. Comparison of secondary and primary ovarian malignancies reveals differences in their pre- and perioperative characteristics. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;101:97-101 pubmed
    ..Size less than 9 cm, solid structure, absence of ascites and elevated serum CEA and TATI levels were typical features associated with secondary ovarian malignancies. ..
  24. Davies J, Kirkham S, Svitacheva N, Thornton D, Carlstedt I. MUC16 is produced in tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands and is present in secretions from normal human airway and cultured bronchial epithelial cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:1943-54 pubmed
  25. Menon U, Skates S, Lewis S, Rosenthal A, Rufford B, Sibley K, et al. Prospective study using the risk of ovarian cancer algorithm to screen for ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:7919-26 pubmed
    ..It is being used in the United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening and in the United States in both the Cancer Genetics Network and the Gynecology Oncology Group trials of high-risk women. ..
  26. Katsikis I, Rousso D, Farmakiotis D, Kourtis A, Diamanti Kandarakis E, Panidis D. Receiver operator characteristics and diagnostic value of progesterone and CA-125 in the prediction of ectopic and abortive intrauterine gestations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006;125:226-32 pubmed
    ..The measurement of progesterone and CA-125 levels is useful in discriminating ectopic and intrauterine abortive from normal gestations. ..
  27. Bast R, Badgwell D, Lu Z, Marquez R, Rosen D, Liu J, et al. New tumor markers: CA125 and beyond. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2005;15 Suppl 3:274-81 pubmed
    ..In the future, serum markers should improve the sensitivity of detecting recurrent disease as well as facilitate earlier detection of ovarian cancer. ..
  28. Murakami M, Miyamoto T, Iida T, Tsukada H, Watanabe M, Shida M, et al. Whole-body positron emission tomography and tumor marker CA125 for detection of recurrence in epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16 Suppl 1:99-107 pubmed
    ..The sensitivity of the combination of PET and CA125 was 97.8% with only one false-negative case. The combination of FDG-PET and CA125 titer is useful for the accurate detection of recurrence. ..
  29. Garcia Velloso M, Jurado M, Ceamanos C, Aramendia J, Garrastachu M, Lopez Garcia G, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET in the follow-up of platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007;34:1396-405 pubmed
    ..FDG PET may detect recurrent ovarian cancer earlier than CIM, with higher sensitivity and even higher diagnostic accuracy. ..
  30. Menczer J, Chetrit A, Sadetzki S, Golan A, Levy T. Follow-up of ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma: the value of physical examination in patients with pretreatment elevated CA125 levels. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;103:137-40 pubmed
    ..6%) patients. In OvC and PPC patients with elevated pretreatment CA125 levels, physical examination has a limited impact on the diagnosis of recurrence. ..
  31. Yagmur E, Driesch R, Gressner A, Kiefer P. Technical evaluation of the Beckman Coulter OV-Monitor (CA 125 antigen) immunoassay. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44:420-2 pubmed
    The CA 125 antigen is a large (200-1000 kDa) glycoprotein, present within normal and benign ovarian tissue...
  32. Risum S, Høgdall C, Loft A, Berthelsen A, Høgdall E, Nedergaard L, et al. The diagnostic value of PET/CT for primary ovarian cancer--a prospective study. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;105:145-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest PET/CT as the image modality of choice when US shows a pelvic tumor and additional information prior to surgery is needed. ..
  33. Mongia S, Rawlins M, Owen W, Roberts W. Performance characteristics of seven automated CA 125 assays. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006;125:921-7 pubmed
    ..95. All methods show acceptable performance characteristics and generally compare well. However, for some samples, substantial differences exist between methods, necessitating parallel testing when introducing a new method. ..
  34. Belisle J, Gubbels J, Raphael C, Migneault M, Rancourt C, Connor J, et al. Peritoneal natural killer cells from epithelial ovarian cancer patients show an altered phenotype and bind to the tumour marker MUC16 (CA125). Immunology. 2007;122:418-29 pubmed
    ..Similar to EOC, MUC16 in early pregnancy also binds to NK cells suggesting shared mechanisms of NK cell suppression in feto-maternal tolerance and immune evasion by ovarian cancers. ..
  35. Lokshin A, Winans M, Landsittel D, Marrangoni A, Velikokhatnaya L, Modugno F, et al. Circulating IL-8 and anti-IL-8 autoantibody in patients with ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;102:244-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, IL-8 and anti-IL-8 autoantibody might potentially serve as additional biomarkers for ovarian cancer. ..
  36. Oei A, Massuger L, Bulten J, Ligtenberg M, Hoogerbrugge N, de Hullu J. Surveillance of women at high risk for hereditary ovarian cancer is inefficient. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:814-9 pubmed
    ..For prevention of advanced stage ovarian cancer, prophylactic BSO from age 35-40 years is a more efficient alternative. ..
  37. Scholler N, Garvik B, Hayden Ledbetter M, Kline T, Urban N. Development of a CA125-mesothelin cell adhesion assay as a screening tool for biologics discovery. Cancer Lett. 2007;247:130-6 pubmed
    ..We finally demonstrated that a mesothelin chimeric protein and anti-CA125 antibodies block CA125/mesothelin-dependent cell attachment. ..
  38. Bădulescu F, Bădulescu A, Schenker M, Popescu C, Stoica Z. The value of serum and tissular expression of CA 125 antigen, in evaluation of the response to second line chemotherapy for the relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2005;46:329-34 pubmed
    The purpose of this study is to compare the predicted value of the blood levels variations of CA 125 antigen and the imunohistochemical expression of CA 125, with imagistic criteria (The Response Evaluation Criteran in Solid Tumor--RECIST)..
  39. Hefler L, Zeillinger R, Grimm C, Sood A, Cheng W, Gadducci A, et al. Preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor as a prognostic parameter in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;103:512-7 pubmed
    ..Serum VEGF is an independent prognostic parameter in patients with all stages of ovarian cancer. ..
  40. Yamamoto M, Baba H, Toh Y, Okamura T, Maehara Y. Peritoneal lavage CEA/CA125 is a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007;133:471-6 pubmed
    ..This combined analysis of these markers is therefore considered to be helpful method to accurately estimate the recurrent sites and prognosis for advanced gastric cancer patients. ..
  41. Chung H, Kim J, Park N, Song Y, Kang S, Lee H. Use of preoperative serum CA-125 levels for prediction of lymph node metastasis and prognosis in endometrial cancer. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85:1501-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, preoperative serum CA-125 may be a useful tool, in the clinical setting, for optimal individualized patient management. ..
  42. Gadducci A, Cosio S, Zola P, Landoni F, Maggino T, Sartori E. Surveillance procedures for patients treated for epithelial ovarian cancer: a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007;17:21-31 pubmed
  43. Li C, Cheng B, Ge W, Gao J. Clinical value of CYFRA21-1, NSE, CA15-3, CA19-9 and CA125 assay in the elderly patients with pleural effusions. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:444-8 pubmed
    ..The combined assay of five tumour markers in serum and the CYFRA21-1 combined with CA15-3 in pleural fluid were helpful and can increase the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing malignant pleural effusions. ..
  44. Baratti D, Kusamura S, Martinetti A, Seregni E, Laterza B, Oliva D, et al. Prognostic value of circulating tumor markers in patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei treated with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:2300-8 pubmed
    ..The selection factors predicting clinical outcome are still a matter of clinical investigation. We assessed the prognostic reliability of serum tumor markers in a large series of patients with PMP undergoing CRS and HIPEC...
  45. Bergan L, Gross J, Nevin B, Urban N, Scholler N. Development and in vitro validation of anti-mesothelin biobodies that prevent CA125/Mesothelin-dependent cell attachment. Cancer Lett. 2007;255:263-74 pubmed
    ..Anti-mesothelin Bbs derived from high affinity yeast-display scFv detected both membrane-bound and soluble mesothelins and inhibited CA125/mesothelin-dependent cell attachment. ..
  46. Tserkezoglou A, Kontou S, Hadjieleftheriou G, Apostolikas N, Vassilomanolakis M, Sikiotis K, et al. Primary and metastatic ovarian cancer in patients with prior breast carcinoma. Pre-operative markers and treatment results. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:2339-44 pubmed
    ..Optimal cytoreduction was feasible in both groups, but survival was longer in patients with primary tumors (p<0.05). ..
  47. Jäger K, Wu G, Sel S, Garreis F, Bräuer L, Paulsen F. MUC16 in the lacrimal apparatus. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007;127:433-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the results demonstrate the existence of so far not recognized qualitative differences in the secretion product of main lacrimal gland and accessory lacrimal glands (glands of Krause)...
  48. Huang C, Cheng W, Lee C, Su Y, Chien S, Tzeng Y, et al. Serum mesothelin in epithelial ovarian carcinoma: a new screening marker and prognostic factor. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:4721-8 pubmed
    ..Mesothelin might be a new tumor marker for the differential diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma and a prognostic factorfor the outcome of epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients. ..
  49. Scholler N, Crawford M, Sato A, Drescher C, O Briant K, Kiviat N, et al. Bead-based ELISA for validation of ovarian cancer early detection markers. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:2117-24 pubmed
  50. Spurr Michaud S, ARGUESO P, Gipson I. Assay of mucins in human tear fluid. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84:939-50 pubmed
  51. Simon I, Liu Y, Krall K, Urban N, Wolfert R, Kim N, et al. Evaluation of the novel serum markers B7-H4, Spondin 2, and DcR3 for diagnosis and early detection of ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;106:112-8 pubmed
    ..90 and 0.80, respectively. This study demonstrates that B7-H4, Spondin 2, and DcR3 are promising new ovarian cancer markers that may improve early detection of cancer when used in combination with traditional diagnostic tests. ..
  52. Blalock T, Spurr Michaud S, Tisdale A, Heimer S, Gilmore M, Ramesh V, et al. Functions of MUC16 in corneal epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4509-18 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that MUC16 is a multifunctional molecule linked to the actin cytoskeleton. The expression of MUC16 in the ocular surface glycocalyx helps provide a disadhesive protective barrier for the epithelial surface. ..
  53. Seo K, Chung S, Lee J, Park M, Kim E. Regulation of membrane-associated mucins in the human corneal epithelial cells by dexamethasone. Cornea. 2007;26:709-14 pubmed
    ..This study shows that MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 are regulated differently by dexamethasone in human corneal epithelial cells. External application of dexamethasone might affect the precorneal mucin. ..